Hunter Gatherer Research

‘Fresh seal blood looks like beauty and life’

#Sealfies and subsistence in Nunavut

Hunter Gatherer Research (2017), 3, (4), 677–696.

Abstract

In this paper, I analyse the various functions, meanings and affects associated with seal hunting, eating and sharing seal meat, wearing sealskin clothing and posting #sealfies. Drawing on several decades of research with hunting and gathering families in the eastern Canadian Arctic, and starting with the cultural premise that hunting seals unites the worlds of humans, animals and spirits, I argue that the seal is a prominent metaphor for the Inuit self. By extension, I examine how Inuit use #sealfies as an extension of other subsistence practices, as a way of making identity (personal and collective), and as a way of countering the negative stereotypes used by animal rights activists to condemn hunting in general. #Sealfies have become an important resource in the subsistence toolkit of contemporary Nunavut Inuit foragers, providing an effective platform for defending their foraging traditions and for creating a meaningful and modern identity.

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References

Artiss, T 2014. Music and change in Nain, Nunatsiavut: more white does not always mean less Inuit. Études/Inuit/Studies 38(1–2):33–52. Google Scholar

Aylward, N 2017. Selfies and #sealfies: recent inuit activism and technologies of self-representation in Nunavut, Canada. Unpublished BA thesis. Cambridge: Cambridge University. Google Scholar

Blaser, M 2016. Is another cosmopolitics possible? Cultural Anthropology 31(4):545–570. Google Scholar

Bodenhorn, B 1990. ‘I’m not the great hunter, my wife is’: Inupiat and anthropological models of gender. Études/Inuit/Studies 14(1–2):55–74. Google Scholar

Borré, K 1994. The healing power of the seal: the meaning of inuit health practice and belief. Arctic Anthropology 31(1):1–15. Google Scholar

Briggs, J 1991. Expecting the unexpected: Canadian Inuit training for an experimental lifestyle. Ethos 19(3):259–287. Google Scholar

Bruner, E 1955. Two processes of change in Mandan-Hidatsa kinship terminology. American Anthropologist 57:840–850. Google Scholar

Buchanan, I 2010. Oxford dictionary of critical theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

CBC News 2014. Tanya Tagaq #sealfie provokes anti-sealing activists. CBC News, 4 April 2014. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/tanya-tagaq-sealfie-provokes-anti-sealing-activists-1.2595250. Google Scholar

Collings, P 2014. Becoming Inummarik: men’s lives in an Inuit community. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Google Scholar

Condon, R, Collings, P & Wenzel, G 1995. The best part of life: subsistence hunting, ethnicity, and economic adaption among young adult Inuit males. Arctic 48(1): 31–46. Google Scholar

Dorais, L-J 1997. Quaqtaq: modernity and identity in an Inuit community. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Google Scholar

Duhaime, G & Édouard, R 2015. Monetary poverty in Nunangat. Arctic 68(2):223–232. Google Scholar

Fienuip-Riordan, A 1983. The Nelson Island Eskimo. Anchorage: Alaska Pacific University Press. Google Scholar

Fienuip-Riordan, A 1990. Eskimo essays. New Brunswick: Routledge. Google Scholar

Fienup-Riordan, A 1994. Boundaries and passages. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Google Scholar

Fienup-Riordan, A, Tyson, W, John, P, Meade, M & Active, J 2000. Hunting tradition in a changing world. Rutgers: Rutgers University Press. Google Scholar

Graburn, N 1998. The present as history: photographs and the Canadian Inuit, 1959–94. In King, JCH & Lidchi, H (eds) Imaging the Arctic. Seattle: University of Washington Press:160–167. Google Scholar

Graburn, N 2006. Culture as narrative. In Stern, P & Stevenson, L (eds) Critical Inuit studies. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press:139–154. Google Scholar

Harder, MT & Wenzel, G 2012. Inuit subsistence, social economy, and food security in Clyde River, Nunavut. Arctic 65(3):305–318. Google Scholar

Hawkins, R & Silver, JJ 2017. From selfie to #sealfie: Nature 2.0 and the digital cultural politics of an internationally contested resource. Geoforum 79:114–123. Google Scholar

Johnson, N 2012. ‘Healing the land’ in the Canadian Arctic: evangelism, knowledge, and environmental change. Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature, and Society 6(3):300–318. Google Scholar

Kennedy, JC 1982. Holding the line: ethnic boundaries in a Northern Labrador community. St John’s: Institute of Social and Economic Research. Google Scholar

