Hunter Gatherer Research

How do hunter-gatherers learn?

The transmission of indigenous knowledge among the Agta of the Philippines

Hunter Gatherer Research (2016), 2, (4), 389–413.

Abstract

The Agta of the Philippines depend on extensive knowledge of their natural environment for their livelihoods. However, little is known about the transmission of this indigenous ecological knowledge. This paper examines the transmission of knowledge on hunting, fishing and gathering among the Agta in San Mariano, Isabela Province. We used observation, interviewing and knowledge tests as methods of inquiry. Our results show that knowledge transmission happens on-site, is gender-specific and that pathways of knowledge transmission differ per livelihood activity. Learning among the Agta takes place stepwise but less systematically than suggested by earlier research on knowledge transmission among hunter-gatherers. We found that observation, imitation and individual experimentation are important modes of learning in all livelihood activities. Contemporary environmental and social change, particularly deforestation and formal education, have far-reaching implications for knowledge transmission and identity in Agta society.

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Bock, J 2002. Learning, life history and productivity: children’s lives in Okavango Delta, Botswana. Human Nature 13(2):161–197. Learning, life history and productivity: children’s lives in Okavango Delta, Botswana Human Nature 13 161 197 Google Scholar

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Cavalli-Sforza, LL & Feldman, MW 1981. Cultural transmission and evolution: a quantitative approach. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Cultural transmission and evolution: a quantitative approach Google Scholar

Cox, PA 2000. Will tribal knowledge survive the millennium? Science 287(5450):44–45. Will tribal knowledge survive the millennium? Science 287 44 45 Google Scholar

Csibra, C & Gergely, G 2009. Natural pedagogy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13(4):148–153 Natural pedagogy Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 148 153 Google Scholar

Demps, K, Zorondo-Rodríguez, F, García, C & Reyes-García, V 2012. Social learning across the life cycle: cultural knowledge acquisition for honey collection among the Jenu Kuruba, India. Evolution and Human Behaviour 33:460–470. Social learning across the life cycle: cultural knowledge acquisition for honey collection among the Jenu Kuruba, India Evolution and Human Behaviour 33 460 470 Google Scholar

DepEd (Department of Education) 2015. Order No. 32, s. 2015. Adopting the Indigenous Peoples Education Curriculum Framework. Manila: DepEd. http://www.gov.ph/orders/do-32-s-2015. Google Scholar

Doornbos, S 2008. Use and knowledge of riverine resources among a hunter-gatherer group. The Disulap Agta in the uplands of San Mariano, Isabela Province, the Philippines. MA thesis, Universiteit van Amsterdam. Use and knowledge of riverine resources among a hunter-gatherer group Google Scholar

Early, JD & Headland, TN 1998. Population dynamics of a Philippine rain forest people: the San Ildefonso Agta. Gainesville FL: University Press of Florida. Population dynamics of a Philippine rain forest people: the San Ildefonso Agta Google Scholar

Ellen, R & Harris, H 2000. Introduction. In Ellen, R, Parkes, P & Bicker, A (eds) Indigenous environmental knowledge and its transformations: critical anthropological perspectives. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers:1–33. Introduction Indigenous environmental knowledge and its transformations: critical anthropological perspectives 1 33 Google Scholar

Estioko-Griffin, AA & Griffin, PB 1981. Woman the hunter; the Agta. In Dahlbergh, F (ed) Woman the gatherer. New Haven and London: Yale University Press:12–151. Woman the hunter; the Agta Woman the gatherer 12 151 Google Scholar

Gadgil, M, Berkes, F & Folke, C 1993. Indigenous knowledge for biodiversity conservation. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 22:151–156. Indigenous knowledge for biodiversity conservation AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 22 151 156 Google Scholar

Garcia, HG & Acay, JR Jr 2003. Ethnobotany study of the Agta communities in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park. In van der Ploeg, J, Bernardo, EC & Masipiqueña, AB (eds) The Sierra Madre mountain range: global relevance, local realities. Papers presented at the 4th regional conference on environment and development. Cabagan, Philippines: Cagayan Valley Programme on Environment and Development:70–82. Ethnobotany study of the Agta communities in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park 70 82 Google Scholar

