Town Planning Review

Sticking to the script? The co-production of neighbourhood planning in England

Town Planning Review (2015), 86, (5), 519–536.

Abstract

Efforts to engage with communities in spatial planning have been criticised as being tokenistic, vehicles for co-option or designed to promote neo-liberal agendas. The introduction of neighbourhood planning (NP) in England under the Localism Act (2011) is claimed by proponents to be a step change in the way that local communities are involved in planning their own areas. However, little empirical evidence has yet emerged to substantiate such claims, or provide details about the practices and experiences of NP. The paper highlights that there are numerous parties involved in the co-production of Neighbourhood Development Plans and there are numerous instances where ideas, policies and priorities that emerge from within neighbourhoods are being ‘rescripted’ to ensure conformity to a bounded form of collaboration.

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DAVOUDI, S. and MADANIPOUR, A. (2013), ‘Localism and neo-liberal governmentality’, Town Planning Review, 84, 551–62. Localism and neo-liberal governmentality Town Planning Review 84 551 62 Google Scholar

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DCLG (DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2012), National Planning Policy Framework, April 2012, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DEFRA (2013), Neighbourhood Planning. The Rural Frontrunners: Research and Case Studies, London, Defra. Google Scholar

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HAUGHTON, G., ALLMENDINGER, P., COUNSELL, D. and VIGAR, G. (2010), The New Spatial Planning: Territorial Management with Soft Spaces and Fuzzy Boundaries, London, Routledge. The New Spatial Planning: Territorial Management with Soft Spaces and Fuzzy Boundaries Google Scholar

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HONIG, B. (1993), Political Theory and the Displacement of Politics, New York, Cornell University Press. Political Theory and the Displacement of Politics Google Scholar

HUXLEY, M. (2000), ‘The limits to communicative planning’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 19, 369–77. The limits to communicative planning Journal of Planning Education and Research 19 369 77 Google Scholar

JESSOP, B. (2002), ‘Liberalism, neoliberalism, and urban governance: a State–theoretical perspective’, Antipode, 34, 452–72. Liberalism, neoliberalism, and urban governance: a State–theoretical perspective Antipode 34 452 72 Google Scholar

LOCALITY (2012), Neighbourhood Planning Roadmap, see http://mycommunityrights.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Neighbourhood-Planning-Roadmap1.pdf. Google Scholar

LONDON ASSEMBLY (2012), Beyond Consultation: The Role of Neighbourhood Plans in Supporting Local Involvement in Planning, February 2012, London, London Assembly. Google Scholar

MOUFFE, C. (2005), On the Political, London, Routledge. On the Political Google Scholar

OSTROM, E. (1996), ‘Crossing the great divide: co-production, synergy and development’, World Development, 24, 1073–87. Crossing the great divide: co-production, synergy and development World Development 24 1073 87 Google Scholar

PARKER, G. (2012), ‘Neighbourhood planning: precursors, lessons and prospects’, Journal of Planning and Environment Law, Occasional papers, 40, 139. Neighbourhood planning: precursors, lessons and prospects Journal of Planning and Environment Law 40 139 Google Scholar

PARKER, G., LYNN, T., WARGENT, M. and LOCALITY (2014), User Experience of Neighbourhood Planning, published report, October 2014, London, Locality. User Experience of Neighbourhood Planning Google Scholar

PARKER, G. and MURRAY, C. (2012), ‘Beyond tokenism? Community-led planning and rational choices’, Town Planning Review, 83, 1–28. Beyond tokenism? Community-led planning and rational choices Town Planning Review 83 1 28 Google Scholar

PARKER, G. and STREET, E. (2015), ‘Planning at the neighbourhood scale: localism, dialogic politics and the modulation of community action’, Environment and Planning ‘C’: Government and Policy, (in press). Planning at the neighbourhood scale: localism, dialogic politics and the modulation of community action Environment and Planning ‘C’: Government and Policy Google Scholar

RACO, M. (2009), ‘From expectations to aspirations: State modernisation, urban policy, and the existential politics of welfare in the UK’. Political Geography, 28, 436–54. From expectations to aspirations: State modernisation, urban policy, and the existential politics of welfare in the UK Political Geography 28 436 54 Google Scholar

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ROSE, N. (1999), Powers of Freedom. Reframing Political Thought, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Powers of Freedom. Reframing Political Thought Google Scholar

