International Development Planning Review

Beyond necessity and opportunity entrepreneurship: motivations and aspirations of young entrepreneurs in Uganda

International Development Planning Review (2012), 34, (4), 439–460.

Abstract

Enhancing the private sector, and especially entrepreneurship, has become a key feature of development policy in recent years. In many African countries, entrepreneurship is promoted as a way to solve the youth unemployment crisis, but little is known about the experiences of young entrepreneurs. This paper examines the motivations and aspirations of young business owners in Uganda. Drawing on qualitative data collected in Kampala, the paper shows the diversity and complexity of factors underpinning the decision to set up a business and the variety of future aspirations. The paper questions the common representation of entrepreneurs as either necessity- or opportunity-driven and discusses the widespread assumption that necessity-driven entrepreneurs in developing countries are unlikely to have growth aspirations. Adopting the notion of social embeddedness, this paper shows how entrepreneurship motivations and aspirations are closely intertwined with changes in the socio-economic environment, social networks, family relations and position in the life course.

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ALDRICH, H. E. and CLIFF, J. E. (2003), 'The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship: toward a family embeddedness perspective', Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 573-96. 'The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship: toward a family embeddedness perspective' Journal of Business Venturing 18 573 96 Google Scholar

ALDRICH, H. E. and ZIMMER, C. (1986), 'Entrepreneurship through social networks', in D. Sexton and R. Smilor (eds), The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship, New York, Ballinger, 3-23. The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship 3 23 Google Scholar

BENZING, C. and CHU, H. M. (2009), 'A comparison of the motivations of small business owners in Africa', Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 16, 60-77. 'A comparison of the motivations of small business owners in Africa' Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 16 60 77 Google Scholar

BEWAYO, E. (1995), 'Uganda entrepreneurs: why are they in business?', Journal of Small Business Strategy, 6, 67-78. 'Uganda entrepreneurs: why are they in business?' Journal of Small Business Strategy 6 67 78 Google Scholar

BIGSTEN, A. and KAYIZZI-MUGERWA, S. (1992), 'Adaptation and distress in the urban economy: a study of Kampala households', World Development, 20, 1423-41. 'Adaptation and distress in the urban economy: a study of Kampala households' World Development 20 1423 41 Google Scholar

BRUTON, G. D., AHLSTROM, D. and LI, H. L. (2010), 'Institutional theory and entrepreneurship: where are we now and where do we need to move in the future', Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34, 421-40. 'Institutional theory and entrepreneurship: where are we now and where do we need to move in the future' Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 34 421 40 Google Scholar

BRUTON, G. D., AHLSTROM, D. and OBLOJ, K. (2008), 'Entrepreneurship in emerging economies: where are we today and where should the research go in the future', Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32, 1-14. 'Entrepreneurship in emerging economies: where are we today and where should the research go in the future' Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 32 1 14 Google Scholar

CHIGUNTA, F., SCHNURR, J., JAMES-WILSON, D. and TORRES, V. (2005), ‘Being ‘Real’ about Youth Entrepreneurship in Eastern and Southern Africa’ (SEED Working Paper No. 72), Geneva, International Labour Organisation. 'Being ‘Real’ about Youth Entrepreneurship in Eastern and Southern Africa' Google Scholar

DESAI, S. (2011), 'Measuring entrepreneurship in developing countries', in W. Naudé (ed.), Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 94-75. Entrepreneurship and Economic Development 94 75 Google Scholar

DIOMANDE, M. (1990), 'Business creation with minimal resources: some lessons from the African experience', Journal of Business Venturing, 5, 191-200. 'Business creation with minimal resources: some lessons from the African experience' Journal of Business Venturing 5 191 200 Google Scholar

ELDER, G. H. (1994), 'Time, human agency, and social change: perspectives on the life course', Social Psychology Quarterly, 57, 4-15. 'Time, human agency, and social change: perspectives on the life course' Social Psychology Quarterly 57 4 15 Google Scholar

GARCIA, H. M. and FARES, J. (eds) (2008), Youth in Africa's Labour Market, Washington, DC, World Bank Publications. Youth in Africa's Labour Market Google Scholar

GIDDENS, A. (1984), The Constitution of Society, Cambridge, Polity Press. The Constitution of Society Google Scholar

GOUGH, K. V. (2010), 'Continuity and adaptability of home-based enterprises: a longitudinal study from Accra, Ghana', International Development Planning Review, 32, 45-70. 'Continuity and adaptability of home-based enterprises: a longitudinal study from Accra, Ghana' International Development Planning Review 32 45 70 Google Scholar