Laugrand, F & Oosten, J 2014. Hunters, predators, and prey: Inuit perceptions of animals. New York: Berghahn. Google Scholar

Morrison, KM 2000. The cosmos as intersubjective: Native American other-than-human persons. In Harvey, G (ed) Indigenous religions: a companion. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. Google Scholar

Nadasdy, P 2007. The gift in the animal: the ontology of hunting and human-animal sociality. American Ethnologist 34(1):25–43. Google Scholar

Natcher, DC 2009. Subsistence and the social economy of Canada’s Aboriginal North. The Northern Review 30:83–98. Google Scholar

Niezen, R 2009. The rediscovered self. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Google Scholar

Nungak, Z & Hendrie, S 1998. Contemporary Inuit photography in Nunavik: two decades of documentary, photojournalism and corporate photography at Makivik Corporation. In King, JCH & Lidchi, H (eds) Imaging the Arctic. Seattle: University of Washington Press:69–76. Google Scholar

Nuttall, M 1998. Protecting the Arctic: indigenous peoples and cultural survival. New York: Routledge. Google Scholar

Nuttall, M 2000. Choosing kin: sharing and subsistence in a Greenlandic hunting community. In Schweitzer, PP (ed) Dividends of kinship. New York: Routledge:33–60. Google Scholar

Nuttall, M 2001. Locality, identity, and memory in South Greenland. Études/Inuit/Studies 25(1–2):53–72. Google Scholar

Ohnuki-Tierney, E 1993. Rice as self. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar

Ohnuki-Tierney, E 1999. Ainu sociality. In Fitzhugh, WW & Dubreuil, CO (eds) Ainu: spirit of a Northern people. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Google Scholar

Pufall, EA, Jones, AQ, McEwen, SA Lyall, C, Peregrine, AS & Edge, VL 2011. Perception of the importance of traditional country foods to the physical, mental, and spiritual health of Labrador Inuit. Arctic 64(2):242–250. Google Scholar

Rodgers, K & Scobie, W 2015. Sealfies, seals, and celebs: expressions of Inuit resilience in the Twitter era. Interface: A Journal For and About Social Movements 7(1):70–97. Google Scholar

Rohner, T 2017. How a sealskin parka became an Inuk affirmation. Nunatsiaq News 45, 10 February 2017. Google Scholar

Scott, J 2014. A dictionary of sociology. 4th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

Searles, E 1998a. From town to outpost camp: symbolism and social action in the Canadian Eastern Arctic. Unpublished PhD thesis. Washington, DC: University of Washington. Google Scholar

Searles, E 1998b. The crisis of youth and the poetics of place: juvenile reform, outpost camps, and Inuit identity in the Canadian Arctic. Études/Inuit/Studies 2(2):137–155. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2001a. Fashioning selves and tradition: case studies on personhood and experience in Nunavut. American Review of Canadian Studies 31(1–2):121–136. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2001b. Interpersonal politics, social science research and the construction of Inuit identity. Études/Inuit/Studies 25(1–2):101–119. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2002. Food and the making of modern Inuit identities. Food and Foodways 10(1):55–78. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2008. Inuit identity in the Canadian Arctic. Ethnology 47(4):239–255. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2010. Placing identity: town, land, and authenticity in Nunavut, Canada. Acta Borealia 27(2):151–166. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2016. To sell or not to sell: country food markets and Inuit identity in Nunavut. Food and Foodways 24(3–4):194–212. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2017. Digging into my past: archaeology and humanism in the Canadian Arctic. Anthropology and Humanism 42(1):72–90. Google Scholar

Stairs, A 1992. Self-image, world-image: speculations on identity from experiences with Inuit. Ethos 20(1):116–126. Google Scholar

Stern, P 1999. Learning to be smart: an exploration of the culture of intelligence in a Canadian Inuit community. Arctic Anthropology 101(3):502–514. Google Scholar

Stevenson, L 2006. The ethical injunction to remember. In Stern, P & Stevenson, L (eds) Critical Inuit studies. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press:168–183. Google Scholar

Stewart, H, Barnard, A & Omura, K (eds) 2002. Self- and other-images of hunter-gatherers. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology. Google Scholar

Tagaq, T 2016. Keynote address at the Inuit Studies Conference, 9 October 2016, St John’s, Newfoundland. Google Scholar

