International Development Planning Review

Masculinities and nonviolence in contexts of chronic urban violence

International Development Planning Review (2020), 42, (1), 73–91.

Abstract

This article analyses violent and nonviolent male life trajectories in contexts of chronic urban violence, exploring how masculinities and gendered socialisation influence the perpetration of violence in cities of the global South. It draws on the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) Urban Violence Study conducted in Rio de Janeiro (2013–2016), which consisted of 1,151 household surveys in neighbourhoods with high and low homicide rates, fourteen key informant and forty-five in-depth life history interviews with former drug traffickers, members of the police force and local activists. The qualitative and quantitative data suggest that violence transfers from public to private spheres and from one generation to another. Exposure to urban violence as well as childhood experiences of domestic violence contribute to the use of violence. Moreover, chronic fear and experience of violence shape the construction of hyper-masculine and predominantly violent masculinities. Nonviolent male life trajectories are shown to be promoted by fatherhood, active caregiving for biological and non-biological children and additional experiences, such as membership of social groups, that have the potential to widen life perspectives and eventually engender nonviolent and caring versions of manhood. The paper makes the case for a gendered understanding of urban violence, pointing at ways in which nonviolent masculinities evolve and could be promoted.

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References

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Assis, S. (1999) Traçando caminhos em uma sociedade violenta: a vida de jovens infratores e seus irmãos não-infratores, Rio de Janeiro, Editora Fiocruz. Google Scholar

Auyero, J. (1997) ‘Wacquant in the Argentine slums: comment on Loic Wacquant’s “Three pernicious premises in the study of the American ghetto”’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 21(3), 508–11. Google Scholar

Azevedo, M. A. and Guerra, V. N. A. (1989) Crianças vitimizadas: A síndrome do pequeno poder, São Paulo, Iglu. Google Scholar

Badinter, E. (1992) La identidad masculina, Madrid, Alizanza Editorial. Google Scholar

Baird, A. (2012) ‘Negotiating pathways to manhood: rejecting gangs and violence in Medellín’s periphery’, Journal of Conflictology, 3(1), 30–41. Google Scholar

Barcellos, C. and Zaluar, A. (2014) ‘Homicides and territorial struggles in Rio de Janeiro Favelas’, Rev Saude Publica, 48(1), 94–102. Google Scholar

Barker, G. (1998) ‘Non-violent males in violent settings: an exploratory qualitative study of pro-social low income adolescent males in two Chicago (USA) neighborhoods’, Childhood: a Global Journal of Child Research, 5(4), 437–61. Google Scholar

Barker, G. (2005) Dying to be men: youth, masculinity and social exclusion, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

Barker, G., Greene, M., Nascimento, M., Segundo, M., Ricardo, C., Taylor, A., Aguayo, F., Sadler, M., Das, A., Singh, S., Figueroa, J. G., Franzoni, J., Flores, N., Jewkes, R., Morrell, R. and Kato, J. (2012) Men who care: a qualitative multi-country study on men and non-traditional caregiving roles, Washington, DC, International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Promundo. Google Scholar

Bennett, D. and Fraser, M. (2000) ‘Urban violence among African American males: integrating family, neighborhood, and peer perspectives’, The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 27(3), 93–117. Google Scholar

Cano, I. (2012) ‘Os donos do morro’: uma avaliação exploratória do impacto das Unidades de Polícia Pacificadora (UPPs) no Rio de Janeiro, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, http://www.lav.uerj.br/docs/rel/2012/RelatUPP.pdf (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Carlson, J. (2015) ‘Mourning Mayberry: guns, masculinity, and socioeconomic decline’, Gender & Society, 29(3), 386–409. Google Scholar

Chant, S. and McIlwaine, C. (2015) Cities, slums and gender in the global South: towards a feminised urban future, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

Cerqueira, D., de Lima, R. S., Bueno, S., Valencia, L. I., Hanashiro, O., Machado, P. H. G. and dos Santos Lima, A. (2017) Atlas da Violência 2017, Rio de Janeiro, IPEA and Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública. Google Scholar

Connell, R. (1993) ‘The big picture: masculinities in recent world history’, Theory and Society, 22, 597–623. Google Scholar

Connell, R. (2014) ‘Margin becoming centre: for a world-centred rethinking of masculinities’, NORMA, 9(4), 217–31. Google Scholar

Connell, R. and Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005) ‘Hegemonic masculinity: rethinking the concept’, Gender & Society, 19(6), 829–59. Google Scholar