Gómez-Baggethun, E & Reyes-García, V 2013. Reinterpreting change in traditional ecological knowledge. Human Ecology Interdisciplinary Journal 41(4):doi: 10.1007/s10745–013–9577–9. Google Scholar

Goodman, MJ, Griffin, PB, Estioko-Griffin, AA & Grove, JS 1985. The compatibility of hunting and mothering among the Agta hunter-gatherers of the Philippines. Sex Roles 12:1199–1209. The compatibility of hunting and mothering among the Agta hunter-gatherers of the Philippines Sex Roles 12 1199 1209 Google Scholar

Gray, P 2009. Play as a foundation for hunter-gatherer social existence. American Journal of Play 1:476–522. Play as a foundation for hunter-gatherer social existence American Journal of Play 1 476 522 Google Scholar

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Griffin, PB & Griffin, MB 2000. Agta hunting and resource sustainability in northeastern Luzon, Philippines. In Robinson, JG & Bennett, EL (eds) Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests. New York: Columbia University Press:325–335. Agta hunting and resource sustainability in northeastern Luzon, Philippines Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests 325 335 Google Scholar

Gurven, M, Kaplan, A & Gutierrez, M 2006. How long does it take to become a proficient hunter? Implications for the evolution of extended development and long life span. Journal of Human Evolution 51:454–470. How long does it take to become a proficient hunter? Implications for the evolution of extended development and long life span Journal of Human Evolution 51 454 470 Google Scholar

Headland, TN 1999. The Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Act: ‘a triumph of political will’. SIL Electronic Working Papers 1999–004. https://www.sil.org/resources/publications/entry/7839. Google Scholar

Headland, TN & Blood, DE (eds) 2002. What place for hunter-gatherers in millennium three? Dallas TX: SIL International and International Museum of Cultures. What place for hunter-gatherers in millennium three? Google Scholar

Headland, TN & Headland, JD 1974. A Dumagat (Casiguran)–English dictionary. Pacific Linguistics, Series C, Vol. 28. Australian National University. A Dumagat (Casiguran)–English dictionary Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS & Cavalli-Sfora, LL 1986. Cultural transmission among Aka pygmies. American Anthropology 88:922–934. Cultural transmission among Aka pygmies American Anthropology 88 922 934 Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS & Roulette, CJ 2016. Teaching in hunter-gatherer infancy. Royal Society Open Science 3:150403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.150403. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS, Fouts, HN, Boyette, AH & Hewlett, BL 2011. Social learning among Congo Basin hunter-gatherers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 366:1168–1178. Social learning among Congo Basin hunter-gatherers Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 366 1168 1178 Google Scholar

Ianni, E, Geneletti, D & Ciolli, M 2015. Revitalizing traditional ecological knowledge: A study in an alpine rural community. Environmental Management 56(1):144–156. Revitalizing traditional ecological knowledge: A study in an alpine rural community Environmental Management 56 144 156 Google Scholar

Johannes, RE 1981. Words of the lagoon: fishing and marine lore in the Palau district of Micronesia. Berkeley CA: University of California Press. Words of the lagoon: fishing and marine lore in the Palau district of Micronesia Google Scholar

Kline, MA, Boyd, R & Henrich, J 2013. Teaching and the life history of cultural transmission in Fijian villages. Human Nature 4(4):351–374. Teaching and the life history of cultural transmission in Fijian villages Human Nature 4 351 374 Google Scholar

Lancy, D 1999. Playing on the mother-ground: cultural routines for children’s development. Culture and human development. New York: Guilford Press. Playing on the mother-ground: cultural routines for children’s development. Culture and human development Google Scholar

Lancy, DF & Grove, MA 2010 The role of adults in children’s learning. In Lancy, DF, Bock, J & Gaskins, S (eds) The anthropology of learning in childhood. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press:145–180. The role of adults in children’s learning The anthropology of learning in childhood 145 180 Google Scholar