Todd, Z 2014. Fish pluralities: human-animal relations and sites of engagement in Paulatuuq, Arctic Canada. Études/Inuit/Studies 38(1–2):217–238. Google Scholar

Vucetich, J & Nelson, MP 2017. Wolf hunting and the ethics of predator control. In Kalof, L (ed) The Oxford handbook of animal studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press:410–429. Google Scholar

Wenzel, G 1995. Ningiqtuq: resource sharing and generalized reciprocity in Clyde River, Nunavut. Arctic Anthropology 32(2):43–60. Google Scholar

Wenzel, G 2013. Inuit and modern hunter-gatherer subsistence. Études/Inuit/Studies 37(2):181–200 Google Scholar

Artiss, T 2014. Music and change in Nain, Nunatsiavut: more white does not always mean less Inuit. Études/Inuit/Studies 38(1–2):33–52. Google Scholar

Aylward, N 2017. Selfies and #sealfies: recent inuit activism and technologies of self-representation in Nunavut, Canada. Unpublished BA thesis. Cambridge: Cambridge University. Google Scholar

Blaser, M 2016. Is another cosmopolitics possible? Cultural Anthropology 31(4):545–570. Google Scholar

Bodenhorn, B 1990. ‘I’m not the great hunter, my wife is’: Inupiat and anthropological models of gender. Études/Inuit/Studies 14(1–2):55–74. Google Scholar

Borré, K 1994. The healing power of the seal: the meaning of inuit health practice and belief. Arctic Anthropology 31(1):1–15. Google Scholar

Briggs, J 1991. Expecting the unexpected: Canadian Inuit training for an experimental lifestyle. Ethos 19(3):259–287. Google Scholar

Bruner, E 1955. Two processes of change in Mandan-Hidatsa kinship terminology. American Anthropologist 57:840–850. Google Scholar

Buchanan, I 2010. Oxford dictionary of critical theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

CBC News 2014. Tanya Tagaq #sealfie provokes anti-sealing activists. CBC News, 4 April 2014. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/tanya-tagaq-sealfie-provokes-anti-sealing-activists-1.2595250. Google Scholar

Collings, P 2014. Becoming Inummarik: men’s lives in an Inuit community. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Google Scholar

Condon, R, Collings, P & Wenzel, G 1995. The best part of life: subsistence hunting, ethnicity, and economic adaption among young adult Inuit males. Arctic 48(1): 31–46. Google Scholar

Dorais, L-J 1997. Quaqtaq: modernity and identity in an Inuit community. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Google Scholar

Duhaime, G & Édouard, R 2015. Monetary poverty in Nunangat. Arctic 68(2):223–232. Google Scholar

Fienuip-Riordan, A 1983. The Nelson Island Eskimo. Anchorage: Alaska Pacific University Press. Google Scholar

Fienuip-Riordan, A 1990. Eskimo essays. New Brunswick: Routledge. Google Scholar

Fienup-Riordan, A 1994. Boundaries and passages. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Google Scholar

Fienup-Riordan, A, Tyson, W, John, P, Meade, M & Active, J 2000. Hunting tradition in a changing world. Rutgers: Rutgers University Press. Google Scholar

Graburn, N 1998. The present as history: photographs and the Canadian Inuit, 1959–94. In King, JCH & Lidchi, H (eds) Imaging the Arctic. Seattle: University of Washington Press:160–167. Google Scholar

Graburn, N 2006. Culture as narrative. In Stern, P & Stevenson, L (eds) Critical Inuit studies. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press:139–154. Google Scholar

Harder, MT & Wenzel, G 2012. Inuit subsistence, social economy, and food security in Clyde River, Nunavut. Arctic 65(3):305–318. Google Scholar

Hawkins, R & Silver, JJ 2017. From selfie to #sealfie: Nature 2.0 and the digital cultural politics of an internationally contested resource. Geoforum 79:114–123. Google Scholar

Johnson, N 2012. ‘Healing the land’ in the Canadian Arctic: evangelism, knowledge, and environmental change. Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature, and Society 6(3):300–318. Google Scholar

Kennedy, JC 1982. Holding the line: ethnic boundaries in a Northern Labrador community. St John’s: Institute of Social and Economic Research. Google Scholar

Laugrand, F & Oosten, J 2014. Hunters, predators, and prey: Inuit perceptions of animals. New York: Berghahn. Google Scholar

Morrison, KM 2000. The cosmos as intersubjective: Native American other-than-human persons. In Harvey, G (ed) Indigenous religions: a companion. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. Google Scholar