GRANOVETTER, M. (1985), 'Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness', American Journal of Sociology, 93, 481-510. 'Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness' American Journal of Sociology 93 481 510 Google Scholar

GRIES, T. and NAUDÉ, W. (2010), 'Entrepreneurship and structural economic transformation', Small Business Economics, 34, 13-29. 'Entrepreneurship and structural economic transformation' Small Business Economics 34 13 29 Google Scholar

GURTOO, A. and WILLIAMS, C. C. (2009), 'Entrepreneurship and the informal sector: some lessons from India', International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 10, 55-62. 'Entrepreneurship and the informal sector: some lessons from India' International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation 10 55 62 Google Scholar

HESS, M. (2004), '"Spatial" relationships? Towards a reconceptualization of embeddedness', Progress in Human Geography, 28, 165-86. '"Spatial" relationships? Towards a reconceptualization of embeddedness' Progress in Human Geography 28 165 86 Google Scholar

HESSELS, J., VAN GELDEREN, M. W. and THURIK, A. R. (2008), 'Drivers of entrepreneurial aspirations at the country level: the role of start-up motivations and social security', International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4, 401-17. 'Drivers of entrepreneurial aspirations at the country level: the role of start-up motivations and social security' International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 4 401 17 Google Scholar

JACK, S. L. and ANDERSON, A. R. (2002), 'The effects of embeddedness on the entrepreneurial process', Journal of Business Venturing, 17, 467-87. 'The effects of embeddedness on the entrepreneurial process' Journal of Business Venturing 17 467 87 Google Scholar

KELLEY, D., BOSMAN, N. S. and AMORÓS, J. E. (2011), ‘Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’ (2010 Executive Report), Santiago, Universidad del Desarollo. 'Global Entrepreneurship Monitor' Google Scholar

KHAVUL, S., BRUTON, G. D. and WOOD, E. (2009), 'Informal family business in Africa', Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33, 1217-36. 'Informal family business in Africa' Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 33 1217 36 Google Scholar

KODITHUWAKKU, S. S. and ROSA, P. (2002), 'The entrepreneurial process and economic success in a constrained environment', Journal of Business Venturing, 17, 431-65. 'The entrepreneurial process and economic success in a constrained environment' Journal of Business Venturing 17 431 65 Google Scholar

KUADA, J. (2009), 'Gender, social networks and entrepreneurship in Ghana', Journal of African Business, 10, 85-103. 'Gender, social networks and entrepreneurship in Ghana' Journal of African Business 10 85 103 Google Scholar

LANGEVANG, T. (2008), '"We are managing!" Uncertain paths to respectable adulthoods in Accra, Ghana', Geoforum, 39, 2039-47. '"We are managing!" Uncertain paths to respectable adulthoods in Accra, Ghana' Geoforum 39 2039 47 Google Scholar

LANGEVANG, T. and GOUGH, K. V. (2012), 'Diverging pathways: young female employment and entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa', The Geographical Journal, 178, 242-52. 'Diverging pathways: young female employment and entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa' The Geographical Journal 178 242 52 Google Scholar

MAHAJAN, V. (2009), Africa Rising, New Jersey, Pearson Education. Africa Rising Google Scholar

MAIR, J. and MARTÍ, I. (2006), 'Social entrepreneurship research: a source of explanation, prediction, and delight', Journal of World Business, 41, 36-44. 'Social entrepreneurship research: a source of explanation, prediction, and delight' Journal of World Business 41 36 44 Google Scholar

MCDADE, B. E. and SPRING, A. (2005), 'The "new generation of African entrepreneurs": networking to change the climate for business and private sector-led development', Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 17, 17-42. 'The "new generation of African entrepreneurs": networking to change the climate for business and private sector-led development' Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 17 17 42 Google Scholar

MINNITI, M. and NAUDÉ, W. (2010), 'What do we know about the patterns and determinants of female entrepreneurship across countries?', The European Journal of Development Research, 22, 277-93. 'What do we know about the patterns and determinants of female entrepreneurship across countries?' The European Journal of Development Research 22 277 93 Google Scholar

MINNITI, M., BYGRAVE, W. and AUTIO, E. (2006), ‘Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’ (2005 executive report), London, London Business School and Babson College. 'Global Entrepreneurship Monitor' Google Scholar