Garmany, J. (2009) ‘The embodied state: governmentality in a Brazilian favela’, Social & Cultural Geography, 10(7), 721–39. Google Scholar

Geneva Declaration Secretariat (2015) Global burden of armed violence 2015: every body counts, http://www.genevadeclaration.org/measurability/global-burden-of-armed-violence/global-burden-of-armed-violence-2015.html (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

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Hearn, J. (2005) ‘From hegemonic masculinity to the hegemony of men’, in M. Kimmel, J. Hearn and R. W. Connell (eds) Handbook of studies on men and masculinities, London, Sage Publications. Google Scholar

Hume, M. (2004) ‘“It’s as if you don’t know, because you don’t do anything about it”: gender and violence in El Salvador’, Environment and Urbanization, 16(2), 63–72. Google Scholar

Hume, M. (2009) The politics of violence: gender, conflict and community in El Salvador, Malden, MA and Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell. Google Scholar

IPEA and Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública (2016) ‘Nota Técnica do Atlas da Violência 2016’ (report), Brasília, http://www.ipea.gov.br/portal/images/stories/PDFs/nota_ tecnica/160322_nt_17_atlas_da_violencia_2016_finalizado.pdf (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

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IPEA and Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública (2018) ‘Atlas da Violência 2018’ (report), Rio de Janeiro, http://www.ipea.gov.br/atlasviolencia/downloads (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

ISP (Instituto de Segurança Pública) (2015) ‘Relatório apreensão de armas. Janeiro a Maio de 2015’, Rio de Janeiro, http://arquivos.proderj.rj.gov.br/isp_imagens/uploads/Relatorio-Armas2015.pdf (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

ISP (Instituto de Segurança Pública) (2018) http://www.ispvisualizacao.rj.gov.br/RelPorArea.html (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Kato-Wallace, J., Barker, G., Eads, M. and Levtov, R. (2014) ‘Global pathways to men’s caregiving: mixed methods findings from the international men and gender equality survey and the men who care study’, Global Public Health, 9(6), 706–22. Google Scholar

Kern, L. and Mullings, B. (2013) ‘Urban neoliberalism, urban insecurity and urban violence: exploring the gender dimensions’, in Peake and Rieke (eds), 37–54. Google Scholar

Kim. J. (2007) ‘Gender roles, accessibility, and gendered spatiality’, Journal of the Korean Geographical Society, 42(5), 808–34. Google Scholar

Leeds, E. (2007) ‘Rio de Janeiro’, in K. Koonings and D. Kruijt (eds) Fractured cities: social exclusion, urban violence and contested spaces in Latin America, Chicago, Zed Books, 23–35. Google Scholar

Moura, T. (2007) Invisible faces of armed violence: a case study on Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 7Letras. Google Scholar

Moser, C. and McIlwaine, C. (2004) Encounters with violence in Latin America: urban poor perceptions from Colombia and Guatemala, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

Muggah, R. (2012) ‘Researching the urban dilemma: urbanization, poverty and violence’, Report, International Development Research Center (IDRC), https://www.idrc.ca/sites/default/files/sp/Images/Researching-the-Urban-Dilemma-Baseline-study.pdf (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

NSCR (Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement) (2017) ‘Symposium Cycle of Violence in post-conflict settings’, https://www.nscr.nl/en/30-jan-symposium-cycle-violence-post-conflict-settings/ (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Peake, L. and Rieker, M. (2013) Rethinking feminist interventions into the urban, London and New York, Routledge. Google Scholar

Pearce, J. (2006), ‘Bringing violence “back home”: gender socialization and the transmission of violence through time and space’, in M. Glasius, M. Kaldor and H. Anheier (eds) Global civil society 2006/7, London, Sage, 42–62. Google Scholar

Pécaut, D. (1999) ‘From the banality of violence to real terror: the case of Colombia’, in K. Koonnings and D. Kruit (eds) Societies of fear: the legacy of civil war, violence and terror in Latin America, London, Zed Books, 141–67. Google Scholar

Penglase, B. (2009) ‘States of insecurity: everyday emergencies, public secrets and drug trafficker power in a Brazilian favela’, PoLAR: Political Anthropolgy Review, 32(1), 47–63. Google Scholar

Penglase, B. (2014) Living with insecurity in a Brazilian favela: Urban violence and daily life, New Brunswick, New Jersey and London, Rutgers University Press. Google Scholar