MacDonald, K 2007. Cross-cultural comparison of learning in human hunting: implications for life history evolution. Human Nature 8:386–402. Cross-cultural comparison of learning in human hunting: implications for life history evolution Human Nature 8 386 402 Google Scholar

Masipiqueña, MD 2003. Upland food production systems in the Sierra Madre: realities and prospects. In van der Ploeg, J, Bernardo, EC & Masipiqueña, AB (eds) The Sierra Madre mountain range: global relevance, local realities. Papers presented at the 4th regional conference on environment and development. Tuguegarao, Philippines: Golden Press:95–110. Upland food production systems in the Sierra Madre: realities and prospects 95 110 Google Scholar

May, S & Aikman, S 2003. Indigenous education: Addressing current issues and developments. Comparative Education 39(2):139–145. Indigenous education: Addressing current issues and developments Comparative Education 39 139 145 Google Scholar

Minter, T 2010. The Agta of the northern Sierra Madre: livelihood strategies and resilience among Philippine hunter-gatherers. PhD dissertation, Leiden University. https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/handle/1887/15549/fulltext1.pdf?sequence=5. Google Scholar

Minter, T, de Brabander, V, van der Ploeg, J, Persoon, GA & Sunderland, T 2012. Whose consent? Hunter-gatherers and extractive industries in the northeastern Philippines. Society & Natural Resources 25(12):1241–1257. Whose consent? Hunter-gatherers and extractive industries in the northeastern Philippines Society & Natural Resources 25 1241 1257 Google Scholar

Minter, T, van der Ploeg, J, Pedrablanca, M, Sunderland, T & Persoon, GA 2014. Limits to indigenous participation. The Agta and the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the Philippines. Human Ecology 42:769–778. Limits to indigenous participation Human Ecology 42 769 778 Google Scholar

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Ohmagari, K & Berkes, F 1997. Transmission of indigenous knowledge and bush skills among the Western James Bay Cree women of subartic Canada. Human Ecology 25:197−222. Transmission of indigenous knowledge and bush skills among the Western James Bay Cree women of subartic Canada Human Ecology 25 197 222 Google Scholar

Pearce, T, Wright, H, Notaina, R, Kudlak, A, Smit, B, Ford, J & Furgal, C 2011. Transmission of environmental knowledge and land skills among Inuit men in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. Human Ecology 39(3):271–288. Transmission of environmental knowledge and land skills among Inuit men in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada Human Ecology 39 271 288 Google Scholar

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van der Ploeg, J, van Weerd, M, Masipiqueña, AB & Persoon, GA 2011. Illegal logging in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the Philippines. Conservation and Society 9(3):202–215. Illegal logging in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the Philippines Conservation and Society 9 202 215 Google Scholar

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Ruddle, K & Chesterfield, R 1977. Education for traditional food procurement in the Orinoco Delta. Ibero-Americana 53. Berkeley and Los Angeles CA: University of California Press. Education for traditional food procurement in the Orinoco Delta Google Scholar

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UN Human Rights Council 2015. Report by the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Victoria Tauli Corpuz, 6 August 2015. A/HRC/30/41. Google Scholar

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Berkes, F, Colding, J & Folke, C 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10:1251–1262. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management Ecological Applications 10 1251 1262 Google Scholar

Bock, J 2002. Learning, life history and productivity: children’s lives in Okavango Delta, Botswana. Human Nature 13(2):161–197. Learning, life history and productivity: children’s lives in Okavango Delta, Botswana Human Nature 13 161 197 Google Scholar

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Cavalli-Sforza, LL & Feldman, MW 1981. Cultural transmission and evolution: a quantitative approach. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Cultural transmission and evolution: a quantitative approach Google Scholar

Cox, PA 2000. Will tribal knowledge survive the millennium? Science 287(5450):44–45. Will tribal knowledge survive the millennium? Science 287 44 45 Google Scholar

Csibra, C & Gergely, G 2009. Natural pedagogy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13(4):148–153 Natural pedagogy Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 148 153 Google Scholar

