International Development Planning Review

Viewpoint: How pro-poor is business tourism in the global South?

International Development Planning Review (2014), 36, (4), 0

Abstract

The nexus of tourism and poverty, and controversies around ‘pro-poor tourism’, are at the forefront of tourism debates in the global South. Existing scholarship is dominated, however, by research on international leisure tourism. Business tourism is under-researched as compared to leisure tourism. Given the enormous scale and importance of business tourism in contemporary Africa, this oversight requires correction including in pro-poor tourism scholarship.

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ASHLEY, C. (2007), Pro-Poor Analysis of the Rwandan Tourism Value Chain: An Emerging Picture and Some Strategic Approaches for Enhancing Poverty Impacts, London, Overseas Development Institute. Pro-Poor Analysis of the Rwandan Tourism Value Chain: An Emerging Picture and Some Strategic Approaches for Enhancing Poverty Impacts Google Scholar

ASHLEY, C., ROE, D. AND GOODWIN, H. (2001), Pro-Poor Tourism: Putting Poverty at the Heart of the Tourism Agenda, London, Overseas Development Institute. Pro-Poor Tourism: Putting Poverty at the Heart of the Tourism Agenda Google Scholar

CHOK, S., MACBETH, J. and WARREN, C. (2007), ‘Tourism as tool for poverty alleviation: a critical analysis of ‘pro-poor tourism’ and implications for sustainability’, Current Issues in Tourism, 10, 144-65. ‘Tourism as tool for poverty alleviation: a critical analysis of ‘pro-poor tourism’ and implications for sustainability’ Current Issues in Tourism 10 144 65 Google Scholar

CHRISTIE, I., FERNANDES, E., MESSERLI, H. and TWINING-WARD, L. (2013), Tourism in Africa: Harnessing Tourism for Growth and Improved Livelihoods, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Tourism in Africa: Harnessing Tourism for Growth and Improved Livelihoods Google Scholar

CLOQUET, I. (2013), ‘Looking into the overlooked: incoming tour operators and early tourism development in Gabon’, Current Issues in Tourism, 16, 647-63. ‘Looking into the overlooked: incoming tour operators and early tourism development in Gabon’ Current Issues in Tourism 16 647 63 Google Scholar

COLES, C. and MITCHELL, J. (2009), Pro Poor Analysis of the Business and Conference Value Chain in Accra: Final Report, London, Overseas Development Institute. Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, R. (1994), Business Travel, London, Pitman. Business Travel Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, R. (2012), Meetings Africa 2012 Trends Report, Johannesburg, South African Tourism. Google Scholar

DIEKE, P. U. C. (1998), ‘Regional tourism in Africa: scope and critical issues’, in E. Laws, B. Faulkner and G. Moscardo (eds.), Embracing and Managing Change in Tourism: International Case Studies, London, Routledge. Embracing and Managing Change in Tourism: International Case Studies Google Scholar

DIEKE, P. U. C. (2013), ‘Tourism in sub-Saharan Africa: production-consumption nexus’. Current Issues in Tourism, 16, 623-26. ‘Tourism in sub-Saharan Africa: production-consumption nexus’ Current Issues in Tourism 16 623 26 Google Scholar

DONALDSON, R. (2013), ‘Conference tourism: what do we know about the business tourist in South Africa?’, African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 19, 24-38. ‘Conference tourism: what do we know about the business tourist in South Africa?’ African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance 19 24 38 Google Scholar

FRENZEL, F. AND KOENS, K. (2012), ‘Slum tourism: developments in a young field of interdisciplinary research’, Tourism Geographies, 14, 195-212. ‘Slum tourism: developments in a young field of interdisciplinary research’ Tourism Geographies 14 195 212 Google Scholar

GLADSTONE, D. (2005), From Pilgrimage to Package Tour: Travel and Tourism in the Third World, Abingdon, Taylor and Francis. From Pilgrimage to Package Tour: Travel and Tourism in the Third World Google Scholar

