Town Planning Review

Making smart cities work in the face of conflicts: lessons from practitioners of South Korea’s U-City projects

Town Planning Review (2015), 86, (5), 561–585.

Abstract

A common concern in relation to smart cities is how to turn the concept into reality. The aim of this research is to investigate the implementation process of smart cities based upon the experience of South Korea’s U-City projects. The research shows that poorly-managed conflicts during implementation can diminish the potential of smart cities and discourage future improvements. The nature of smart cities is based on the concept of governance, while the planning practice is still in the notion of government. In order to facilitate the collaborative practice, the research has shown that collaborative institutional arrangements and joint fact-finding processes might secure an integrated service delivery for smart cities by overcoming operational difficulties in real-life contexts.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ANTHOPOULOS, L. and FITSILIS, P. (2010), ‘From digital to ubiquitous cities: defining a common architecture for urban development’ (paper delivered to the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Environments-IE’10, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 19–21 July). From digital to ubiquitous cities: defining a common architecture for urban development Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

AURIGI, A. (2005), ‘Competing urban visions and the shaping of the digital city’, Knowledge Technology and Policy, 18, 12–26. Competing urban visions and the shaping of the digital city Knowledge Technology and Policy 18 12 26 Google Scholar

BÉLISSENT, J. (2010), ‘Getting clever about smart cities: new opportunities require new business models’, For Vendor Strategy Professionals, Forrester Research Inc. Getting clever about smart cities: new opportunities require new business models Google Scholar

CARAGLIU, A., DEL BO, C. and NIJKAMP, P. (2011), ‘Smart cities in Europe’, Journal of Urban Technology, 18, 65–82. Smart cities in Europe Journal of Urban Technology 18 65 82 Google Scholar

CASTELLS, M. (2010), The Rise of the Network Society, Chichester, West Sussex, Wiley-Blackwell. The Rise of the Network Society Google Scholar

CHOURABI, H., NAM, T., WALKER, S., GIL-GARCIA, J. R., MELLOULI, S., NAHON, K., PARDO, T. A. and SCHOLL, H. J. (2012), ‘Understanding smart cities: an integrative framework’ (paper delivered to System Science (HICSS), 45th Hawaii International Conference, 4–7 January 2012, 2289–97). Understanding smart cities: an integrative framework 2289 97 Google Scholar

DAMERI, R. P. (2013), ‘Searching for smart city definition: a comprehensive proposal’, International Journal of Computers and Technology, 11, 2544–51. Searching for smart city definition: a comprehensive proposal International Journal of Computers and Technology 11 2544 51 Google Scholar

DIRKS, S. and KEELING, M. (2009), A Vision of Smarter Cities: How Cities Can Lead the Way into a Prosperous and Sustainable Future, Somers, NY, IBM Global Business Services. A Vision of Smarter Cities: How Cities Can Lead the Way into a Prosperous and Sustainable Future Google Scholar

DUTTON, W. H. (1987), Wired Cities: Shaping the Future of Communications, London, Macmillan. Wired Cities: Shaping the Future of Communications Google Scholar

EBRAHIM, Z. and IRANI, Z. (2005), ‘E-government adoption: architecture and barriers’, Business Process Management Journal, 11, 589–611. E-government adoption: architecture and barriers Business Process Management Journal 11 589 611 Google Scholar

ECKSTEIN, B. and THROGMORTON, J. (eds) (2003), Stories and Sustainability: Planning, Practice and Possibility for American Cities, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Stories and Sustainability: Planning, Practice and Possibility for American Cities Google Scholar

EHRMANN, J. R. and STINSON, B. L. (1999), ‘Joint fact-finding and the use of technical experts’ in Susskind, L., McKearnan, S. and Thomas-Larmer, J. (eds), 375–99. Joint fact-finding and the use of technical experts 375 99 Google Scholar

FLYVBJERG, B. (1998), Rationality and Power, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Rationality and Power Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1989), Planning in the Face of Conflict, Berkeley, University of California Press. Planning in the Face of Conflict Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1999), The Deliberative Practitioner, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. The Deliberative Practitioner Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (2006), ‘Making participation work when interests conflict: moving from facilitating dialogue and moderating debate to mediating negotiations’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 72, 447–56. Making participation work when interests conflict: moving from facilitating dialogue and moderating debate to mediating negotiations Journal of the American Planning Association 72 447 56 Google Scholar

FUNG, A. (2005), ‘Deliberation before the revolution: toward an ethics of deliberative democracy in an unjust world’, Political Theory, 33, 397–419. Deliberation before the revolution: toward an ethics of deliberative democracy in an unjust world Political Theory 33 397 419 Google Scholar