Pickup, F., Williams, S. and Sweetman, C. (2001) Ending violence against women: a challenge for development and humanitarian work, London, Oxfam. Google Scholar

Sampson, R.J. and Wilson, W. J. (1995) ‘Toward a theory of race, crime, and urban inequality’, in S. Gibbidon and H. Taylor (eds) Race, crime, and justice: a reader, London, Routledge, 37–56. Google Scholar

Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D. and Raudenbush, S. (2005) ‘Social anatomy of racial and ethnic disparities in violence’, American Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 224–32. Google Scholar

SIM/SESEG-RJ (2017) ‘Relatório do Instituto de Segurança Pública’, Rio de Janeiro, ISP, http://www.isp.rj.gov.br (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Soares Pinto, A. and R. de Moares, O. C. (2016) ‘Dossiê Mulher 2016. Série Estudos 2’, Instituto de Segurança Pública, http://www.isp.rj.gov.br/Conteudo.asp?ident=48 (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Souza, M. (2014) ‘Phobopolis: violence, fear and sociopolitical fragmentation of the space in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil’, in F. Kraas, S. Aggarwal, M. Coy and G. Mertins (eds) Megacities: our global urban future, Amsterdam, Springer, 151–64. Google Scholar

Taylor, A., Moura, T., Scabio, J., Borde, E., Afonso, J. and Barker, G. (2016) ‘This isn’t the life for you: masculinities and nonviolence in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil’, Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) with a focus on urban violence, Washington and Rio de Janeiro, Promundo. Google Scholar

Waiselfisz, J. J. (2012) Mapa da Violência 2012: A cor dos homicídios no Brasil, Brasília, Flacso Brasil, http://www.mapadaviolencia.org.br/mapa2012_cor.php (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Waiselfisz, J. J. (2014) Mapa da Violência 2014: Os jovens do Brasil, Brasília, Flacso Brasil, http://www.mapadaviolencia.org.br/mapa2014_jovens.php (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Waiselfisz, J. J. (2015) Mapa da Violência 2015: Mortes matadas por armas de fogo, Brasília, Flacso Brasil, http://www.mapadaviolencia.org.br/mapa2015.php (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Wacquant, L. (2008) ‘The militarization of urban marginality: lessons from the Brazilian metropolis’, International Political Sociology, 2(1), 56–74. Google Scholar

Wilding, P. (2010) ‘“New violence”: silencing women’s experiences in the Favelas of Brazil’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 42, 719–47. Google Scholar

Wilding, P. (2014) ‘Gendered meanings and everyday experiences of violence in urban Brazil’, Gender, Place & Culture, 21(2), 228–43. Google Scholar

Amnesty International (2015) ‘You killed my son: homicides by military police in Rio de Janeiro’, Rio de Janeiro, Amnesty International, https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/amr19/2068/2015/en/ (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Assis, S. (1999) Traçando caminhos em uma sociedade violenta: a vida de jovens infratores e seus irmãos não-infratores, Rio de Janeiro, Editora Fiocruz. Google Scholar

Auyero, J. (1997) ‘Wacquant in the Argentine slums: comment on Loic Wacquant’s “Three pernicious premises in the study of the American ghetto”’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 21(3), 508–11. Google Scholar

Azevedo, M. A. and Guerra, V. N. A. (1989) Crianças vitimizadas: A síndrome do pequeno poder, São Paulo, Iglu. Google Scholar

Badinter, E. (1992) La identidad masculina, Madrid, Alizanza Editorial. Google Scholar

Baird, A. (2012) ‘Negotiating pathways to manhood: rejecting gangs and violence in Medellín’s periphery’, Journal of Conflictology, 3(1), 30–41. Google Scholar

Barcellos, C. and Zaluar, A. (2014) ‘Homicides and territorial struggles in Rio de Janeiro Favelas’, Rev Saude Publica, 48(1), 94–102. Google Scholar

Barker, G. (1998) ‘Non-violent males in violent settings: an exploratory qualitative study of pro-social low income adolescent males in two Chicago (USA) neighborhoods’, Childhood: a Global Journal of Child Research, 5(4), 437–61. Google Scholar

Barker, G. (2005) Dying to be men: youth, masculinity and social exclusion, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

Barker, G., Greene, M., Nascimento, M., Segundo, M., Ricardo, C., Taylor, A., Aguayo, F., Sadler, M., Das, A., Singh, S., Figueroa, J. G., Franzoni, J., Flores, N., Jewkes, R., Morrell, R. and Kato, J. (2012) Men who care: a qualitative multi-country study on men and non-traditional caregiving roles, Washington, DC, International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Promundo. Google Scholar