ROSE, R. (1980), Challenge to Governance. Studies in Overloaded Polities, London, Sage. Challenge to Governance. Studies in Overloaded Polities Google Scholar

RYDIN, Y. (2003), Conflict, Consensus and Rationality in Environmental Planning, Oxford, OUP. Conflict, Consensus and Rationality in Environmental Planning Google Scholar

RYDIN, Y. and PENNINGTON, M. (2010), ‘Public participation and local environmental planning: the collective action problem and the potential of social capital’, Local Environment, 5, 153–69. Public participation and local environmental planning: the collective action problem and the potential of social capital Local Environment 5 153 69 Google Scholar

SAGER, T. (2009), ‘Planners’ role: torn between dialogical ideals and neo-liberal realities’, European Planning Studies, 17, 65–84. Planners’ role: torn between dialogical ideals and neo-liberal realities European Planning Studies 17 65 84 Google Scholar

SMITH, A. (2011), ‘The transition town network: a review of current evolutions and renaissance’, Social Movement Studies, 10, 99–105. The transition town network: a review of current evolutions and renaissance Social Movement Studies 10 99 105 Google Scholar

SWYNGEDOUW, E. (2005), ‘Governance, innovation and the citizen: the Janus face of gover-nance-beyond-the-State’, Urban Studies, 42, 1991–2006. Governance, innovation and the citizen: the Janus face of gover-nance-beyond-the-State Urban Studies 42 1991 2006 Google Scholar

SWYNGEDOUW, E. (2010), ‘Impossible sustainability and the post-political condition’, in Cerreta, M., Concilio, G. and Monno, V. (eds), Making Strategies in Spatial Planning: Knowledge and Values, Dordrecht, Springer, 85–205. Impossible sustainability and the post-political condition Making Strategies in Spatial Planning: Knowledge and Values 85 205 Google Scholar

UK GOVERNMENT (2012a), Neighbourhood Planning (General) Regulations (2012), see www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/637/contents/made (last accessed August 6 2014). Google Scholar

UK GOVERNMENT (2012b), Neighbourhood Planning Referendum Regulations, see www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/2031/made (last accessed August 6 2014). Google Scholar

WATSON, V. (2014), ‘Co-production and collaboration in planning. The difference’, Planning Theory and Practice, 15, 62–76. Co-production and collaboration in planning. The difference Planning Theory and Practice 15 62 76 Google Scholar

ŽIŽEK S. (1999), The Ticklish Subject, New York, Verso. The Ticklish Subject Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L. (2013), ‘Reframing strategic spatial planning by using a co-production perspective’, Planning Theory, 12, 46–63. Reframing strategic spatial planning by using a co-production perspective Planning Theory 12 46 63 Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. and HAUGHTON, G. (2012), ‘Post-political spatial planning in England: a crisis of consensus?’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS, 37, 89–103. Post-political spatial planning in England: a crisis of consensus? Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 37 89 103 Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. and TEWDWR-JONES, M. (1998), ‘Deconstructing communicative rationality: a critique of Habermasian collaborative planning’, Environment & Planning ‘A’, 30, 1975–90. Deconstructing communicative rationality: a critique of Habermasian collaborative planning Environment & Planning ‘A’ 30 1975 90 Google Scholar

BOURDIEU, P. (1977), Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Outline of a Theory of Practice Google Scholar

BROWNILL, S. and PARKER, G. (2010), ‘Why bother with good works? The relevance of public participation(s) in planning in a post-collaborative era’, Planning Practice and Research, 25, 275–82. Why bother with good works? The relevance of public participation(s) in planning in a post-collaborative era Planning Practice and Research 25 275 82 Google Scholar

CALLON, M. (1986), ‘Some elements of a sociology of translation’, 196–223 in Law, J. (ed.), Power, Action, Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge, London, Routledge, Kegan and Paul. Some elements of a sociology of translation Power, Action, Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, H. and MARSHALL, R. (2002), ‘Utilitarianism’s bad breath? A re-evaluation of the public interest justification in planning’, Planning Theory, 1, 163–87. Utilitarianism’s bad breath? A re-evaluation of the public interest justification in planning Planning Theory 1 163 87 Google Scholar

CONSERVATIVE PARTY (2010), Open Source Planning, Policy paper #14, London, The Conservatives. Google Scholar