GRAHAM, S. and MARVIN, S. (1996), Telecommunications and the City: Electronic Spaces, Urban Places, London, Routledge. Telecommunications and the City: Electronic Spaces, Urban Places Google Scholar

HESSE-BIBER, S. N. and LEAVY, P. (2006), The Practice of Qualitative Research, CA, Sage. The Practice of Qualitative Research Google Scholar

HILLIER, J. (2002), Shadows of Power, London, Routledge. Shadows of Power Google Scholar

HOCH, C. (1994), What Planners Do: Power, Politics, and Persuasion, Chicago, Planners Press. What Planners Do: Power, Politics, and Persuasion Google Scholar

HOLLANDS, R. (2008), ‘Will the real smart city please stand up?’, City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action, 12, 303–20. Will the real smart city please stand up? City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action 12 303 20 Google Scholar

ISHIDA, T. (2002), ‘Digital city Kyoto’, Communications of the ACM, 45, 76–81. Digital city Kyoto Communications of the ACM 45 76 81 Google Scholar

KARL, H., SUSSKIND, L. and WALLACE, K. (2007), ‘A dialogue, not a diatribe: effective integration of science and policy through joint fact finding’, Environment, 49, 20–34. A dialogue, not a diatribe: effective integration of science and policy through joint fact finding Environment 49 20 34 Google Scholar

KIM, K. (2008), ‘A study on job rotation in civil service’, Korea Development Study, KDI, 30, 61–97. A study on job rotation in civil service Korea Development Study, KDI 30 61 97 Google Scholar

KITCHIN, R. and DODGE, M. (2011), Code/Space: Software and Everyday Life, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Code/Space: Software and Everyday Life Google Scholar

KOMNINOS, N. (2002), Intelligent Cities: Innovation, Knowledge Systems and Digital Spaces, London, Spon Press. Intelligent Cities: Innovation, Knowledge Systems and Digital Spaces Google Scholar

LOHR, S. (2012), ‘News analysis: the age of big data’ (The New York Times, 11th February), www.nytimes.com/2012/02/12/sunday-review/big-datas-impact-in-the-world.html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=Big%20Data&st=cse& (accessed 27 May 2013). Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

MINISTRY OF LAND, INFRASTRUCTURE AND TRANSPORT (2012), ‘The concept of U-City’, www.molit.go.kr/USR/policyData/m_34681/dtl.jsp?id=93 (accessed 26 April 2013). Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

PORTELLI, A. (1991), The Death of Luigi Trastulli and Other Stories: Form and Meaning in Oral History, Albany, State University of New York Press. The Death of Luigi Trastulli and Other Stories: Form and Meaning in Oral History Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, S. M. and KOCHAN, T. A. (1986), ‘Conflict: toward conceptual clarity’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 359–96. Conflict: toward conceptual clarity Administrative Science Quarterly 17 359 96 Google Scholar

SENSUS (2012), Water 20/20: Bringing Smart Water Networks into Focus, Raleigh, NC, Sensus. Google Scholar

SHIN, D. (2009), ‘Ubiquitous city: urban technologies, urban infrastructure and urban informatics’, Journal of Information Science, 35, 515–26. Ubiquitous city: urban technologies, urban infrastructure and urban informatics Journal of Information Science 35 515 26 Google Scholar

SUSSKIND, L., MCKEARNAN, S. and THOMAS-LARMER, J. (eds) (1999), The Consensus Building Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Reaching Agreement, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. The Consensus Building Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Reaching Agreement Google Scholar

SUSSKIND, L., CAMACHO, A. E. and SCHENK, T. (2012), ‘A critical assessment of collaborative adaptive management in practice’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 49, 47–51. A critical assessment of collaborative adaptive management in practice Journal of Applied Ecology 49 47 51 Google Scholar

TRANOS, E. and GERTNER, D. (2012), ‘Smart networked cities?’, Innovation: The European Journal of Social Sciences, 25, 175–90. Smart networked cities? Innovation: The European Journal of Social Sciences 25 175 90 Google Scholar

YIFTACHEL, O. (1998), ‘Planning and social control: exploring the “dark side”’, Journal of Planning Literature, 12, 395–406. Planning and social control: exploring the “dark side” Journal of Planning Literature 12 395 406 Google Scholar

YIGITCANLAR, T., VELIBEYOGLU, K. and MARTINEZ-FERNANDEZ, C. (2008), ‘Rising knowledge cities: the role of urban knowledge precincts’, Journal of Knowledge Management, 12, 8–20. Rising knowledge cities: the role of urban knowledge precincts Journal of Knowledge Management 12 8 20 Google Scholar