Bennett, D. and Fraser, M. (2000) ‘Urban violence among African American males: integrating family, neighborhood, and peer perspectives’, The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 27(3), 93–117. Google Scholar

Cano, I. (2012) ‘Os donos do morro’: uma avaliação exploratória do impacto das Unidades de Polícia Pacificadora (UPPs) no Rio de Janeiro, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, http://www.lav.uerj.br/docs/rel/2012/RelatUPP.pdf (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Carlson, J. (2015) ‘Mourning Mayberry: guns, masculinity, and socioeconomic decline’, Gender & Society, 29(3), 386–409. Google Scholar

Chant, S. and McIlwaine, C. (2015) Cities, slums and gender in the global South: towards a feminised urban future, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

Cerqueira, D., de Lima, R. S., Bueno, S., Valencia, L. I., Hanashiro, O., Machado, P. H. G. and dos Santos Lima, A. (2017) Atlas da Violência 2017, Rio de Janeiro, IPEA and Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública. Google Scholar

Connell, R. (1993) ‘The big picture: masculinities in recent world history’, Theory and Society, 22, 597–623. Google Scholar

Connell, R. (2014) ‘Margin becoming centre: for a world-centred rethinking of masculinities’, NORMA, 9(4), 217–31. Google Scholar

Connell, R. and Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005) ‘Hegemonic masculinity: rethinking the concept’, Gender & Society, 19(6), 829–59. Google Scholar

Garmany, J. (2009) ‘The embodied state: governmentality in a Brazilian favela’, Social & Cultural Geography, 10(7), 721–39. Google Scholar

Geneva Declaration Secretariat (2015) Global burden of armed violence 2015: every body counts, http://www.genevadeclaration.org/measurability/global-burden-of-armed-violence/global-burden-of-armed-violence-2015.html (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Gilligan, J. (2001) Preventing violence, London, Thames & Hudson. Google Scholar

Hearn, J. (2005) ‘From hegemonic masculinity to the hegemony of men’, in M. Kimmel, J. Hearn and R. W. Connell (eds) Handbook of studies on men and masculinities, London, Sage Publications. Google Scholar

Hume, M. (2004) ‘“It’s as if you don’t know, because you don’t do anything about it”: gender and violence in El Salvador’, Environment and Urbanization, 16(2), 63–72. Google Scholar

Hume, M. (2009) The politics of violence: gender, conflict and community in El Salvador, Malden, MA and Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell. Google Scholar

IPEA and Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública (2016) ‘Nota Técnica do Atlas da Violência 2016’ (report), Brasília, http://www.ipea.gov.br/portal/images/stories/PDFs/nota_ tecnica/160322_nt_17_atlas_da_violencia_2016_finalizado.pdf (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

IPEA and Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública (2017) ‘Atlas da Violência 2017’ (report), Rio de Janeiro, http://www.ipea.gov.br/portal/images/170602_atlas_da_violencia_2017.pdf (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

IPEA and Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública (2018) ‘Atlas da Violência 2018’ (report), Rio de Janeiro, http://www.ipea.gov.br/atlasviolencia/downloads (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

ISP (Instituto de Segurança Pública) (2015) ‘Relatório apreensão de armas. Janeiro a Maio de 2015’, Rio de Janeiro, http://arquivos.proderj.rj.gov.br/isp_imagens/uploads/Relatorio-Armas2015.pdf (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

ISP (Instituto de Segurança Pública) (2018) http://www.ispvisualizacao.rj.gov.br/RelPorArea.html (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Kato-Wallace, J., Barker, G., Eads, M. and Levtov, R. (2014) ‘Global pathways to men’s caregiving: mixed methods findings from the international men and gender equality survey and the men who care study’, Global Public Health, 9(6), 706–22. Google Scholar

Kern, L. and Mullings, B. (2013) ‘Urban neoliberalism, urban insecurity and urban violence: exploring the gender dimensions’, in Peake and Rieke (eds), 37–54. Google Scholar

Kim. J. (2007) ‘Gender roles, accessibility, and gendered spatiality’, Journal of the Korean Geographical Society, 42(5), 808–34. Google Scholar

Leeds, E. (2007) ‘Rio de Janeiro’, in K. Koonings and D. Kruijt (eds) Fractured cities: social exclusion, urban violence and contested spaces in Latin America, Chicago, Zed Books, 23–35. Google Scholar