HALL, C. M. (ed.) (2007), Pro-Poor Tourism: Who Benefits?, Clevedon, Cromwell Press. Pro-Poor Tourism: Who Benefits? Google Scholar

HARPER, D. (2012), ‘Startling spike in new hotels’, African Business (December), 35. ‘Startling spike in new hotels’ African Business 35 Google Scholar

HARPER, D. (2014), ‘The next invasion of Africa - recolonizing the dark continent?’, Asset Magazine, 19, 82-86. ‘The next invasion of Africa - recolonizing the dark continent?’ Asset Magazine 19 82 86 Google Scholar

HYMA, B., OJO, A. and WALL, G. (1980), ‘Tourism in tropical Africa: a review of literature in English and research agenda’, Annals of Tourism Research, 7, 525-53. ‘Tourism in tropical Africa: a review of literature in English and research agenda’ Annals of Tourism Research 7 525 53 Google Scholar

MATHEWS, C. (2013), ‘Africa's hotel sector: catching up fast’, Financial Mail (29 November-4 December), 37. ‘Africa's hotel sector: catching up fast’ Financial Mail 37 Google Scholar

MITCHELL, J. and ASHLEY, C. (2010), Tourism and Poverty Reduction: Pathways to Prosperity, London, Earthscan. Tourism and Poverty Reduction: Pathways to Prosperity Google Scholar

MITCHELL, J. and COLES, C. (2009), Enhancing Private Sector and Community Engagement in Tourism Services in Ethiopia, London, Overseas Development Institute. Enhancing Private Sector and Community Engagement in Tourism Services in Ethiopia Google Scholar

NIELSEN, H. and SPENCELEY, A. (2010), The Success of Tourism in Rwanda: Gorillas and More, Kigali, SNV Rwanda. The Success of Tourism in Rwanda: Gorillas and More Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2005), ‘Conference and exhibition tourism in the developing world: the South African experience’, Urban Forum, 16, 176-95. ‘Conference and exhibition tourism in the developing world: the South African experience’ Urban Forum 16 176 95 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2006), ‘Pro-poor local economic development in South Africa: the role of pro-poor tourism’, Local Environment, 11, 37-60. ‘Pro-poor local economic development in South Africa: the role of pro-poor tourism’ Local Environment 11 37 60 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2007), ‘Reviewing Africa in the global tourism economy’, Development Southern Africa, 24, 361-79. ‘Reviewing Africa in the global tourism economy’ Development Southern Africa 24 361 79 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2012), ‘The tourism-development nexus in sub-Saharan Africa: progress and prospects’, Africa Insight, 42, 28-45. ‘The tourism-development nexus in sub-Saharan Africa: progress and prospects’ Africa Insight 42 28 45 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2014a), ‘Unpacking business tourism mobilities in sub-Saharan Africa’, Current Issues in Tourism, DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2014.89619. ‘Unpacking business tourism mobilities in sub-Saharan Africa’ Current Issues in Tourism Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2014b), ‘Informal sector business tourism and pro-poor tourism: Africa's migrant entrepreneurs’, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 153-61. ‘Informal sector business tourism and pro-poor tourism: Africa's migrant entrepreneurs’ Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 5 153 61 Google Scholar

