International Development Planning Review

Urban planning, exclusion and negotiation in an informal subdivision: the case of Bombay Hotel, Ahmedabad

International Development Planning Review (2020), 42, (1), 33–56.

Abstract

Urban planning as conceptualised and practiced in the global South has enacted inequitable distribution of resources, produced social and spatial exclusions and denied substantive citizenship to low-income groups. This article examines urban planning as one of the key drivers of exclusion and conflict by unpacking the ways in which it has produced layers of informalities over the years in Bombay Hotel, a low-income Muslim locality in Ahmedabad. A key planning instrument implicated in these processes in recent years is the Town Planning Scheme (TPS), a land pooling and readjustment mechanism portrayed nationally and internationally by the government as an example of best practice. The article also interrogates political processes, their interface with the TPS implementation in the locality, and the outcomes of these interactions. The article ends by reflecting on the possibilities and limits of these processes for addressing the exclusions and everyday conflicts faced by residents of low-income informal localities.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

References

Ahmedabad Mirror (2018) ‘AMC to show off town planning schemes in Japan’, 1 April, Ahmedabad Mirror, https://ahmedabadmirror.indiatimes.com/ahmedabad/others/amc-to-show-off-town-planning-schemes-in-japan/articleshow/63561524.cms (accessed 22 July 2018). Google Scholar

Auyero, J. (2001) Poor people’s politics: Peronist survival networks and the legacy of Evita, Durham, NC, Duke University Press. Google Scholar

Ballaney, S. (2013) Supply of land for development – land readjustment experience in Gujarat, India: Urban legal case studies, Volume 2, Nairobi, UN-Habitat. Google Scholar

Baviskar, A. (2013) ‘Coda: Participolis: protest and participation in the city’, in K. Coelho, L. Kamath and M. Vijayabaskar (eds) Participolis: consent and contention in neoliberal India, New Delhi, Routledge, 306–09. Google Scholar

Benit-Gbaffou, C. (2012) ‘Party politics, civil society and local democracy: reflections from Johannesburg’, Geoforum, 43, 178–89. Google Scholar

Benit-Gbaffou, C. (2018) ‘Unpacking state practices in city-making, in conversations with Ananya Roy’, The Journal of Development Studies, 54(12), 2139–48. Google Scholar

Benjamin, S. (2000) ‘Governance, economic settings and poverty in Bangalore’, Environment and Urbanization, 12(1), 35–56. Google Scholar

Benjamin, S. (2008) ‘Occupancy urbanism: radicalizing politics and economy beyond policy and programs’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 32(3), 718–29. Google Scholar

Bhan, G. (2013) ‘Planned illegalities: housing and the failure of planning in Delhi’, Economic and Political Weekly, 48(24), 58–70. Google Scholar

Chatterjee, P. (2004) The politics of the governed: reflections on popular politics in most of the world, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

Concerned Citizens Tribunal (2002) Crime against humanity: an inquiry into the carnage in Gujarat, Volume I: list of incidents and evidence, Mumbai, Citizens for Peace and Justice. Google Scholar

De Wit, J. and Berner, E. (2009) ‘Progressive patronage? Municipalities, NGOs, CBOs and the limits to slum dwellers’ empowerment’, Development and Change, 40(5), 927–47. Google Scholar

Desai, R. and Sanghvi, S. (2017) ‘Water and conflict in Bombay Hotel, Ahmedabad: urban planning, governance and infrastructural violence’, Economic and Political Weekly, 52(7), 49–57. Google Scholar

Joshi, R. and Sanga, P. (2009) ‘Land reservations for the urban poor: the case of town planning schemes in Ahmedabad’ (Working Paper 4), Centre for Urban Equity, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. Google Scholar

Kamath, L. and Deekshit, P. (2014) ‘Planning as practice? Governing conjuctures and informal urbanisation in Solapur town’, Economic and Political Weekly, 49(22), 72–81. Google Scholar

Kundu, R. and Sahu, G. (2014) ‘Selective inclusions and exclusions: land-use planning and development in Ratnagiri’, Economic and Political Weekly, 49(48), 69–76. Google Scholar

Lemanski, C. (2009) ‘Augmented informality: South Africa’s backyard dwellings as a by-product of formal housing policies’, Habitat International, 33(4), 472–84. Google Scholar

Lindell, I. and Ampaire, C. (2016) ‘The untamed politics of urban informality: “gray space” and struggles for recognition in an African city’, Theoretical Inquiries in Law, 17(1), 257–82. Google Scholar

Lipsky, M. (1971) ‘Street-level bureaucracy and the analysis of urban reform’, Urban Affairs Review, 6(4), 391–409. Google Scholar

Mahadevia, D. (2007) ‘A city with many borders: beyond ghettoisation in Ahmedabad’, in A. Shaw (ed.) Indian cities in transition, Hyderabad, Orient Longman, 315–40. Google Scholar