Nadasdy, P 2007. The gift in the animal: the ontology of hunting and human-animal sociality. American Ethnologist 34(1):25–43. Google Scholar

Natcher, DC 2009. Subsistence and the social economy of Canada’s Aboriginal North. The Northern Review 30:83–98. Google Scholar

Niezen, R 2009. The rediscovered self. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Google Scholar

Nungak, Z & Hendrie, S 1998. Contemporary Inuit photography in Nunavik: two decades of documentary, photojournalism and corporate photography at Makivik Corporation. In King, JCH & Lidchi, H (eds) Imaging the Arctic. Seattle: University of Washington Press:69–76. Google Scholar

Nuttall, M 1998. Protecting the Arctic: indigenous peoples and cultural survival. New York: Routledge. Google Scholar

Nuttall, M 2000. Choosing kin: sharing and subsistence in a Greenlandic hunting community. In Schweitzer, PP (ed) Dividends of kinship. New York: Routledge:33–60. Google Scholar

Nuttall, M 2001. Locality, identity, and memory in South Greenland. Études/Inuit/Studies 25(1–2):53–72. Google Scholar

Ohnuki-Tierney, E 1993. Rice as self. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar

Ohnuki-Tierney, E 1999. Ainu sociality. In Fitzhugh, WW & Dubreuil, CO (eds) Ainu: spirit of a Northern people. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Google Scholar

Pufall, EA, Jones, AQ, McEwen, SA Lyall, C, Peregrine, AS & Edge, VL 2011. Perception of the importance of traditional country foods to the physical, mental, and spiritual health of Labrador Inuit. Arctic 64(2):242–250. Google Scholar

Rodgers, K & Scobie, W 2015. Sealfies, seals, and celebs: expressions of Inuit resilience in the Twitter era. Interface: A Journal For and About Social Movements 7(1):70–97. Google Scholar

Rohner, T 2017. How a sealskin parka became an Inuk affirmation. Nunatsiaq News 45, 10 February 2017. Google Scholar

Scott, J 2014. A dictionary of sociology. 4th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

Searles, E 1998a. From town to outpost camp: symbolism and social action in the Canadian Eastern Arctic. Unpublished PhD thesis. Washington, DC: University of Washington. Google Scholar

Searles, E 1998b. The crisis of youth and the poetics of place: juvenile reform, outpost camps, and Inuit identity in the Canadian Arctic. Études/Inuit/Studies 2(2):137–155. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2001a. Fashioning selves and tradition: case studies on personhood and experience in Nunavut. American Review of Canadian Studies 31(1–2):121–136. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2001b. Interpersonal politics, social science research and the construction of Inuit identity. Études/Inuit/Studies 25(1–2):101–119. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2002. Food and the making of modern Inuit identities. Food and Foodways 10(1):55–78. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2008. Inuit identity in the Canadian Arctic. Ethnology 47(4):239–255. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2010. Placing identity: town, land, and authenticity in Nunavut, Canada. Acta Borealia 27(2):151–166. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2016. To sell or not to sell: country food markets and Inuit identity in Nunavut. Food and Foodways 24(3–4):194–212. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2017. Digging into my past: archaeology and humanism in the Canadian Arctic. Anthropology and Humanism 42(1):72–90. Google Scholar

Stairs, A 1992. Self-image, world-image: speculations on identity from experiences with Inuit. Ethos 20(1):116–126. Google Scholar

Stern, P 1999. Learning to be smart: an exploration of the culture of intelligence in a Canadian Inuit community. Arctic Anthropology 101(3):502–514. Google Scholar

Stevenson, L 2006. The ethical injunction to remember. In Stern, P & Stevenson, L (eds) Critical Inuit studies. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press:168–183. Google Scholar

Stewart, H, Barnard, A & Omura, K (eds) 2002. Self- and other-images of hunter-gatherers. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology. Google Scholar

Tagaq, T 2016. Keynote address at the Inuit Studies Conference, 9 October 2016, St John’s, Newfoundland. Google Scholar

Todd, Z 2014. Fish pluralities: human-animal relations and sites of engagement in Paulatuuq, Arctic Canada. Études/Inuit/Studies 38(1–2):217–238. Google Scholar

Vucetich, J & Nelson, MP 2017. Wolf hunting and the ethics of predator control. In Kalof, L (ed) The Oxford handbook of animal studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press:410–429. Google Scholar