DAVOUDI, S. and MADANIPOUR, A. (2013), ‘Localism and neo-liberal governmentality’, Town Planning Review, 84, 551–62. Localism and neo-liberal governmentality Town Planning Review 84 551 62 Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2011), A Plain English Guide to the Localism Bill, January 2011, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2012), National Planning Policy Framework, April 2012, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DEFRA (2013), Neighbourhood Planning. The Rural Frontrunners: Research and Case Studies, London, Defra. Google Scholar

DIEFENBACH, T. (2009), ‘New public management in public sector organizations: the dark sides of managerialistic “enlightenment”’, Public Administration, 87, 892–909. New public management in public sector organizations: the dark sides of managerialistic “enlightenment” Public Administration 87 892 909 Google Scholar

EVERSOLE, R. (2010), ‘Remaking participation: challenges for community development practice’, Community Development Journal, 47, 29–41. Remaking participation: challenges for community development practice Community Development Journal 47 29 41 Google Scholar

FLINDERS, M. and DOMMETT, K. (2013), ‘Gap analysis: participatory democracy, public expectations and community assemblies in Sheffield’, Local Government Studies, 39, 488–513. Gap analysis: participatory democracy, public expectations and community assemblies in Sheffield Local Government Studies 39 488 513 Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (1973), Retracking America: A Theory of Transactive Planning, New York, Anchor/ Doubleday. Retracking America: A Theory of Transactive Planning Google Scholar

GALLENT, N. (2013), ‘Re-connecting “people and planning”: parish plans and the English localism agenda’, Town Planning Review, 84, 371–96. Re-connecting “people and planning”: parish plans and the English localism agenda Town Planning Review 84 371 96 Google Scholar

GALLENT, N. and ROBINSON, S. (2012), Neighbourhood Planning. Communities, Networks and Governance, Bristol, Policy Press. Neighbourhood Planning. Communities, Networks and Governance Google Scholar

HAUGHTON, G., ALLMENDINGER, P., COUNSELL, D. and VIGAR, G. (2010), The New Spatial Planning: Territorial Management with Soft Spaces and Fuzzy Boundaries, London, Routledge. The New Spatial Planning: Territorial Management with Soft Spaces and Fuzzy Boundaries Google Scholar

HAUGHTON, G., ALLMENDINGER, P. and OOSTERLYNCK, S. (2013), ‘Spaces of neoliberal experimentation: soft spaces, post-politics, and neoliberal governmentality’, Environment and Planning ‘A’, 45, 217–34. Spaces of neoliberal experimentation: soft spaces, post-politics, and neoliberal governmentality Environment and Planning ‘A’ 45 217 34 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2003), ‘Collaborative planning in perspective’, Planning Theory, 2, 101–23. Collaborative planning in perspective Planning Theory 2 101 23 Google Scholar

HILLIER, J. (2003) ‘Agonizing over consensus: why Habermasian ideals cannot be “real”’, Planning Theory, 2, 37–59. Agonizing over consensus: why Habermasian ideals cannot be “real” Planning Theory 2 37 59 Google Scholar

HONIG, B. (1993), Political Theory and the Displacement of Politics, New York, Cornell University Press. Political Theory and the Displacement of Politics Google Scholar

HUXLEY, M. (2000), ‘The limits to communicative planning’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 19, 369–77. The limits to communicative planning Journal of Planning Education and Research 19 369 77 Google Scholar

JESSOP, B. (2002), ‘Liberalism, neoliberalism, and urban governance: a State–theoretical perspective’, Antipode, 34, 452–72. Liberalism, neoliberalism, and urban governance: a State–theoretical perspective Antipode 34 452 72 Google Scholar

LOCALITY (2012), Neighbourhood Planning Roadmap, see http://mycommunityrights.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Neighbourhood-Planning-Roadmap1.pdf. Google Scholar

LONDON ASSEMBLY (2012), Beyond Consultation: The Role of Neighbourhood Plans in Supporting Local Involvement in Planning, February 2012, London, London Assembly. Google Scholar

MOUFFE, C. (2005), On the Political, London, Routledge. On the Political Google Scholar

OSTROM, E. (1996), ‘Crossing the great divide: co-production, synergy and development’, World Development, 24, 1073–87. Crossing the great divide: co-production, synergy and development World Development 24 1073 87 Google Scholar