Demps, K, Zorondo-Rodríguez, F, García, C & Reyes-García, V 2012. Social learning across the life cycle: cultural knowledge acquisition for honey collection among the Jenu Kuruba, India. Evolution and Human Behaviour 33:460–470. Social learning across the life cycle: cultural knowledge acquisition for honey collection among the Jenu Kuruba, India Evolution and Human Behaviour 33 460 470 Google Scholar

DepEd (Department of Education) 2015. Order No. 32, s. 2015. Adopting the Indigenous Peoples Education Curriculum Framework. Manila: DepEd. http://www.gov.ph/orders/do-32-s-2015. Google Scholar

Doornbos, S 2008. Use and knowledge of riverine resources among a hunter-gatherer group. The Disulap Agta in the uplands of San Mariano, Isabela Province, the Philippines. MA thesis, Universiteit van Amsterdam. Use and knowledge of riverine resources among a hunter-gatherer group Google Scholar

Early, JD & Headland, TN 1998. Population dynamics of a Philippine rain forest people: the San Ildefonso Agta. Gainesville FL: University Press of Florida. Population dynamics of a Philippine rain forest people: the San Ildefonso Agta Google Scholar

Ellen, R & Harris, H 2000. Introduction. In Ellen, R, Parkes, P & Bicker, A (eds) Indigenous environmental knowledge and its transformations: critical anthropological perspectives. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers:1–33. Introduction Indigenous environmental knowledge and its transformations: critical anthropological perspectives 1 33 Google Scholar

Estioko-Griffin, AA & Griffin, PB 1981. Woman the hunter; the Agta. In Dahlbergh, F (ed) Woman the gatherer. New Haven and London: Yale University Press:12–151. Woman the hunter; the Agta Woman the gatherer 12 151 Google Scholar

Gadgil, M, Berkes, F & Folke, C 1993. Indigenous knowledge for biodiversity conservation. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 22:151–156. Indigenous knowledge for biodiversity conservation AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 22 151 156 Google Scholar

Garcia, HG & Acay, JR Jr 2003. Ethnobotany study of the Agta communities in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park. In van der Ploeg, J, Bernardo, EC & Masipiqueña, AB (eds) The Sierra Madre mountain range: global relevance, local realities. Papers presented at the 4th regional conference on environment and development. Cabagan, Philippines: Cagayan Valley Programme on Environment and Development:70–82. Ethnobotany study of the Agta communities in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park 70 82 Google Scholar

Gómez-Baggethun, E & Reyes-García, V 2013. Reinterpreting change in traditional ecological knowledge. Human Ecology Interdisciplinary Journal 41(4):doi: 10.1007/s10745–013–9577–9. Google Scholar

Goodman, MJ, Griffin, PB, Estioko-Griffin, AA & Grove, JS 1985. The compatibility of hunting and mothering among the Agta hunter-gatherers of the Philippines. Sex Roles 12:1199–1209. The compatibility of hunting and mothering among the Agta hunter-gatherers of the Philippines Sex Roles 12 1199 1209 Google Scholar

Gray, P 2009. Play as a foundation for hunter-gatherer social existence. American Journal of Play 1:476–522. Play as a foundation for hunter-gatherer social existence American Journal of Play 1 476 522 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Griffin, PB & Griffin, MB 1992. Fathers and childcare among the Cagayan Agta. In Hewlett, BS (ed) Father–child relations: cultural and biosocial contexts. Hawthorne NY: Aldine de G Gruyter:297–320. Fathers and childcare among the Cagayan Agta Father–child relations: cultural and biosocial contexts 297 320 Google Scholar

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Gurven, M, Kaplan, A & Gutierrez, M 2006. How long does it take to become a proficient hunter? Implications for the evolution of extended development and long life span. Journal of Human Evolution 51:454–470. How long does it take to become a proficient hunter? Implications for the evolution of extended development and long life span Journal of Human Evolution 51 454 470 Google Scholar

Headland, TN 1999. The Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Act: ‘a triumph of political will’. SIL Electronic Working Papers 1999–004. https://www.sil.org/resources/publications/entry/7839. Google Scholar

Headland, TN & Blood, DE (eds) 2002. What place for hunter-gatherers in millennium three? Dallas TX: SIL International and International Museum of Cultures. What place for hunter-gatherers in millennium three? Google Scholar

