International Development Planning Review

Neo-customary land delivery systems and the rise of community-mediated settlements in peri-urban Enugu, Nigeria

International Development Planning Review (2017), 39, (3), 319–340.

Abstract

In many Nigerian cities, population pressure and encroachment onto adjoining rural lands are transforming the peri-urban interface together with the development roles and realities of affected local communities. Based on an investigation of the neo-customary land delivery and settlement initiatives of Nike people, an indigenous land-owning community in Enugu, southeast Nigeria, this paper illustrates how local communities are increasingly capitalising on the cracks in the dualistic customary and planning regimes by assuming the roles of land subdividers. The resulting community-mediated settlements (CMSs) are bottom-up, co-production ventures accomplished by initiating communities, private sector actors and government agencies, which now constitute the dominant source of subdivided land in the country. Besides challenging certain assumptions of land economic theory and urban planning, it is shown how city-building practices of local indigenous communities both embody and express contemporary urban dynamics, everyday lived experiences, and highlight the need for change in approach to urban studies and planning.

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Abbott, J. (1995) ‘Community participation and its relationship to community development’, Community Development Journal, 30(2), 158–65. Community participation and its relationship to community development Community Development Journal 30 158 65 Google Scholar

Aggrey, D. M. T. (2013) ‘Impacts of urbanization on land use planning, livelihood and environment in the Nairobi rural-urban fringe, Kenya’, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 2(7), 70–9. Impacts of urbanization on land use planning, livelihood and environment in the Nairobi rural-urban fringe, Kenya International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research 2 70 9 Google Scholar

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Bhatta, B. (2010) Analysis of urban growth and sprawl from remote sensing data, Springer, London. Analysis of urban growth and sprawl from remote sensing data Google Scholar

Briggs, J. and Yeboah, I. E. A. (2001) ‘Structural adjustment and the contemporary sub-Saharan African city’, Area, 33(1), March, 18–26. Structural adjustment and the contemporary sub-Saharan African city Area 33 18 26 Google Scholar

Brocklesby, M. A. and Fisher, E. (2003) ‘Community development in sustainable livelihoods approaches – an introduction’, Community Development Journal, 38(3), 185–98. Community development in sustainable livelihoods approaches – an introduction Community Development Journal 38 185 98 Google Scholar

Casson, M. C., Giusta, M. D. and Kambhampati, U. (2010) ‘Formal and informal institutions and development’, World Development, 38(2), 137–41. Formal and informal institutions and development World Development 38 137 41 Google Scholar

Dike, A. A. (1983) ‘Land tenure in Igboland’, Anthropos, 78(5/6), 853–71. Land tenure in Igboland Anthropos 78 853 71 Google Scholar

Durand-Lasserve, A. (2004) ‘Land for housing the poor in African cities. are neo-customary processes an effective alternative to formal systems?’ (Report), Paris, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Denis Diderot. Land for housing the poor in African cities. are neo-customary processes an effective alternative to formal systems? Google Scholar

Egbu, A. U., Olomolaiye, P. and Gameson, R. (2008) ‘A neo-institutional economic critique of the system for allocating urban land and development rights in Nigeria’, Habitat International, 32, 121–35. A neo-institutional economic critique of the system for allocating urban land and development rights in Nigeria Habitat International 32 121 35 Google Scholar

Famoriyo, S. (1979) ‘Land tenure, land use and land acquisition in Nigeria’, in Maîtrise de l’espace agraire et développement en Afrique tropicale: logique paysanne et rationalité technique, http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/divers07/03068.pdf (accessed 20 July 2014). Google Scholar

Gray, L. and Kevane, M. (1999) ‘Diminished access, diverted exclusion: women and land tenure in sub-Saharan Africa’, African Studies Review, 42(2), 15–39. Diminished access, diverted exclusion: women and land tenure in sub-Saharan Africa African Studies Review 42 15 39 Google Scholar

Harrison, P. (2006) ‘On the edge of reason: planning and urban futures in Africa, Urban Studies, 43(2), 319–35. Urban Studies 43 319 35 Google Scholar