ROGERSON C. M. and KIAMBO, W. (2007), ‘The growth and potential of regional tourism in the developing world: the South African experience’, Development Southern Africa, 24, 505-21. ‘The growth and potential of regional tourism in the developing world: the South African experience’ Development Southern Africa 24 505 21 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. and LETSIE, T. (2013), ‘Informal sector business tourism in the global South: evidence from Maseru, Lesotho’, Urban Forum, 24, 485-502. ‘Informal sector business tourism in the global South: evidence from Maseru, Lesotho’ Urban Forum 24 485 502 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. and ROGERSON, J. M. (2011), ‘Tourism research within the Southern African Development Community: production and consumption in academic journals, 2000-2010’, Tourism Review International, 15, 213-22. ‘Tourism research within the Southern African Development Community: production and consumption in academic journals, 2000-2010’ Tourism Review International 15 213 22 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. and VISSER, G. (2006), ‘International tourist flows and urban tourism in South Africa’, Urban Forum, 17, 199-213. ‘International tourist flows and urban tourism in South Africa’ Urban Forum 17 199 213 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. and VISSER, G. (2011), ‘Rethinking South African urban tourism research’, Tourism Review International, 15, 77-90. ‘Rethinking South African urban tourism research’ Tourism Review International 15 77 90 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, J. M. (2011a), ‘The limited services hotel in South Africa: the growth of City Lodge’, Urban Forum, 22, 343-61. ‘The limited services hotel in South Africa: the growth of City Lodge’ Urban Forum 22 343 61 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, J. M. (2011b), ‘The changing all-suite hotel in South Africa: from "extended stay" to African condo hotel’, Tourism Review International, 15, 107-21. ‘The changing all-suite hotel in South Africa: from "extended stay" to African condo hotel’ Tourism Review International 15 107 21 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, J. M. (2013a), ‘The economic geography of South Africa's hotel industry 1990 to 2010’, Urban Forum, 24, 425-46. ‘The economic geography of South Africa's hotel industry 1990 to 2010’ Urban Forum 24 425 46 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, J. M. (2013b), ‘Reconfiguring South Africa's hotel industry 1990-2010: structure, segmentation and spatial transformation’, Applied Geography, 36, 59-68. ‘Reconfiguring South Africa's hotel industry 1990-2010: structure, segmentation and spatial transformation’ Applied Geography 36 59 68 Google Scholar

SAARINEN, J., ROGERSON, C. M. and MANWA, H. (eds) (2013), Tourism and the Millennium Development Goals: Tourism, Local Communities and Development, London, Routledge. Tourism and the Millennium Development Goals: Tourism, Local Communities and Development Google Scholar

SCHEYVENS, R. (2011), Tourism and Poverty, London, Routledge. Tourism and Poverty Google Scholar

SPENCELEY, A. (2010), Tourism Product Development Interventions and Best Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa: Part 2: Case Studies, Nelspruit, Report to The World Bank Tourism Industry, Research and Analysis Phase II. Google Scholar

TIMOTHY, D. and TEYE, V. (2005), ‘Informal sector business travelers in the developing world: a borderlands perspective’, The Journal of Tourism Studies, 16, 82-92. ‘Informal sector business travelers in the developing world: a borderlands perspective’ The Journal of Tourism Studies 16 82 92 Google Scholar

TRUONG, V. D. (2014), ‘Pro-poor tourism: looking backward as we move forward’, Tourism Planning and Development, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2013.864996. ‘Pro-poor tourism: looking backward as we move forward’ Tourism Planning and Development Google Scholar

TWINING-WARD, L. (2009), Sub-Saharan Africa Tourism Industry Research, report prepared for the Africa Region's Finance and Private Sector Development Department, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Google Scholar

WARD, T. (2011), ‘Business tourism - a time to build’, Africa Investor (May-June), 94. ‘Business tourism - a time to build’ Africa Investor 94 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2012), Transformation through Tourism: Development dynamics past, present and future, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Google Scholar

ZHOU, Z. (2013), ‘A perceived significance of hosting ATA's congress in Victoria Falls on Zimbabwe's tourism sector’, Asian Journal of Empirical Research, 3, 674-88. ‘A perceived significance of hosting ATA's congress in Victoria Falls on Zimbabwe's tourism sector’ Asian Journal of Empirical Research 3 674 88 Google Scholar