Moura, T. (2007) Invisible faces of armed violence: a case study on Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 7Letras. Google Scholar

Moser, C. and McIlwaine, C. (2004) Encounters with violence in Latin America: urban poor perceptions from Colombia and Guatemala, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

Muggah, R. (2012) ‘Researching the urban dilemma: urbanization, poverty and violence’, Report, International Development Research Center (IDRC), https://www.idrc.ca/sites/default/files/sp/Images/Researching-the-Urban-Dilemma-Baseline-study.pdf (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

NSCR (Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement) (2017) ‘Symposium Cycle of Violence in post-conflict settings’, https://www.nscr.nl/en/30-jan-symposium-cycle-violence-post-conflict-settings/ (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Peake, L. and Rieker, M. (2013) Rethinking feminist interventions into the urban, London and New York, Routledge. Google Scholar

Pearce, J. (2006), ‘Bringing violence “back home”: gender socialization and the transmission of violence through time and space’, in M. Glasius, M. Kaldor and H. Anheier (eds) Global civil society 2006/7, London, Sage, 42–62. Google Scholar

Pécaut, D. (1999) ‘From the banality of violence to real terror: the case of Colombia’, in K. Koonnings and D. Kruit (eds) Societies of fear: the legacy of civil war, violence and terror in Latin America, London, Zed Books, 141–67. Google Scholar

Penglase, B. (2009) ‘States of insecurity: everyday emergencies, public secrets and drug trafficker power in a Brazilian favela’, PoLAR: Political Anthropolgy Review, 32(1), 47–63. Google Scholar

Penglase, B. (2014) Living with insecurity in a Brazilian favela: Urban violence and daily life, New Brunswick, New Jersey and London, Rutgers University Press. Google Scholar

Pickup, F., Williams, S. and Sweetman, C. (2001) Ending violence against women: a challenge for development and humanitarian work, London, Oxfam. Google Scholar

Sampson, R.J. and Wilson, W. J. (1995) ‘Toward a theory of race, crime, and urban inequality’, in S. Gibbidon and H. Taylor (eds) Race, crime, and justice: a reader, London, Routledge, 37–56. Google Scholar

Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D. and Raudenbush, S. (2005) ‘Social anatomy of racial and ethnic disparities in violence’, American Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 224–32. Google Scholar

SIM/SESEG-RJ (2017) ‘Relatório do Instituto de Segurança Pública’, Rio de Janeiro, ISP, http://www.isp.rj.gov.br (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Soares Pinto, A. and R. de Moares, O. C. (2016) ‘Dossiê Mulher 2016. Série Estudos 2’, Instituto de Segurança Pública, http://www.isp.rj.gov.br/Conteudo.asp?ident=48 (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Souza, M. (2014) ‘Phobopolis: violence, fear and sociopolitical fragmentation of the space in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil’, in F. Kraas, S. Aggarwal, M. Coy and G. Mertins (eds) Megacities: our global urban future, Amsterdam, Springer, 151–64. Google Scholar

Taylor, A., Moura, T., Scabio, J., Borde, E., Afonso, J. and Barker, G. (2016) ‘This isn’t the life for you: masculinities and nonviolence in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil’, Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) with a focus on urban violence, Washington and Rio de Janeiro, Promundo. Google Scholar

Waiselfisz, J. J. (2012) Mapa da Violência 2012: A cor dos homicídios no Brasil, Brasília, Flacso Brasil, http://www.mapadaviolencia.org.br/mapa2012_cor.php (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Waiselfisz, J. J. (2014) Mapa da Violência 2014: Os jovens do Brasil, Brasília, Flacso Brasil, http://www.mapadaviolencia.org.br/mapa2014_jovens.php (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Waiselfisz, J. J. (2015) Mapa da Violência 2015: Mortes matadas por armas de fogo, Brasília, Flacso Brasil, http://www.mapadaviolencia.org.br/mapa2015.php (accessed 10 March 2019). Google Scholar

Wacquant, L. (2008) ‘The militarization of urban marginality: lessons from the Brazilian metropolis’, International Political Sociology, 2(1), 56–74. Google Scholar

Wilding, P. (2010) ‘“New violence”: silencing women’s experiences in the Favelas of Brazil’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 42, 719–47. Google Scholar

Wilding, P. (2014) ‘Gendered meanings and everyday experiences of violence in urban Brazil’, Gender, Place & Culture, 21(2), 228–43. Google Scholar

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