MOEN, P. (n.d.), 'A life course approach to the entrepreneurial family', The Cornell University Family Business Research Institute http://www.fambiz.com/Orgs/Cornell/articles/real/moen.cfm Google Scholar

MUKWAYA, P., BAMUTAZE, Y., MUGARURA, S. and BENSON, T. (2011), ‘Rural-urban transformation in Uganda’ (paper delivered to the IFPRI-University of Ghana Conference, Accra, Ghana, 10-11 May 2011) http://econtran.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/uganda-structural-transformation-case-study-cn.pdf Google Scholar

NAMATOVU, R., BALUNYWA, W., KYEJJUSA, S. and DAWA, S. (2011), ‘Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Uganda’ (2010 Uganda Executive Report), Makerere University Business School, Kampala, Uganda. 'Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Uganda' Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

NAUDÉ, W. (2011a), 'Entrepreneurship is not a binding constraint on growth and development in the poorest countries', World Development, 39, 33-44. 'Entrepreneurship is not a binding constraint on growth and development in the poorest countries' World Development 39 33 44 Google Scholar

NAUDÉ, W. (2011b), 'Is proactive government support needed for entrepreneurship in developing countries?', in W. Naudé (ed.), Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 233-53. Entrepreneurship and Economic Development 233 53 Google Scholar

NICHTER, S. and GOLDMARK, L. (2009), 'Small firm growth in developing countries', World Development, 37, 1453-64. 'Small firm growth in developing countries' World Development 37 1453 64 Google Scholar

OFCANSKY, T. P. (1996), Uganda: Tarnished Pearl of Africa, Boulder, CO, Westview Press. Uganda: Tarnished Pearl of Africa Google Scholar

OLOMI, D. R. (2009), 'From economic necessity to entrepreneurship', in D. R. Olomi (ed.), African Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development: Context and Process, Dar es Salaam, University of Dar es Salaam Press, 46-58. African Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development: Context and Process 46 58 Google Scholar

PEREDO, A. M. and CHRISMAN, J. J. (2006), 'Toward a theory of community-based enterprise', Academy of Management Review, 31, 309-28. 'Toward a theory of community-based enterprise' Academy of Management Review 31 309 28 Google Scholar

REINIKKA, R. and COLLIER, P. (eds) (2001), Uganda's Recovery: The Role of Farms, Firms and Government, Kampala, Fountain Publishers. Uganda's Recovery: The Role of Farms, Firms and Government Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ROSA, P. J., KODITHUWAKKU, S. and BALUNYWA, W. (2006), 'Entrepreneurial motivation in developing countries: what does "necessity" and "opportunity" entrepreneurship really mean?', Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 26, 1-14. 'Entrepreneurial motivation in developing countries: what does "necessity" and "opportunity" entrepreneurship really mean?' Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 26 1 14 Google Scholar

SEJJAAKA, S. K. (1996), 'Issues in privatization of public enterprises in Uganda', Makerere Business Journal, 1, 59-69. 'Issues in privatization of public enterprises in Uganda' Makerere Business Journal 1 59 69 Google Scholar

SPRING, A. and MCDADE, B. E. (1998), 'Entrepreneurship in Africa: traditional and contemporary paradigms', in A. Spring and B. E. McDade (eds), African Entrepreneurship: Theory and Reality, Gainesville, University Press of Florida, 1-34. African Entrepreneurship: Theory and Reality 1 34 Google Scholar

TURNER, S. and NGUYEN, P. A. (2005), 'Young entrepreneurs, social capital and Doi Moi in Hanoi, Vietnam', Urban Studies, 42, 1693-710. 'Young entrepreneurs, social capital and Doi Moi in Hanoi, Vietnam' Urban Studies 42 1693 710 Google Scholar

UBOS (UGANDA BUREAU OF STATISTICS) (2010), Uganda National Household and the National Panel Surveys, Kampala, UBOS. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, C. (2009), 'The motives of off-the-book entrepreneurs: necessity- or opportunity-driven?', International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 5, 203-17. 'The motives of off-the-book entrepreneurs: necessity- or opportunity-driven?' International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 5 203 17 Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, C. C. (2008), 'Beyond necessity-driven versus opportunity-driven entrepreneurship: a study of informal entrepreneurs in England, Russia and Ukraine', Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 9, 157-65. 'Beyond necessity-driven versus opportunity-driven entrepreneurship: a study of informal entrepreneurs in England, Russia and Ukraine' Entrepreneurship and Innovation 9 157 65 Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, C. C. and NADIN, S. (2010), 'Entrepreneurship and the informal economy: an overview', Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 15, 361-78. 'Entrepreneurship and the informal economy: an overview' Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship 15 361 78 Google Scholar