ASHLEY, C. (2007), Pro-Poor Analysis of the Rwandan Tourism Value Chain: An Emerging Picture and Some Strategic Approaches for Enhancing Poverty Impacts, London, Overseas Development Institute. Pro-Poor Analysis of the Rwandan Tourism Value Chain: An Emerging Picture and Some Strategic Approaches for Enhancing Poverty Impacts Google Scholar

ASHLEY, C., ROE, D. AND GOODWIN, H. (2001), Pro-Poor Tourism: Putting Poverty at the Heart of the Tourism Agenda, London, Overseas Development Institute. Pro-Poor Tourism: Putting Poverty at the Heart of the Tourism Agenda Google Scholar

CHOK, S., MACBETH, J. and WARREN, C. (2007), ‘Tourism as tool for poverty alleviation: a critical analysis of ‘pro-poor tourism’ and implications for sustainability’, Current Issues in Tourism, 10, 144-65. ‘Tourism as tool for poverty alleviation: a critical analysis of ‘pro-poor tourism’ and implications for sustainability’ Current Issues in Tourism 10 144 65 Google Scholar

CHRISTIE, I., FERNANDES, E., MESSERLI, H. and TWINING-WARD, L. (2013), Tourism in Africa: Harnessing Tourism for Growth and Improved Livelihoods, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Tourism in Africa: Harnessing Tourism for Growth and Improved Livelihoods Google Scholar

CLOQUET, I. (2013), ‘Looking into the overlooked: incoming tour operators and early tourism development in Gabon’, Current Issues in Tourism, 16, 647-63. ‘Looking into the overlooked: incoming tour operators and early tourism development in Gabon’ Current Issues in Tourism 16 647 63 Google Scholar

COLES, C. and MITCHELL, J. (2009), Pro Poor Analysis of the Business and Conference Value Chain in Accra: Final Report, London, Overseas Development Institute. Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, R. (1994), Business Travel, London, Pitman. Business Travel Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, R. (2012), Meetings Africa 2012 Trends Report, Johannesburg, South African Tourism. Google Scholar

DIEKE, P. U. C. (1998), ‘Regional tourism in Africa: scope and critical issues’, in E. Laws, B. Faulkner and G. Moscardo (eds.), Embracing and Managing Change in Tourism: International Case Studies, London, Routledge. Embracing and Managing Change in Tourism: International Case Studies Google Scholar

DIEKE, P. U. C. (2013), ‘Tourism in sub-Saharan Africa: production-consumption nexus’. Current Issues in Tourism, 16, 623-26. ‘Tourism in sub-Saharan Africa: production-consumption nexus’ Current Issues in Tourism 16 623 26 Google Scholar

DONALDSON, R. (2013), ‘Conference tourism: what do we know about the business tourist in South Africa?’, African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 19, 24-38. ‘Conference tourism: what do we know about the business tourist in South Africa?’ African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance 19 24 38 Google Scholar

FRENZEL, F. AND KOENS, K. (2012), ‘Slum tourism: developments in a young field of interdisciplinary research’, Tourism Geographies, 14, 195-212. ‘Slum tourism: developments in a young field of interdisciplinary research’ Tourism Geographies 14 195 212 Google Scholar

GLADSTONE, D. (2005), From Pilgrimage to Package Tour: Travel and Tourism in the Third World, Abingdon, Taylor and Francis. From Pilgrimage to Package Tour: Travel and Tourism in the Third World Google Scholar

HALL, C. M. (ed.) (2007), Pro-Poor Tourism: Who Benefits?, Clevedon, Cromwell Press. Pro-Poor Tourism: Who Benefits? Google Scholar

HARPER, D. (2012), ‘Startling spike in new hotels’, African Business (December), 35. ‘Startling spike in new hotels’ African Business 35 Google Scholar

HARPER, D. (2014), ‘The next invasion of Africa - recolonizing the dark continent?’, Asset Magazine, 19, 82-86. ‘The next invasion of Africa - recolonizing the dark continent?’ Asset Magazine 19 82 86 Google Scholar