Ikejiofor, C. U. (2006) ‘Equity in informal land delivery: insights from Enugu, Nigeria’, Land Use Policy, 21, 448–59. Equity in informal land delivery: insights from Enugu, Nigeria Land Use Policy 21 448 59 Google Scholar

Kuma, S. S. and Ighalo, J. I. (2015) ‘Effects of access to land on housing delivery in the North Central States of Nigeria’, ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology, 8(1), 26–36. Effects of access to land on housing delivery in the North Central States of Nigeria ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology 8 26 36 Google Scholar

Leedy, P. D. and Ormrod, J. E. (2010) Practical research: planning and design, Boston, Pearson Education International. Practical research: planning and design Google Scholar

Mabogunje, A. (2010) ‘Land reform in Nigeria: progress, problems and prospects’, Paper given at the Annual Conference on Land Policy and Administration, 26–27 April, World Bank, Washington DC, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTARD/Resources/336681-1236436879081/5893311-1271205116054/mabogunje.pdf (accessed 8 November 2014). Google Scholar

Master Plan for Enugu (1979) Phase 2: Detailed Data Analysis, Concept Ecodesign International, Enugu and Cambridge, Massachusetts. Phase 2: Detailed Data Analysis Google Scholar

Mitlin, D. (2008) ‘With and beyond the state: coproduction as a route to political influence, power and transformation for grassroots organizations’, Environment and Urbanization 20(2), 339–60. With and beyond the state: coproduction as a route to political influence, power and transformation for grassroots organizations Environment and Urbanization 20 339 60 Google Scholar

Nishikawa, N. (2003) ‘Survey methods for planners’, in H. C. Dandekar (ed.), The planner’s use of information, Chicago and Washington, American Planning Association, 49–78. Survey methods for planners The planner’s use of information 49 78 Google Scholar

Oloyede, S. A., Ajibola, M. O. and Oni, A. O. (2007) ‘Informal land delivery system in Lagos State, Nigeria’, Journal of Land Use and Development Studies, 3(1), 139–45. Informal land delivery system in Lagos State, Nigeria Journal of Land Use and Development Studies 3 139 45 Google Scholar

Rakodi, C. and Leduka, C. R. (2004) ‘Informal land delivery processes and access to land for the poor: a comparative study of six African cities’ (Policy Brief No. 6), University of Birmingham, http://r4d.dfid.gov.uk/PDF/Outputs/Mis_SPC/R8076-Comparative_land_delivery.pdf (accessed 20 July 2014). Google Scholar

Roy, A. (2005) ‘Urban informality: towards an epistemology of planning’, Journal of American Planning Association, 71(2), 147–58. Urban informality: towards an epistemology of planning Journal of American Planning Association, 71 147 58 Google Scholar

Simon, D. (2008) ‘Urban environments: issues on the peri-urban fringe’, Annual Review of Environmental Resources, 33, 167–85. Urban environments: issues on the peri-urban fringe Annual Review of Environmental Resources 33 167 85 Google Scholar

Soliman, A. (2010) ‘Rethinking urban informality and the planning process in Egypt’, International Development Planning Review, 32(2), 119–43. Rethinking urban informality and the planning process in Egypt International Development Planning Review 32 119 43 Google Scholar

UN-Habitat (2008) The state of the world’s cities 2010/2011: bridging the urban divide, Earthscan, London. Google Scholar

UN-Habitat (2011) Affordable land and housing in Africa, Nairobi, United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT). Google Scholar

Vaskovich, M. (2004) ‘Comparative analysis of property transaction models for Denmark, England and Wales and Slovenia’, Report on the Short Term Scientific Mission at the University of Ljubljana within the framework of the COST Action G9, Stockholm, Sweden. Comparative analysis of property transaction models for Denmark, England and Wales and Slovenia Google Scholar

Zardini, M. (2005) ‘Toward a sensorial urbanism’, in M. Zardini (ed.), Sense of the city: an alternate approach to urbanism, Montréal and Baden, Canadian Centre for Architecture and Lars Müller Publishers, 17–27. Toward a sensorial urbanism Sense of the city: an alternate approach to urbanism 17 27 Google Scholar

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Onyebueke, Victor

Ikejiofor, Cosmas