WILLIAMS. C. C. and ROUND, J. (2009), ‘Evaluating informal entrepreneurs’ motives: some lessons from Moscow', International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 15, 94-107. 'Evaluating informal entrepreneurs' motives: some lessons from Moscow' International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research 15 94 107 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ALDRICH, H. E. and CLIFF, J. E. (2003), 'The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship: toward a family embeddedness perspective', Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 573-96. 'The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship: toward a family embeddedness perspective' Journal of Business Venturing 18 573 96 Google Scholar

ALDRICH, H. E. and ZIMMER, C. (1986), 'Entrepreneurship through social networks', in D. Sexton and R. Smilor (eds), The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship, New York, Ballinger, 3-23. The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship 3 23 Google Scholar

BENZING, C. and CHU, H. M. (2009), 'A comparison of the motivations of small business owners in Africa', Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 16, 60-77. 'A comparison of the motivations of small business owners in Africa' Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 16 60 77 Google Scholar

BEWAYO, E. (1995), 'Uganda entrepreneurs: why are they in business?', Journal of Small Business Strategy, 6, 67-78. 'Uganda entrepreneurs: why are they in business?' Journal of Small Business Strategy 6 67 78 Google Scholar

BIGSTEN, A. and KAYIZZI-MUGERWA, S. (1992), 'Adaptation and distress in the urban economy: a study of Kampala households', World Development, 20, 1423-41. 'Adaptation and distress in the urban economy: a study of Kampala households' World Development 20 1423 41 Google Scholar

BRUTON, G. D., AHLSTROM, D. and LI, H. L. (2010), 'Institutional theory and entrepreneurship: where are we now and where do we need to move in the future', Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34, 421-40. 'Institutional theory and entrepreneurship: where are we now and where do we need to move in the future' Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 34 421 40 Google Scholar

BRUTON, G. D., AHLSTROM, D. and OBLOJ, K. (2008), 'Entrepreneurship in emerging economies: where are we today and where should the research go in the future', Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32, 1-14. 'Entrepreneurship in emerging economies: where are we today and where should the research go in the future' Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 32 1 14 Google Scholar

CHIGUNTA, F., SCHNURR, J., JAMES-WILSON, D. and TORRES, V. (2005), ‘Being ‘Real’ about Youth Entrepreneurship in Eastern and Southern Africa’ (SEED Working Paper No. 72), Geneva, International Labour Organisation. 'Being ‘Real’ about Youth Entrepreneurship in Eastern and Southern Africa' Google Scholar

DESAI, S. (2011), 'Measuring entrepreneurship in developing countries', in W. Naudé (ed.), Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 94-75. Entrepreneurship and Economic Development 94 75 Google Scholar

DIOMANDE, M. (1990), 'Business creation with minimal resources: some lessons from the African experience', Journal of Business Venturing, 5, 191-200. 'Business creation with minimal resources: some lessons from the African experience' Journal of Business Venturing 5 191 200 Google Scholar

ELDER, G. H. (1994), 'Time, human agency, and social change: perspectives on the life course', Social Psychology Quarterly, 57, 4-15. 'Time, human agency, and social change: perspectives on the life course' Social Psychology Quarterly 57 4 15 Google Scholar

GARCIA, H. M. and FARES, J. (eds) (2008), Youth in Africa's Labour Market, Washington, DC, World Bank Publications. Youth in Africa's Labour Market Google Scholar

GIDDENS, A. (1984), The Constitution of Society, Cambridge, Polity Press. The Constitution of Society Google Scholar

GOUGH, K. V. (2010), 'Continuity and adaptability of home-based enterprises: a longitudinal study from Accra, Ghana', International Development Planning Review, 32, 45-70. 'Continuity and adaptability of home-based enterprises: a longitudinal study from Accra, Ghana' International Development Planning Review 32 45 70 Google Scholar

GRANOVETTER, M. (1985), 'Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness', American Journal of Sociology, 93, 481-510. 'Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness' American Journal of Sociology 93 481 510 Google Scholar

GRIES, T. and NAUDÉ, W. (2010), 'Entrepreneurship and structural economic transformation', Small Business Economics, 34, 13-29. 'Entrepreneurship and structural economic transformation' Small Business Economics 34 13 29 Google Scholar