YOON, H. S. (2009), ‘U-City promotion strategy of Korean government’ (presentation delivered to the International Conference on U-City 2009, Incheon, Korea, 27–28 August, 39–53). U-City promotion strategy of Korean government 39 53 Google Scholar

ANTHOPOULOS, L. and FITSILIS, P. (2010), ‘From digital to ubiquitous cities: defining a common architecture for urban development’ (paper delivered to the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Environments-IE’10, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 19–21 July). From digital to ubiquitous cities: defining a common architecture for urban development Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

AURIGI, A. (2005), ‘Competing urban visions and the shaping of the digital city’, Knowledge Technology and Policy, 18, 12–26. Competing urban visions and the shaping of the digital city Knowledge Technology and Policy 18 12 26 Google Scholar

BÉLISSENT, J. (2010), ‘Getting clever about smart cities: new opportunities require new business models’, For Vendor Strategy Professionals, Forrester Research Inc. Getting clever about smart cities: new opportunities require new business models Google Scholar

CARAGLIU, A., DEL BO, C. and NIJKAMP, P. (2011), ‘Smart cities in Europe’, Journal of Urban Technology, 18, 65–82. Smart cities in Europe Journal of Urban Technology 18 65 82 Google Scholar

CASTELLS, M. (2010), The Rise of the Network Society, Chichester, West Sussex, Wiley-Blackwell. The Rise of the Network Society Google Scholar

CHOURABI, H., NAM, T., WALKER, S., GIL-GARCIA, J. R., MELLOULI, S., NAHON, K., PARDO, T. A. and SCHOLL, H. J. (2012), ‘Understanding smart cities: an integrative framework’ (paper delivered to System Science (HICSS), 45th Hawaii International Conference, 4–7 January 2012, 2289–97). Understanding smart cities: an integrative framework 2289 97 Google Scholar

DAMERI, R. P. (2013), ‘Searching for smart city definition: a comprehensive proposal’, International Journal of Computers and Technology, 11, 2544–51. Searching for smart city definition: a comprehensive proposal International Journal of Computers and Technology 11 2544 51 Google Scholar

DIRKS, S. and KEELING, M. (2009), A Vision of Smarter Cities: How Cities Can Lead the Way into a Prosperous and Sustainable Future, Somers, NY, IBM Global Business Services. A Vision of Smarter Cities: How Cities Can Lead the Way into a Prosperous and Sustainable Future Google Scholar

DUTTON, W. H. (1987), Wired Cities: Shaping the Future of Communications, London, Macmillan. Wired Cities: Shaping the Future of Communications Google Scholar

EBRAHIM, Z. and IRANI, Z. (2005), ‘E-government adoption: architecture and barriers’, Business Process Management Journal, 11, 589–611. E-government adoption: architecture and barriers Business Process Management Journal 11 589 611 Google Scholar

ECKSTEIN, B. and THROGMORTON, J. (eds) (2003), Stories and Sustainability: Planning, Practice and Possibility for American Cities, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Stories and Sustainability: Planning, Practice and Possibility for American Cities Google Scholar

EHRMANN, J. R. and STINSON, B. L. (1999), ‘Joint fact-finding and the use of technical experts’ in Susskind, L., McKearnan, S. and Thomas-Larmer, J. (eds), 375–99. Joint fact-finding and the use of technical experts 375 99 Google Scholar

FLYVBJERG, B. (1998), Rationality and Power, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Rationality and Power Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1989), Planning in the Face of Conflict, Berkeley, University of California Press. Planning in the Face of Conflict Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1999), The Deliberative Practitioner, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. The Deliberative Practitioner Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (2006), ‘Making participation work when interests conflict: moving from facilitating dialogue and moderating debate to mediating negotiations’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 72, 447–56. Making participation work when interests conflict: moving from facilitating dialogue and moderating debate to mediating negotiations Journal of the American Planning Association 72 447 56 Google Scholar

FUNG, A. (2005), ‘Deliberation before the revolution: toward an ethics of deliberative democracy in an unjust world’, Political Theory, 33, 397–419. Deliberation before the revolution: toward an ethics of deliberative democracy in an unjust world Political Theory 33 397 419 Google Scholar

GRAHAM, S. and MARVIN, S. (1996), Telecommunications and the City: Electronic Spaces, Urban Places, London, Routledge. Telecommunications and the City: Electronic Spaces, Urban Places Google Scholar

HESSE-BIBER, S. N. and LEAVY, P. (2006), The Practice of Qualitative Research, CA, Sage. The Practice of Qualitative Research Google Scholar