PARKER, G. (2012), ‘Neighbourhood planning: precursors, lessons and prospects’, Journal of Planning and Environment Law, Occasional papers, 40, 139. Neighbourhood planning: precursors, lessons and prospects Journal of Planning and Environment Law 40 139 Google Scholar

PARKER, G., LYNN, T., WARGENT, M. and LOCALITY (2014), User Experience of Neighbourhood Planning, published report, October 2014, London, Locality. User Experience of Neighbourhood Planning Google Scholar

PARKER, G. and MURRAY, C. (2012), ‘Beyond tokenism? Community-led planning and rational choices’, Town Planning Review, 83, 1–28. Beyond tokenism? Community-led planning and rational choices Town Planning Review 83 1 28 Google Scholar

PARKER, G. and STREET, E. (2015), ‘Planning at the neighbourhood scale: localism, dialogic politics and the modulation of community action’, Environment and Planning ‘C’: Government and Policy, (in press). Planning at the neighbourhood scale: localism, dialogic politics and the modulation of community action Environment and Planning ‘C’: Government and Policy Google Scholar

RACO, M. (2009), ‘From expectations to aspirations: State modernisation, urban policy, and the existential politics of welfare in the UK’. Political Geography, 28, 436–54. From expectations to aspirations: State modernisation, urban policy, and the existential politics of welfare in the UK Political Geography 28 436 54 Google Scholar

RACO, M., PARKER, G. and DOAK, J. (2006), ‘Reshaping spaces of local governance? Community strategies and the modernisation of local government in England’, Environment and Planning ‘C’: Government and Policy, 24, 475–96. Reshaping spaces of local governance? Community strategies and the modernisation of local government in England Environment and Planning ‘C’: Government and Policy 24 475 96 Google Scholar

ROSE, N. (1999), Powers of Freedom. Reframing Political Thought, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Powers of Freedom. Reframing Political Thought Google Scholar

ROSE, R. (1980), Challenge to Governance. Studies in Overloaded Polities, London, Sage. Challenge to Governance. Studies in Overloaded Polities Google Scholar

RYDIN, Y. (2003), Conflict, Consensus and Rationality in Environmental Planning, Oxford, OUP. Conflict, Consensus and Rationality in Environmental Planning Google Scholar

RYDIN, Y. and PENNINGTON, M. (2010), ‘Public participation and local environmental planning: the collective action problem and the potential of social capital’, Local Environment, 5, 153–69. Public participation and local environmental planning: the collective action problem and the potential of social capital Local Environment 5 153 69 Google Scholar

SAGER, T. (2009), ‘Planners’ role: torn between dialogical ideals and neo-liberal realities’, European Planning Studies, 17, 65–84. Planners’ role: torn between dialogical ideals and neo-liberal realities European Planning Studies 17 65 84 Google Scholar

SMITH, A. (2011), ‘The transition town network: a review of current evolutions and renaissance’, Social Movement Studies, 10, 99–105. The transition town network: a review of current evolutions and renaissance Social Movement Studies 10 99 105 Google Scholar

SWYNGEDOUW, E. (2005), ‘Governance, innovation and the citizen: the Janus face of gover-nance-beyond-the-State’, Urban Studies, 42, 1991–2006. Governance, innovation and the citizen: the Janus face of gover-nance-beyond-the-State Urban Studies 42 1991 2006 Google Scholar

SWYNGEDOUW, E. (2010), ‘Impossible sustainability and the post-political condition’, in Cerreta, M., Concilio, G. and Monno, V. (eds), Making Strategies in Spatial Planning: Knowledge and Values, Dordrecht, Springer, 85–205. Impossible sustainability and the post-political condition Making Strategies in Spatial Planning: Knowledge and Values 85 205 Google Scholar

UK GOVERNMENT (2012a), Neighbourhood Planning (General) Regulations (2012), see www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/637/contents/made (last accessed August 6 2014). Google Scholar

UK GOVERNMENT (2012b), Neighbourhood Planning Referendum Regulations, see www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/2031/made (last accessed August 6 2014). Google Scholar

WATSON, V. (2014), ‘Co-production and collaboration in planning. The difference’, Planning Theory and Practice, 15, 62–76. Co-production and collaboration in planning. The difference Planning Theory and Practice 15 62 76 Google Scholar

ŽIŽEK S. (1999), The Ticklish Subject, New York, Verso. The Ticklish Subject Google Scholar

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