GURTOO, A. and WILLIAMS, C. C. (2009), 'Entrepreneurship and the informal sector: some lessons from India', International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 10, 55-62. 'Entrepreneurship and the informal sector: some lessons from India' International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation 10 55 62 Google Scholar

HESS, M. (2004), '"Spatial" relationships? Towards a reconceptualization of embeddedness', Progress in Human Geography, 28, 165-86. '"Spatial" relationships? Towards a reconceptualization of embeddedness' Progress in Human Geography 28 165 86 Google Scholar

HESSELS, J., VAN GELDEREN, M. W. and THURIK, A. R. (2008), 'Drivers of entrepreneurial aspirations at the country level: the role of start-up motivations and social security', International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4, 401-17. 'Drivers of entrepreneurial aspirations at the country level: the role of start-up motivations and social security' International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 4 401 17 Google Scholar

JACK, S. L. and ANDERSON, A. R. (2002), 'The effects of embeddedness on the entrepreneurial process', Journal of Business Venturing, 17, 467-87. 'The effects of embeddedness on the entrepreneurial process' Journal of Business Venturing 17 467 87 Google Scholar

KELLEY, D., BOSMAN, N. S. and AMORÓS, J. E. (2011), ‘Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’ (2010 Executive Report), Santiago, Universidad del Desarollo. 'Global Entrepreneurship Monitor' Google Scholar

KHAVUL, S., BRUTON, G. D. and WOOD, E. (2009), 'Informal family business in Africa', Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33, 1217-36. 'Informal family business in Africa' Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 33 1217 36 Google Scholar

KODITHUWAKKU, S. S. and ROSA, P. (2002), 'The entrepreneurial process and economic success in a constrained environment', Journal of Business Venturing, 17, 431-65. 'The entrepreneurial process and economic success in a constrained environment' Journal of Business Venturing 17 431 65 Google Scholar

KUADA, J. (2009), 'Gender, social networks and entrepreneurship in Ghana', Journal of African Business, 10, 85-103. 'Gender, social networks and entrepreneurship in Ghana' Journal of African Business 10 85 103 Google Scholar

LANGEVANG, T. (2008), '"We are managing!" Uncertain paths to respectable adulthoods in Accra, Ghana', Geoforum, 39, 2039-47. '"We are managing!" Uncertain paths to respectable adulthoods in Accra, Ghana' Geoforum 39 2039 47 Google Scholar

LANGEVANG, T. and GOUGH, K. V. (2012), 'Diverging pathways: young female employment and entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa', The Geographical Journal, 178, 242-52. 'Diverging pathways: young female employment and entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa' The Geographical Journal 178 242 52 Google Scholar

MAHAJAN, V. (2009), Africa Rising, New Jersey, Pearson Education. Africa Rising Google Scholar

MAIR, J. and MARTÍ, I. (2006), 'Social entrepreneurship research: a source of explanation, prediction, and delight', Journal of World Business, 41, 36-44. 'Social entrepreneurship research: a source of explanation, prediction, and delight' Journal of World Business 41 36 44 Google Scholar

MCDADE, B. E. and SPRING, A. (2005), 'The "new generation of African entrepreneurs": networking to change the climate for business and private sector-led development', Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 17, 17-42. 'The "new generation of African entrepreneurs": networking to change the climate for business and private sector-led development' Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 17 17 42 Google Scholar

MINNITI, M. and NAUDÉ, W. (2010), 'What do we know about the patterns and determinants of female entrepreneurship across countries?', The European Journal of Development Research, 22, 277-93. 'What do we know about the patterns and determinants of female entrepreneurship across countries?' The European Journal of Development Research 22 277 93 Google Scholar

MINNITI, M., BYGRAVE, W. and AUTIO, E. (2006), ‘Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’ (2005 executive report), London, London Business School and Babson College. 'Global Entrepreneurship Monitor' Google Scholar

MOEN, P. (n.d.), 'A life course approach to the entrepreneurial family', The Cornell University Family Business Research Institute http://www.fambiz.com/Orgs/Cornell/articles/real/moen.cfm Google Scholar

MUKWAYA, P., BAMUTAZE, Y., MUGARURA, S. and BENSON, T. (2011), ‘Rural-urban transformation in Uganda’ (paper delivered to the IFPRI-University of Ghana Conference, Accra, Ghana, 10-11 May 2011) http://econtran.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/uganda-structural-transformation-case-study-cn.pdf Google Scholar