HYMA, B., OJO, A. and WALL, G. (1980), ‘Tourism in tropical Africa: a review of literature in English and research agenda’, Annals of Tourism Research, 7, 525-53. ‘Tourism in tropical Africa: a review of literature in English and research agenda’ Annals of Tourism Research 7 525 53 Google Scholar

MATHEWS, C. (2013), ‘Africa's hotel sector: catching up fast’, Financial Mail (29 November-4 December), 37. ‘Africa's hotel sector: catching up fast’ Financial Mail 37 Google Scholar

MITCHELL, J. and ASHLEY, C. (2010), Tourism and Poverty Reduction: Pathways to Prosperity, London, Earthscan. Tourism and Poverty Reduction: Pathways to Prosperity Google Scholar

MITCHELL, J. and COLES, C. (2009), Enhancing Private Sector and Community Engagement in Tourism Services in Ethiopia, London, Overseas Development Institute. Enhancing Private Sector and Community Engagement in Tourism Services in Ethiopia Google Scholar

NIELSEN, H. and SPENCELEY, A. (2010), The Success of Tourism in Rwanda: Gorillas and More, Kigali, SNV Rwanda. The Success of Tourism in Rwanda: Gorillas and More Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2005), ‘Conference and exhibition tourism in the developing world: the South African experience’, Urban Forum, 16, 176-95. ‘Conference and exhibition tourism in the developing world: the South African experience’ Urban Forum 16 176 95 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2006), ‘Pro-poor local economic development in South Africa: the role of pro-poor tourism’, Local Environment, 11, 37-60. ‘Pro-poor local economic development in South Africa: the role of pro-poor tourism’ Local Environment 11 37 60 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2007), ‘Reviewing Africa in the global tourism economy’, Development Southern Africa, 24, 361-79. ‘Reviewing Africa in the global tourism economy’ Development Southern Africa 24 361 79 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2012), ‘The tourism-development nexus in sub-Saharan Africa: progress and prospects’, Africa Insight, 42, 28-45. ‘The tourism-development nexus in sub-Saharan Africa: progress and prospects’ Africa Insight 42 28 45 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2014a), ‘Unpacking business tourism mobilities in sub-Saharan Africa’, Current Issues in Tourism, DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2014.89619. ‘Unpacking business tourism mobilities in sub-Saharan Africa’ Current Issues in Tourism Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2014b), ‘Informal sector business tourism and pro-poor tourism: Africa's migrant entrepreneurs’, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 153-61. ‘Informal sector business tourism and pro-poor tourism: Africa's migrant entrepreneurs’ Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 5 153 61 Google Scholar

ROGERSON C. M. and KIAMBO, W. (2007), ‘The growth and potential of regional tourism in the developing world: the South African experience’, Development Southern Africa, 24, 505-21. ‘The growth and potential of regional tourism in the developing world: the South African experience’ Development Southern Africa 24 505 21 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. and LETSIE, T. (2013), ‘Informal sector business tourism in the global South: evidence from Maseru, Lesotho’, Urban Forum, 24, 485-502. ‘Informal sector business tourism in the global South: evidence from Maseru, Lesotho’ Urban Forum 24 485 502 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. and ROGERSON, J. M. (2011), ‘Tourism research within the Southern African Development Community: production and consumption in academic journals, 2000-2010’, Tourism Review International, 15, 213-22. ‘Tourism research within the Southern African Development Community: production and consumption in academic journals, 2000-2010’ Tourism Review International 15 213 22 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. and VISSER, G. (2006), ‘International tourist flows and urban tourism in South Africa’, Urban Forum, 17, 199-213. ‘International tourist flows and urban tourism in South Africa’ Urban Forum 17 199 213 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. and VISSER, G. (2011), ‘Rethinking South African urban tourism research’, Tourism Review International, 15, 77-90. ‘Rethinking South African urban tourism research’ Tourism Review International 15 77 90 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, J. M. (2011a), ‘The limited services hotel in South Africa: the growth of City Lodge’, Urban Forum, 22, 343-61. ‘The limited services hotel in South Africa: the growth of City Lodge’ Urban Forum 22 343 61 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, J. M. (2011b), ‘The changing all-suite hotel in South Africa: from "extended stay" to African condo hotel’, Tourism Review International, 15, 107-21. ‘The changing all-suite hotel in South Africa: from "extended stay" to African condo hotel’ Tourism Review International 15 107 21 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, J. M. (2013a), ‘The economic geography of South Africa's hotel industry 1990 to 2010’, Urban Forum, 24, 425-46. ‘The economic geography of South Africa's hotel industry 1990 to 2010’ Urban Forum 24 425 46 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, J. M. (2013b), ‘Reconfiguring South Africa's hotel industry 1990-2010: structure, segmentation and spatial transformation’, Applied Geography, 36, 59-68. ‘Reconfiguring South Africa's hotel industry 1990-2010: structure, segmentation and spatial transformation’ Applied Geography 36 59 68 Google Scholar