Headland, TN & Headland, JD 1974. A Dumagat (Casiguran)–English dictionary. Pacific Linguistics, Series C, Vol. 28. Australian National University. A Dumagat (Casiguran)–English dictionary Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS & Cavalli-Sfora, LL 1986. Cultural transmission among Aka pygmies. American Anthropology 88:922–934. Cultural transmission among Aka pygmies American Anthropology 88 922 934 Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS & Roulette, CJ 2016. Teaching in hunter-gatherer infancy. Royal Society Open Science 3:150403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.150403. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS, Fouts, HN, Boyette, AH & Hewlett, BL 2011. Social learning among Congo Basin hunter-gatherers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 366:1168–1178. Social learning among Congo Basin hunter-gatherers Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 366 1168 1178 Google Scholar

Ianni, E, Geneletti, D & Ciolli, M 2015. Revitalizing traditional ecological knowledge: A study in an alpine rural community. Environmental Management 56(1):144–156. Revitalizing traditional ecological knowledge: A study in an alpine rural community Environmental Management 56 144 156 Google Scholar

Johannes, RE 1981. Words of the lagoon: fishing and marine lore in the Palau district of Micronesia. Berkeley CA: University of California Press. Words of the lagoon: fishing and marine lore in the Palau district of Micronesia Google Scholar

Kline, MA, Boyd, R & Henrich, J 2013. Teaching and the life history of cultural transmission in Fijian villages. Human Nature 4(4):351–374. Teaching and the life history of cultural transmission in Fijian villages Human Nature 4 351 374 Google Scholar

Lancy, D 1999. Playing on the mother-ground: cultural routines for children’s development. Culture and human development. New York: Guilford Press. Playing on the mother-ground: cultural routines for children’s development. Culture and human development Google Scholar

Lancy, DF & Grove, MA 2010 The role of adults in children’s learning. In Lancy, DF, Bock, J & Gaskins, S (eds) The anthropology of learning in childhood. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press:145–180. The role of adults in children’s learning The anthropology of learning in childhood 145 180 Google Scholar

MacDonald, K 2007. Cross-cultural comparison of learning in human hunting: implications for life history evolution. Human Nature 8:386–402. Cross-cultural comparison of learning in human hunting: implications for life history evolution Human Nature 8 386 402 Google Scholar

Masipiqueña, MD 2003. Upland food production systems in the Sierra Madre: realities and prospects. In van der Ploeg, J, Bernardo, EC & Masipiqueña, AB (eds) The Sierra Madre mountain range: global relevance, local realities. Papers presented at the 4th regional conference on environment and development. Tuguegarao, Philippines: Golden Press:95–110. Upland food production systems in the Sierra Madre: realities and prospects 95 110 Google Scholar

May, S & Aikman, S 2003. Indigenous education: Addressing current issues and developments. Comparative Education 39(2):139–145. Indigenous education: Addressing current issues and developments Comparative Education 39 139 145 Google Scholar

Minter, T 2010. The Agta of the northern Sierra Madre: livelihood strategies and resilience among Philippine hunter-gatherers. PhD dissertation, Leiden University. https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/handle/1887/15549/fulltext1.pdf?sequence=5. Google Scholar

Minter, T, de Brabander, V, van der Ploeg, J, Persoon, GA & Sunderland, T 2012. Whose consent? Hunter-gatherers and extractive industries in the northeastern Philippines. Society & Natural Resources 25(12):1241–1257. Whose consent? Hunter-gatherers and extractive industries in the northeastern Philippines Society & Natural Resources 25 1241 1257 Google Scholar

Minter, T, van der Ploeg, J, Pedrablanca, M, Sunderland, T & Persoon, GA 2014. Limits to indigenous participation. The Agta and the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the Philippines. Human Ecology 42:769–778. Limits to indigenous participation Human Ecology 42 769 778 Google Scholar

Nazarea, VD 2006. Local knowledge and memory in biodiversity conservation. Annual Review of Anthropology 35:317–335. Local knowledge and memory in biodiversity conservation Annual Review of Anthropology 35 317 335 Google Scholar