NAMATOVU, R., BALUNYWA, W., KYEJJUSA, S. and DAWA, S. (2011), ‘Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Uganda’ (2010 Uganda Executive Report), Makerere University Business School, Kampala, Uganda. 'Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Uganda' Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

NAUDÉ, W. (2011a), 'Entrepreneurship is not a binding constraint on growth and development in the poorest countries', World Development, 39, 33-44. 'Entrepreneurship is not a binding constraint on growth and development in the poorest countries' World Development 39 33 44 Google Scholar

NAUDÉ, W. (2011b), 'Is proactive government support needed for entrepreneurship in developing countries?', in W. Naudé (ed.), Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 233-53. Entrepreneurship and Economic Development 233 53 Google Scholar

NICHTER, S. and GOLDMARK, L. (2009), 'Small firm growth in developing countries', World Development, 37, 1453-64. 'Small firm growth in developing countries' World Development 37 1453 64 Google Scholar

OFCANSKY, T. P. (1996), Uganda: Tarnished Pearl of Africa, Boulder, CO, Westview Press. Uganda: Tarnished Pearl of Africa Google Scholar

OLOMI, D. R. (2009), 'From economic necessity to entrepreneurship', in D. R. Olomi (ed.), African Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development: Context and Process, Dar es Salaam, University of Dar es Salaam Press, 46-58. African Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development: Context and Process 46 58 Google Scholar

PEREDO, A. M. and CHRISMAN, J. J. (2006), 'Toward a theory of community-based enterprise', Academy of Management Review, 31, 309-28. 'Toward a theory of community-based enterprise' Academy of Management Review 31 309 28 Google Scholar

REINIKKA, R. and COLLIER, P. (eds) (2001), Uganda's Recovery: The Role of Farms, Firms and Government, Kampala, Fountain Publishers. Uganda's Recovery: The Role of Farms, Firms and Government Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ROSA, P. J., KODITHUWAKKU, S. and BALUNYWA, W. (2006), 'Entrepreneurial motivation in developing countries: what does "necessity" and "opportunity" entrepreneurship really mean?', Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 26, 1-14. 'Entrepreneurial motivation in developing countries: what does "necessity" and "opportunity" entrepreneurship really mean?' Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 26 1 14 Google Scholar

SEJJAAKA, S. K. (1996), 'Issues in privatization of public enterprises in Uganda', Makerere Business Journal, 1, 59-69. 'Issues in privatization of public enterprises in Uganda' Makerere Business Journal 1 59 69 Google Scholar

SPRING, A. and MCDADE, B. E. (1998), 'Entrepreneurship in Africa: traditional and contemporary paradigms', in A. Spring and B. E. McDade (eds), African Entrepreneurship: Theory and Reality, Gainesville, University Press of Florida, 1-34. African Entrepreneurship: Theory and Reality 1 34 Google Scholar

TURNER, S. and NGUYEN, P. A. (2005), 'Young entrepreneurs, social capital and Doi Moi in Hanoi, Vietnam', Urban Studies, 42, 1693-710. 'Young entrepreneurs, social capital and Doi Moi in Hanoi, Vietnam' Urban Studies 42 1693 710 Google Scholar

UBOS (UGANDA BUREAU OF STATISTICS) (2010), Uganda National Household and the National Panel Surveys, Kampala, UBOS. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, C. (2009), 'The motives of off-the-book entrepreneurs: necessity- or opportunity-driven?', International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 5, 203-17. 'The motives of off-the-book entrepreneurs: necessity- or opportunity-driven?' International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 5 203 17 Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, C. C. (2008), 'Beyond necessity-driven versus opportunity-driven entrepreneurship: a study of informal entrepreneurs in England, Russia and Ukraine', Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 9, 157-65. 'Beyond necessity-driven versus opportunity-driven entrepreneurship: a study of informal entrepreneurs in England, Russia and Ukraine' Entrepreneurship and Innovation 9 157 65 Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, C. C. and NADIN, S. (2010), 'Entrepreneurship and the informal economy: an overview', Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 15, 361-78. 'Entrepreneurship and the informal economy: an overview' Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship 15 361 78 Google Scholar

WILLIAMS. C. C. and ROUND, J. (2009), ‘Evaluating informal entrepreneurs’ motives: some lessons from Moscow', International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 15, 94-107. 'Evaluating informal entrepreneurs' motives: some lessons from Moscow' International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research 15 94 107 Google Scholar

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Author details

Langevang, Thilde

Namatovu, Rebecca

Dawa, Samuel