HILLIER, J. (2002), Shadows of Power, London, Routledge. Shadows of Power Google Scholar

HOCH, C. (1994), What Planners Do: Power, Politics, and Persuasion, Chicago, Planners Press. What Planners Do: Power, Politics, and Persuasion Google Scholar

HOLLANDS, R. (2008), ‘Will the real smart city please stand up?’, City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action, 12, 303–20. Will the real smart city please stand up? City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action 12 303 20 Google Scholar

ISHIDA, T. (2002), ‘Digital city Kyoto’, Communications of the ACM, 45, 76–81. Digital city Kyoto Communications of the ACM 45 76 81 Google Scholar

KARL, H., SUSSKIND, L. and WALLACE, K. (2007), ‘A dialogue, not a diatribe: effective integration of science and policy through joint fact finding’, Environment, 49, 20–34. A dialogue, not a diatribe: effective integration of science and policy through joint fact finding Environment 49 20 34 Google Scholar

KIM, K. (2008), ‘A study on job rotation in civil service’, Korea Development Study, KDI, 30, 61–97. A study on job rotation in civil service Korea Development Study, KDI 30 61 97 Google Scholar

KITCHIN, R. and DODGE, M. (2011), Code/Space: Software and Everyday Life, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Code/Space: Software and Everyday Life Google Scholar

KOMNINOS, N. (2002), Intelligent Cities: Innovation, Knowledge Systems and Digital Spaces, London, Spon Press. Intelligent Cities: Innovation, Knowledge Systems and Digital Spaces Google Scholar

LOHR, S. (2012), ‘News analysis: the age of big data’ (The New York Times, 11th February), www.nytimes.com/2012/02/12/sunday-review/big-datas-impact-in-the-world.html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=Big%20Data&st=cse& (accessed 27 May 2013). Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

MINISTRY OF LAND, INFRASTRUCTURE AND TRANSPORT (2012), ‘The concept of U-City’, www.molit.go.kr/USR/policyData/m_34681/dtl.jsp?id=93 (accessed 26 April 2013). Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

PORTELLI, A. (1991), The Death of Luigi Trastulli and Other Stories: Form and Meaning in Oral History, Albany, State University of New York Press. The Death of Luigi Trastulli and Other Stories: Form and Meaning in Oral History Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, S. M. and KOCHAN, T. A. (1986), ‘Conflict: toward conceptual clarity’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 359–96. Conflict: toward conceptual clarity Administrative Science Quarterly 17 359 96 Google Scholar

SENSUS (2012), Water 20/20: Bringing Smart Water Networks into Focus, Raleigh, NC, Sensus. Google Scholar

SHIN, D. (2009), ‘Ubiquitous city: urban technologies, urban infrastructure and urban informatics’, Journal of Information Science, 35, 515–26. Ubiquitous city: urban technologies, urban infrastructure and urban informatics Journal of Information Science 35 515 26 Google Scholar

SUSSKIND, L., MCKEARNAN, S. and THOMAS-LARMER, J. (eds) (1999), The Consensus Building Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Reaching Agreement, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. The Consensus Building Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Reaching Agreement Google Scholar

SUSSKIND, L., CAMACHO, A. E. and SCHENK, T. (2012), ‘A critical assessment of collaborative adaptive management in practice’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 49, 47–51. A critical assessment of collaborative adaptive management in practice Journal of Applied Ecology 49 47 51 Google Scholar

TRANOS, E. and GERTNER, D. (2012), ‘Smart networked cities?’, Innovation: The European Journal of Social Sciences, 25, 175–90. Smart networked cities? Innovation: The European Journal of Social Sciences 25 175 90 Google Scholar

YIFTACHEL, O. (1998), ‘Planning and social control: exploring the “dark side”’, Journal of Planning Literature, 12, 395–406. Planning and social control: exploring the “dark side” Journal of Planning Literature 12 395 406 Google Scholar

YIGITCANLAR, T., VELIBEYOGLU, K. and MARTINEZ-FERNANDEZ, C. (2008), ‘Rising knowledge cities: the role of urban knowledge precincts’, Journal of Knowledge Management, 12, 8–20. Rising knowledge cities: the role of urban knowledge precincts Journal of Knowledge Management 12 8 20 Google Scholar

YOON, H. S. (2009), ‘U-City promotion strategy of Korean government’ (presentation delivered to the International Conference on U-City 2009, Incheon, Korea, 27–28 August, 39–53). U-City promotion strategy of Korean government 39 53 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Kim, Joon Sik

Kim, Joon Sik