Mahadevia, D. (2015) ‘Informality and shelter security in India’, in D. Mahadevia (ed.) Shelter security in Urban India: pathways, barriers and outcomes, New Delhi, Concept, 1–31. Google Scholar

Mahadevia, D., Pai, M. and Mahendra, A. (2018) Ahmedabad: town planning scheme for equitable development. Glass half full or half empty? Washington DC, World Resources Institute. Google Scholar

Mitlin, D. (2014) ‘Politics, informality and clientelism: exploring a pro-poor urban politics’, ESID Working Paper 34, Manchester, Effective States and Inclusive Development Research Centre, University of Manchester. Google Scholar

Narayanan, H. (2003) ‘In search of shelter: the politics of the implementation of the Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act of 1976 in Greater Mumbai’, in S. Patel and J. Masselos (eds) Bombay and Mumbai: the city in transition, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 183–206. Google Scholar

Ramanathan, U. (2006) ‘Illegality and the urban poor’, Economic and Political Weekly, 41(29), 3193–97. Google Scholar

Roy, A. (2009) ‘Why India cannot plan its cities: informality, insurgence and the idiom of urbanisation’, Planning Theory, 8(1), 76–87. Google Scholar

Rubin, M. (2018) ‘At the borderlands of informal practices of the state: negotiability, porosity and exceptionality’, The Journal of Development Studies, 54(12), 2227–42. Google Scholar

Taylor, N. (1998) Urban planning theory since 1945, London, Sage. Google Scholar

te Lintelo, D. (2017) ‘Enrolling a goddess for Delhi’s street vendors: the micro-politics of policy implementation shaping urban (in)formality’, Geoforum, 84, 77–87. Google Scholar

UN-Habitat (2007) Enhancing urban safety and security, Nairobi, UN-Habitat. Google Scholar

UN-Habitat (2011) Building urban safety through slum upgrading, Nairobi, UN-Habitat. Google Scholar

Van der Linden, J. (1997) ‘On popular participation in a culture of patronage: patrons and grassroots organization in a sites and services project in Hyderabad, Pakistan’, Environment and Urbanization, 9(1), 81–90. Google Scholar

Varshney, A. (2002) Ethnic conflict and civic life: Hindus and Muslims in India, New Delhi, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

Watson, V. (2009a) ‘Seeing from the south: refocusing urban planning on the globe’s central issues’, Urban Studies, 46(11), 2259–75. Google Scholar

Watson, V. (2009b) ‘“The planned city sweeps the poor away…”: urban planning and 21st century urbanisation’, Progress in Planning, 72(3), 151–93. Google Scholar

Yiftachel, O. (2009) ‘Critical theory and “gray space”: mobilization of the colonized’, City, 13(2–3), 240–56. Google Scholar

Ahmedabad Mirror (2018) ‘AMC to show off town planning schemes in Japan’, 1 April, Ahmedabad Mirror, https://ahmedabadmirror.indiatimes.com/ahmedabad/others/amc-to-show-off-town-planning-schemes-in-japan/articleshow/63561524.cms (accessed 22 July 2018). Google Scholar

Auyero, J. (2001) Poor people’s politics: Peronist survival networks and the legacy of Evita, Durham, NC, Duke University Press. Google Scholar

Ballaney, S. (2013) Supply of land for development – land readjustment experience in Gujarat, India: Urban legal case studies, Volume 2, Nairobi, UN-Habitat. Google Scholar

Baviskar, A. (2013) ‘Coda: Participolis: protest and participation in the city’, in K. Coelho, L. Kamath and M. Vijayabaskar (eds) Participolis: consent and contention in neoliberal India, New Delhi, Routledge, 306–09. Google Scholar

Benit-Gbaffou, C. (2012) ‘Party politics, civil society and local democracy: reflections from Johannesburg’, Geoforum, 43, 178–89. Google Scholar

Benit-Gbaffou, C. (2018) ‘Unpacking state practices in city-making, in conversations with Ananya Roy’, The Journal of Development Studies, 54(12), 2139–48. Google Scholar

Benjamin, S. (2000) ‘Governance, economic settings and poverty in Bangalore’, Environment and Urbanization, 12(1), 35–56. Google Scholar

Benjamin, S. (2008) ‘Occupancy urbanism: radicalizing politics and economy beyond policy and programs’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 32(3), 718–29. Google Scholar

Bhan, G. (2013) ‘Planned illegalities: housing and the failure of planning in Delhi’, Economic and Political Weekly, 48(24), 58–70. Google Scholar

Chatterjee, P. (2004) The politics of the governed: reflections on popular politics in most of the world, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