Ohmagari, K & Berkes, F 1997. Transmission of indigenous knowledge and bush skills among the Western James Bay Cree women of subartic Canada. Human Ecology 25:197−222. Transmission of indigenous knowledge and bush skills among the Western James Bay Cree women of subartic Canada Human Ecology 25 197 222 Google Scholar

Pearce, T, Wright, H, Notaina, R, Kudlak, A, Smit, B, Ford, J & Furgal, C 2011. Transmission of environmental knowledge and land skills among Inuit men in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. Human Ecology 39(3):271–288. Transmission of environmental knowledge and land skills among Inuit men in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada Human Ecology 39 271 288 Google Scholar

Persoon, GA and Minter, T 2011. Code of conduct for working with indigenous and local communities. Wageningen: Tropenbos International. http://www.tropenbos.org/publications/code+of+conduct+for+working+with+indigenous+and+local+communities. Google Scholar

Persoon, GA & van der Ploeg, J 2003. Reviewing the projected future of San Mariano, a boomtown at the Sierra Madre forest fringe. Philippine Studies 51(3):451–473. Reviewing the projected future of San Mariano, a boomtown at the Sierra Madre forest fringe Philippine Studies 51 451 473 Google Scholar

van der Ploeg J, & van Weerd, M 2010. Agta bird names: an ethno-ornithological survey in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, Philippines. Forktail 26:127–131. Agta bird names: an ethno-ornithological survey in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, Philippines Forktail 26 127 131 Google Scholar

van der Ploeg, J, van Weerd, M, Masipiqueña, AB & Persoon, GA 2011. Illegal logging in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the Philippines. Conservation and Society 9(3):202–215. Illegal logging in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the Philippines Conservation and Society 9 202 215 Google Scholar

Romney, AK, Weller, SC & Batchelder, WH 1986. Culture as consensus: A theory of culture and informant accuracy. American Anthropology 88:313–338. Culture as consensus: A theory of culture and informant accuracy American Anthropology 88 313 338 Google Scholar

Ruddle, K 2000. Systems of knowledge: dialogue, relationships and process. Environment, Development and Sustainability 2(3–4):277–304. Systems of knowledge: dialogue, relationships and process Environment, Development and Sustainability 2 277 304 Google Scholar

Ruddle, K & Chesterfield, R 1977. Education for traditional food procurement in the Orinoco Delta. Ibero-Americana 53. Berkeley and Los Angeles CA: University of California Press. Education for traditional food procurement in the Orinoco Delta Google Scholar

Rutu Foundation 2015. Culture in education: the Indigenous Negrito peoples of the Philippines. http://www.rutufoundation.org/culture-education-indigenous-negrito-peoples-philippines/. Google Scholar

Sutherland, WJ, Gardner, TA, Jamila Haider, L & Dicks, LV 2014. How can local and traditional knowledge be effectively incorporated into international assessments? Oryx 48(1):1–2. How can local and traditional knowledge be effectively incorporated into international assessments? Oryx 48 1 2 Google Scholar

van den Top, GM 1998. The social dynamics of deforestation in the Sierra Madre, Philippines. PhD dissertation, Leiden University, the Netherlands. The social dynamics of deforestation in the Sierra Madre, Philippines Google Scholar

Trotter, R & Logan, MH 1986. Informant consensus: a new approach for identifying potentially effective medicinal plants. In Etkin, NL (ed) Plants in indigenous medicine and diet: biobehavioral approaches. Bedford Hills NY: Redgrave:91–111. Informant consensus: a new approach for identifying potentially effective medicinal plants Plants in indigenous medicine and diet: biobehavioral approaches. 91 111 Google Scholar

UN Human Rights Council 2015. Report by the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Victoria Tauli Corpuz, 6 August 2015. A/HRC/30/41. Google Scholar

UNESCO 2001. Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity. Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001271/127162e.pdf. Google Scholar

UNESCO 2007. Guidelines for Intercultural Education. Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001478/147878e.pdf. Google Scholar

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Hagen, Renée

van der Ploeg, Jan

Minter, Tessa