Wenzel, G 1995. Ningiqtuq: resource sharing and generalized reciprocity in Clyde River, Nunavut. Arctic Anthropology 32(2):43–60. Google Scholar

Wenzel, G 2013. Inuit and modern hunter-gatherer subsistence. Études/Inuit/Studies 37(2):181–200 Google Scholar

Artiss, T 2014. Music and change in Nain, Nunatsiavut: more white does not always mean less Inuit. Études/Inuit/Studies 38(1–2):33–52. Google Scholar

Aylward, N 2017. Selfies and #sealfies: recent inuit activism and technologies of self-representation in Nunavut, Canada. Unpublished BA thesis. Cambridge: Cambridge University. Google Scholar

Blaser, M 2016. Is another cosmopolitics possible? Cultural Anthropology 31(4):545–570. Google Scholar

Bodenhorn, B 1990. ‘I’m not the great hunter, my wife is’: Inupiat and anthropological models of gender. Études/Inuit/Studies 14(1–2):55–74. Google Scholar

Borré, K 1994. The healing power of the seal: the meaning of inuit health practice and belief. Arctic Anthropology 31(1):1–15. Google Scholar

Briggs, J 1991. Expecting the unexpected: Canadian Inuit training for an experimental lifestyle. Ethos 19(3):259–287. Google Scholar

Bruner, E 1955. Two processes of change in Mandan-Hidatsa kinship terminology. American Anthropologist 57:840–850. Google Scholar

Buchanan, I 2010. Oxford dictionary of critical theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

CBC News 2014. Tanya Tagaq #sealfie provokes anti-sealing activists. CBC News, 4 April 2014. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/tanya-tagaq-sealfie-provokes-anti-sealing-activists-1.2595250. Google Scholar

Collings, P 2014. Becoming Inummarik: men’s lives in an Inuit community. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Google Scholar

Condon, R, Collings, P & Wenzel, G 1995. The best part of life: subsistence hunting, ethnicity, and economic adaption among young adult Inuit males. Arctic 48(1): 31–46. Google Scholar

Dorais, L-J 1997. Quaqtaq: modernity and identity in an Inuit community. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Google Scholar

Duhaime, G & Édouard, R 2015. Monetary poverty in Nunangat. Arctic 68(2):223–232. Google Scholar

Fienuip-Riordan, A 1983. The Nelson Island Eskimo. Anchorage: Alaska Pacific University Press. Google Scholar

Fienuip-Riordan, A 1990. Eskimo essays. New Brunswick: Routledge. Google Scholar

Fienup-Riordan, A 1994. Boundaries and passages. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Google Scholar

Fienup-Riordan, A, Tyson, W, John, P, Meade, M & Active, J 2000. Hunting tradition in a changing world. Rutgers: Rutgers University Press. Google Scholar

Graburn, N 1998. The present as history: photographs and the Canadian Inuit, 1959–94. In King, JCH & Lidchi, H (eds) Imaging the Arctic. Seattle: University of Washington Press:160–167. Google Scholar

Graburn, N 2006. Culture as narrative. In Stern, P & Stevenson, L (eds) Critical Inuit studies. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press:139–154. Google Scholar

Harder, MT & Wenzel, G 2012. Inuit subsistence, social economy, and food security in Clyde River, Nunavut. Arctic 65(3):305–318. Google Scholar

Hawkins, R & Silver, JJ 2017. From selfie to #sealfie: Nature 2.0 and the digital cultural politics of an internationally contested resource. Geoforum 79:114–123. Google Scholar

Johnson, N 2012. ‘Healing the land’ in the Canadian Arctic: evangelism, knowledge, and environmental change. Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature, and Society 6(3):300–318. Google Scholar

Kennedy, JC 1982. Holding the line: ethnic boundaries in a Northern Labrador community. St John’s: Institute of Social and Economic Research. Google Scholar

Laugrand, F & Oosten, J 2014. Hunters, predators, and prey: Inuit perceptions of animals. New York: Berghahn. Google Scholar

Morrison, KM 2000. The cosmos as intersubjective: Native American other-than-human persons. In Harvey, G (ed) Indigenous religions: a companion. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. Google Scholar

Nadasdy, P 2007. The gift in the animal: the ontology of hunting and human-animal sociality. American Ethnologist 34(1):25–43. Google Scholar

Natcher, DC 2009. Subsistence and the social economy of Canada’s Aboriginal North. The Northern Review 30:83–98. Google Scholar

Niezen, R 2009. The rediscovered self. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Google Scholar