SAARINEN, J., ROGERSON, C. M. and MANWA, H. (eds) (2013), Tourism and the Millennium Development Goals: Tourism, Local Communities and Development, London, Routledge. Tourism and the Millennium Development Goals: Tourism, Local Communities and Development Google Scholar

SCHEYVENS, R. (2011), Tourism and Poverty, London, Routledge. Tourism and Poverty Google Scholar

ASHLEY, C. (2007), Pro-Poor Analysis of the Rwandan Tourism Value Chain: An Emerging Picture and Some Strategic Approaches for Enhancing Poverty Impacts, London, Overseas Development Institute. Pro-Poor Analysis of the Rwandan Tourism Value Chain: An Emerging Picture and Some Strategic Approaches for Enhancing Poverty Impacts Google Scholar

SPENCELEY, A. (2010), Tourism Product Development Interventions and Best Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa: Part 2: Case Studies, Nelspruit, Report to The World Bank Tourism Industry, Research and Analysis Phase II. Google Scholar

ASHLEY, C., ROE, D. AND GOODWIN, H. (2001), Pro-Poor Tourism: Putting Poverty at the Heart of the Tourism Agenda, London, Overseas Development Institute. Pro-Poor Tourism: Putting Poverty at the Heart of the Tourism Agenda Google Scholar

TIMOTHY, D. and TEYE, V. (2005), ‘Informal sector business travelers in the developing world: a borderlands perspective’, The Journal of Tourism Studies, 16, 82-92. ‘Informal sector business travelers in the developing world: a borderlands perspective’ The Journal of Tourism Studies 16 82 92 Google Scholar

CHOK, S., MACBETH, J. and WARREN, C. (2007), ‘Tourism as tool for poverty alleviation: a critical analysis of ‘pro-poor tourism’ and implications for sustainability’, Current Issues in Tourism, 10, 144-65. ‘Tourism as tool for poverty alleviation: a critical analysis of ‘pro-poor tourism’ and implications for sustainability’ Current Issues in Tourism 10 144 65 Google Scholar

CHRISTIE, I., FERNANDES, E., MESSERLI, H. and TWINING-WARD, L. (2013), Tourism in Africa: Harnessing Tourism for Growth and Improved Livelihoods, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Tourism in Africa: Harnessing Tourism for Growth and Improved Livelihoods Google Scholar

TRUONG, V. D. (2014), ‘Pro-poor tourism: looking backward as we move forward’, Tourism Planning and Development, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2013.864996. ‘Pro-poor tourism: looking backward as we move forward’ Tourism Planning and Development Google Scholar

TWINING-WARD, L. (2009), Sub-Saharan Africa Tourism Industry Research, report prepared for the Africa Region's Finance and Private Sector Development Department, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Google Scholar