Concerned Citizens Tribunal (2002) Crime against humanity: an inquiry into the carnage in Gujarat, Volume I: list of incidents and evidence, Mumbai, Citizens for Peace and Justice. Google Scholar

De Wit, J. and Berner, E. (2009) ‘Progressive patronage? Municipalities, NGOs, CBOs and the limits to slum dwellers’ empowerment’, Development and Change, 40(5), 927–47. Google Scholar

Desai, R. and Sanghvi, S. (2017) ‘Water and conflict in Bombay Hotel, Ahmedabad: urban planning, governance and infrastructural violence’, Economic and Political Weekly, 52(7), 49–57. Google Scholar

Joshi, R. and Sanga, P. (2009) ‘Land reservations for the urban poor: the case of town planning schemes in Ahmedabad’ (Working Paper 4), Centre for Urban Equity, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. Google Scholar

Kamath, L. and Deekshit, P. (2014) ‘Planning as practice? Governing conjuctures and informal urbanisation in Solapur town’, Economic and Political Weekly, 49(22), 72–81. Google Scholar

Kundu, R. and Sahu, G. (2014) ‘Selective inclusions and exclusions: land-use planning and development in Ratnagiri’, Economic and Political Weekly, 49(48), 69–76. Google Scholar

Lemanski, C. (2009) ‘Augmented informality: South Africa’s backyard dwellings as a by-product of formal housing policies’, Habitat International, 33(4), 472–84. Google Scholar

Lindell, I. and Ampaire, C. (2016) ‘The untamed politics of urban informality: “gray space” and struggles for recognition in an African city’, Theoretical Inquiries in Law, 17(1), 257–82. Google Scholar

Lipsky, M. (1971) ‘Street-level bureaucracy and the analysis of urban reform’, Urban Affairs Review, 6(4), 391–409. Google Scholar

Mahadevia, D. (2007) ‘A city with many borders: beyond ghettoisation in Ahmedabad’, in A. Shaw (ed.) Indian cities in transition, Hyderabad, Orient Longman, 315–40. Google Scholar

Mahadevia, D. (2015) ‘Informality and shelter security in India’, in D. Mahadevia (ed.) Shelter security in Urban India: pathways, barriers and outcomes, New Delhi, Concept, 1–31. Google Scholar

Mahadevia, D., Pai, M. and Mahendra, A. (2018) Ahmedabad: town planning scheme for equitable development. Glass half full or half empty? Washington DC, World Resources Institute. Google Scholar

Mitlin, D. (2014) ‘Politics, informality and clientelism: exploring a pro-poor urban politics’, ESID Working Paper 34, Manchester, Effective States and Inclusive Development Research Centre, University of Manchester. Google Scholar

Narayanan, H. (2003) ‘In search of shelter: the politics of the implementation of the Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act of 1976 in Greater Mumbai’, in S. Patel and J. Masselos (eds) Bombay and Mumbai: the city in transition, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 183–206. Google Scholar

Ramanathan, U. (2006) ‘Illegality and the urban poor’, Economic and Political Weekly, 41(29), 3193–97. Google Scholar

Roy, A. (2009) ‘Why India cannot plan its cities: informality, insurgence and the idiom of urbanisation’, Planning Theory, 8(1), 76–87. Google Scholar

Rubin, M. (2018) ‘At the borderlands of informal practices of the state: negotiability, porosity and exceptionality’, The Journal of Development Studies, 54(12), 2227–42. Google Scholar

Taylor, N. (1998) Urban planning theory since 1945, London, Sage. Google Scholar

te Lintelo, D. (2017) ‘Enrolling a goddess for Delhi’s street vendors: the micro-politics of policy implementation shaping urban (in)formality’, Geoforum, 84, 77–87. Google Scholar

UN-Habitat (2007) Enhancing urban safety and security, Nairobi, UN-Habitat. Google Scholar

UN-Habitat (2011) Building urban safety through slum upgrading, Nairobi, UN-Habitat. Google Scholar

Van der Linden, J. (1997) ‘On popular participation in a culture of patronage: patrons and grassroots organization in a sites and services project in Hyderabad, Pakistan’, Environment and Urbanization, 9(1), 81–90. Google Scholar

Varshney, A. (2002) Ethnic conflict and civic life: Hindus and Muslims in India, New Delhi, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

Watson, V. (2009a) ‘Seeing from the south: refocusing urban planning on the globe’s central issues’, Urban Studies, 46(11), 2259–75. Google Scholar

Watson, V. (2009b) ‘“The planned city sweeps the poor away…”: urban planning and 21st century urbanisation’, Progress in Planning, 72(3), 151–93. Google Scholar

Yiftachel, O. (2009) ‘Critical theory and “gray space”: mobilization of the colonized’, City, 13(2–3), 240–56. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Desai, Renu

Mahadevia, Darshini

Sanghvi, Shachi