Nungak, Z & Hendrie, S 1998. Contemporary Inuit photography in Nunavik: two decades of documentary, photojournalism and corporate photography at Makivik Corporation. In King, JCH & Lidchi, H (eds) Imaging the Arctic. Seattle: University of Washington Press:69–76. Google Scholar

Nuttall, M 1998. Protecting the Arctic: indigenous peoples and cultural survival. New York: Routledge. Google Scholar

Nuttall, M 2000. Choosing kin: sharing and subsistence in a Greenlandic hunting community. In Schweitzer, PP (ed) Dividends of kinship. New York: Routledge:33–60. Google Scholar

Nuttall, M 2001. Locality, identity, and memory in South Greenland. Études/Inuit/Studies 25(1–2):53–72. Google Scholar

Ohnuki-Tierney, E 1993. Rice as self. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar

Ohnuki-Tierney, E 1999. Ainu sociality. In Fitzhugh, WW & Dubreuil, CO (eds) Ainu: spirit of a Northern people. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Google Scholar

Pufall, EA, Jones, AQ, McEwen, SA Lyall, C, Peregrine, AS & Edge, VL 2011. Perception of the importance of traditional country foods to the physical, mental, and spiritual health of Labrador Inuit. Arctic 64(2):242–250. Google Scholar

Rodgers, K & Scobie, W 2015. Sealfies, seals, and celebs: expressions of Inuit resilience in the Twitter era. Interface: A Journal For and About Social Movements 7(1):70–97. Google Scholar

Rohner, T 2017. How a sealskin parka became an Inuk affirmation. Nunatsiaq News 45, 10 February 2017. Google Scholar

Scott, J 2014. A dictionary of sociology. 4th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

Searles, E 1998a. From town to outpost camp: symbolism and social action in the Canadian Eastern Arctic. Unpublished PhD thesis. Washington, DC: University of Washington. Google Scholar

Searles, E 1998b. The crisis of youth and the poetics of place: juvenile reform, outpost camps, and Inuit identity in the Canadian Arctic. Études/Inuit/Studies 2(2):137–155. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2001a. Fashioning selves and tradition: case studies on personhood and experience in Nunavut. American Review of Canadian Studies 31(1–2):121–136. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2001b. Interpersonal politics, social science research and the construction of Inuit identity. Études/Inuit/Studies 25(1–2):101–119. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2002. Food and the making of modern Inuit identities. Food and Foodways 10(1):55–78. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2008. Inuit identity in the Canadian Arctic. Ethnology 47(4):239–255. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2010. Placing identity: town, land, and authenticity in Nunavut, Canada. Acta Borealia 27(2):151–166. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2016. To sell or not to sell: country food markets and Inuit identity in Nunavut. Food and Foodways 24(3–4):194–212. Google Scholar

Searles, E 2017. Digging into my past: archaeology and humanism in the Canadian Arctic. Anthropology and Humanism 42(1):72–90. Google Scholar

Stairs, A 1992. Self-image, world-image: speculations on identity from experiences with Inuit. Ethos 20(1):116–126. Google Scholar

Stern, P 1999. Learning to be smart: an exploration of the culture of intelligence in a Canadian Inuit community. Arctic Anthropology 101(3):502–514. Google Scholar

Stevenson, L 2006. The ethical injunction to remember. In Stern, P & Stevenson, L (eds) Critical Inuit studies. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press:168–183. Google Scholar

Stewart, H, Barnard, A & Omura, K (eds) 2002. Self- and other-images of hunter-gatherers. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology. Google Scholar

Tagaq, T 2016. Keynote address at the Inuit Studies Conference, 9 October 2016, St John’s, Newfoundland. Google Scholar

Todd, Z 2014. Fish pluralities: human-animal relations and sites of engagement in Paulatuuq, Arctic Canada. Études/Inuit/Studies 38(1–2):217–238. Google Scholar

Vucetich, J & Nelson, MP 2017. Wolf hunting and the ethics of predator control. In Kalof, L (ed) The Oxford handbook of animal studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press:410–429. Google Scholar

Wenzel, G 1995. Ningiqtuq: resource sharing and generalized reciprocity in Clyde River, Nunavut. Arctic Anthropology 32(2):43–60. Google Scholar

Wenzel, G 2013. Inuit and modern hunter-gatherer subsistence. Études/Inuit/Studies 37(2):181–200 Google Scholar

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Author details

Searles, Edmund Q