CLOQUET, I. (2013), ‘Looking into the overlooked: incoming tour operators and early tourism development in Gabon’, Current Issues in Tourism, 16, 647-63. ‘Looking into the overlooked: incoming tour operators and early tourism development in Gabon’ Current Issues in Tourism 16 647 63 Google Scholar

COLES, C. and MITCHELL, J. (2009), Pro Poor Analysis of the Business and Conference Value Chain in Accra: Final Report, London, Overseas Development Institute. Google Scholar

WARD, T. (2011), ‘Business tourism - a time to build’, Africa Investor (May-June), 94. ‘Business tourism - a time to build’ Africa Investor 94 Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, R. (1994), Business Travel, London, Pitman. Business Travel Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2012), Transformation through Tourism: Development dynamics past, present and future, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, R. (2012), Meetings Africa 2012 Trends Report, Johannesburg, South African Tourism. Google Scholar

ZHOU, Z. (2013), ‘A perceived significance of hosting ATA's congress in Victoria Falls on Zimbabwe's tourism sector’, Asian Journal of Empirical Research, 3, 674-88. ‘A perceived significance of hosting ATA's congress in Victoria Falls on Zimbabwe's tourism sector’ Asian Journal of Empirical Research 3 674 88 Google Scholar

DIEKE, P. U. C. (1998), ‘Regional tourism in Africa: scope and critical issues’, in E. Laws, B. Faulkner and G. Moscardo (eds.), Embracing and Managing Change in Tourism: International Case Studies, London, Routledge. Embracing and Managing Change in Tourism: International Case Studies Google Scholar

DIEKE, P. U. C. (2013), ‘Tourism in sub-Saharan Africa: production-consumption nexus’. Current Issues in Tourism, 16, 623-26. ‘Tourism in sub-Saharan Africa: production-consumption nexus’ Current Issues in Tourism 16 623 26 Google Scholar

DONALDSON, R. (2013), ‘Conference tourism: what do we know about the business tourist in South Africa?’, African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 19, 24-38. ‘Conference tourism: what do we know about the business tourist in South Africa?’ African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance 19 24 38 Google Scholar

FRENZEL, F. AND KOENS, K. (2012), ‘Slum tourism: developments in a young field of interdisciplinary research’, Tourism Geographies, 14, 195-212. ‘Slum tourism: developments in a young field of interdisciplinary research’ Tourism Geographies 14 195 212 Google Scholar

GLADSTONE, D. (2005), From Pilgrimage to Package Tour: Travel and Tourism in the Third World, Abingdon, Taylor and Francis. From Pilgrimage to Package Tour: Travel and Tourism in the Third World Google Scholar

HALL, C. M. (ed.) (2007), Pro-Poor Tourism: Who Benefits?, Clevedon, Cromwell Press. Pro-Poor Tourism: Who Benefits? Google Scholar

HARPER, D. (2012), ‘Startling spike in new hotels’, African Business (December), 35. ‘Startling spike in new hotels’ African Business 35 Google Scholar

HARPER, D. (2014), ‘The next invasion of Africa - recolonizing the dark continent?’, Asset Magazine, 19, 82-86. ‘The next invasion of Africa - recolonizing the dark continent?’ Asset Magazine 19 82 86 Google Scholar

HYMA, B., OJO, A. and WALL, G. (1980), ‘Tourism in tropical Africa: a review of literature in English and research agenda’, Annals of Tourism Research, 7, 525-53. ‘Tourism in tropical Africa: a review of literature in English and research agenda’ Annals of Tourism Research 7 525 53 Google Scholar

MATHEWS, C. (2013), ‘Africa's hotel sector: catching up fast’, Financial Mail (29 November-4 December), 37. ‘Africa's hotel sector: catching up fast’ Financial Mail 37 Google Scholar

MITCHELL, J. and ASHLEY, C. (2010), Tourism and Poverty Reduction: Pathways to Prosperity, London, Earthscan. Tourism and Poverty Reduction: Pathways to Prosperity Google Scholar

MITCHELL, J. and COLES, C. (2009), Enhancing Private Sector and Community Engagement in Tourism Services in Ethiopia, London, Overseas Development Institute. Enhancing Private Sector and Community Engagement in Tourism Services in Ethiopia Google Scholar

NIELSEN, H. and SPENCELEY, A. (2010), The Success of Tourism in Rwanda: Gorillas and More, Kigali, SNV Rwanda. The Success of Tourism in Rwanda: Gorillas and More Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2005), ‘Conference and exhibition tourism in the developing world: the South African experience’, Urban Forum, 16, 176-95. ‘Conference and exhibition tourism in the developing world: the South African experience’ Urban Forum 16 176 95 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2006), ‘Pro-poor local economic development in South Africa: the role of pro-poor tourism’, Local Environment, 11, 37-60. ‘Pro-poor local economic development in South Africa: the role of pro-poor tourism’ Local Environment 11 37 60 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2007), ‘Reviewing Africa in the global tourism economy’, Development Southern Africa, 24, 361-79. ‘Reviewing Africa in the global tourism economy’ Development Southern Africa 24 361 79 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2012), ‘The tourism-development nexus in sub-Saharan Africa: progress and prospects’, Africa Insight, 42, 28-45. ‘The tourism-development nexus in sub-Saharan Africa: progress and prospects’ Africa Insight 42 28 45 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2014a), ‘Unpacking business tourism mobilities in sub-Saharan Africa’, Current Issues in Tourism, DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2014.89619. ‘Unpacking business tourism mobilities in sub-Saharan Africa’ Current Issues in Tourism Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2014b), ‘Informal sector business tourism and pro-poor tourism: Africa's migrant entrepreneurs’, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 153-61. ‘Informal sector business tourism and pro-poor tourism: Africa's migrant entrepreneurs’ Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 5 153 61 Google Scholar

ROGERSON C. M. and KIAMBO, W. (2007), ‘The growth and potential of regional tourism in the developing world: the South African experience’, Development Southern Africa, 24, 505-21. ‘The growth and potential of regional tourism in the developing world: the South African experience’ Development Southern Africa 24 505 21 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. and LETSIE, T. (2013), ‘Informal sector business tourism in the global South: evidence from Maseru, Lesotho’, Urban Forum, 24, 485-502. ‘Informal sector business tourism in the global South: evidence from Maseru, Lesotho’ Urban Forum 24 485 502 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. and ROGERSON, J. M. (2011), ‘Tourism research within the Southern African Development Community: production and consumption in academic journals, 2000-2010’, Tourism Review International, 15, 213-22. ‘Tourism research within the Southern African Development Community: production and consumption in academic journals, 2000-2010’ Tourism Review International 15 213 22 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. and VISSER, G. (2006), ‘International tourist flows and urban tourism in South Africa’, Urban Forum, 17, 199-213. ‘International tourist flows and urban tourism in South Africa’ Urban Forum 17 199 213 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. and VISSER, G. (2011), ‘Rethinking South African urban tourism research’, Tourism Review International, 15, 77-90. ‘Rethinking South African urban tourism research’ Tourism Review International 15 77 90 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, J. M. (2011a), ‘The limited services hotel in South Africa: the growth of City Lodge’, Urban Forum, 22, 343-61. ‘The limited services hotel in South Africa: the growth of City Lodge’ Urban Forum 22 343 61 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, J. M. (2011b), ‘The changing all-suite hotel in South Africa: from "extended stay" to African condo hotel’, Tourism Review International, 15, 107-21. ‘The changing all-suite hotel in South Africa: from "extended stay" to African condo hotel’ Tourism Review International 15 107 21 Google Scholar

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Rogerson, Christian