International Development Planning Review

Overwater stilt housing in Can Tho, Vietnam: distribution patterns and implications for development policy and master planning

International Development Planning Review (2014), 36, (4), 475–501.

Abstract

Overwater stilt housing is widely distributed in Can Tho City along a complex network of channels that characterise the Mekong Delta region of southern Vietnam. In 2004, Can Tho City became the fifth centrally governed city in Vietnam, resulting in increased investment in infrastructure and a restructuring of the economy towards industrialisation and modernisation. Partly in response to this restructuring, overwater stilt housing in Can Tho has been removed and residents resettled elsewhere, and the policy intent is that this process should continue. This paper presents an analysis of the spatial patterns and the significance of overwater stilt housing in Can Tho City. Our results indicate that there are approximately 87 km of such housing lining channel banks in Can Tho City, housing an estimated 70,000 people, approximately 6 per cent of the city's population. Implications of the extent and distribution of overwater stilt housing for development policy and master planning in the rapidly changing city are explored.

Access Token
£25.00

BOCQUIER, P. (2008), ‘Urbanisation in developing countries: is the "Cities without Slums" target attainable?’, International Development Planning Review, 30, i-vii. ‘Urbanisation in developing countries: is the "Cities without Slums" target attainable?’ International Development Planning Review 30 i vii Google Scholar

BOOTHROYD, P., NAM, P. X. and PHAM, X. N. (2000), Socioeconomic renovation in Viet Nam: The Origin, Evolution, and Impact of Doi Moi, Ottawa, International Development Research Centre. Socioeconomic renovation in Viet Nam: The Origin, Evolution, and Impact of Doi Moi Google Scholar

CLING, J-P., CHI, N. H., RAZAFINDRAKOTO, M. and ROUBAUD, F. (2010), ‘Urbanisation and access to labour market in Vietnam: Weight and characteristics of the informal sector’, in T. N. Q. Tran, F. Quertamp, C. de Miras, N. Q. Vinh, L. V. Nam and T. H. Truong (eds), Trends of Urbanization and Suburbanization in Southeast Asia, Ho Chi Minh City General Publishing House, 205-26. Trends of Urbanization and Suburbanization in Southeast Asia 205 26 Google Scholar

DOUGLASS, M. (2002), ‘From global intercity competition to cooperation for liveable cities and economic resilience in Pacific Asia’, Environment and Urbanization, 14, 53-68. ‘From global intercity competition to cooperation for liveable cities and economic resilience in Pacific Asia’ Environment and Urbanization 14 53 68 Google Scholar

DOVEY, K. and KING, R. (2011), ‘Forms of Informality: Morphology and Visibility of Informal Settlements’, Built Environment, 37, 11-29. ‘Forms of Informality: Morphology and Visibility of Informal Settlements’ Built Environment 37 11 29 Google Scholar

DRAKAKIS-SMITH, S. and DIXON, C. (1997), ‘Sustainable urbanization in Vietnam’, Geoforum, 28, 21-38. ‘Sustainable urbanization in Vietnam’ Geoforum 28 21 38 Google Scholar

DU PLESSIS, J. (2005), ‘The growing problem of forced evictions and the crucial importance of community-based, locally appropriate alternatives’, Environment and Urbanization, 17, 123-34. ‘The growing problem of forced evictions and the crucial importance of community-based, locally appropriate alternatives’ Environment and Urbanization 17 123 34 Google Scholar

DUPONT, V. (2008), ‘Slum Demolitions in Delhi since the 1990s: An Appraisal’, Economic and Political Weekly, 43, 79-87. ‘Slum Demolitions in Delhi since the 1990s: An Appraisal’ Economic and Political Weekly 43 79 87 Google Scholar

ECKERT, R. and SCHINKEL, U. (2009), ‘Liveable City TP. Ho Chi Minh - Adaption as response to impacts of climate change’, Proceedings REAL CORP 2009: 14th International Conference on Urban Planning, Regional Development and Information Society, Sitges, Spain, 313-23. ‘Liveable City TP. Ho Chi Minh - Adaption as response to impacts of climate change’ 313 23 Google Scholar

EVANS, P. (ed.) (2002), Livable Cities?: Urban Struggles for Livelihood and Sustainability, Berkeley, University of California Press. Livable Cities?: Urban Struggles for Livelihood and Sustainability Google Scholar

GARSCHAGEN, M. (2010), ‘Urban upgrading and resettlement of slum dwellers in the Mekong Delta - Long-term sustainability or vulnerability pitfall?’, paper for the International Workshop on Socio-Economically Sustainable Development in Vietnam, Hanoi, Vietnam. ‘Urban upgrading and resettlement of slum dwellers in the Mekong Delta - Long-term sustainability or vulnerability pitfall?’ Google Scholar

GARSCHAGEN, M., RENAUD, F. G. and BIRKMANN, J. (2011), ‘Dynamic Resilience of Peri-Urban Agriculturalists in the Mekong Delta Under Pressures of Socio-Economic Transformation and Climate Change’, in M. A. Stewart and P. A. Coclanis (eds), Environmental Change and Agricultural Sustainability in the Mekong Delta, Advances in Global Change Research 45, Springer, 141-163. Environmental Change and Agricultural Sustainability in the Mekong Delta 141 163 Google Scholar

GARSCHAGEN, M., DIEZ, J. R., NHAN, D. K. and KRAAS, F. (2012), ‘Socio-Economic Development in the Mekong Delta: Between the Prospects for Progress and the Realms of Reality’, in F. G. Renaud and C. Kuenzer (eds), The Mekong Delta System: Interdisciplinary Analyses of a River Delta, Springer Environmental Science and Engineering, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83-132. The Mekong Delta System: Interdisciplinary Analyses of a River Delta 83 132 Google Scholar

GOUGH, K. V. and TRAN, H. A. (2009), ‘Changing housing policy in Vietnam: Emerging inequalities in a residential area of Hanoi’, Cities, 26, 175-86. ‘Changing housing policy in Vietnam: Emerging inequalities in a residential area of Hanoi’ Cities 26 175 86 Google Scholar

GUNTER, A. W. (2009), ‘Getting if for free: Using Google Earth and IL WIS to map squatter settlements in Johannesburg’, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IEEE International, IGARSS 2009, Cape Town, 388-91. ‘Getting if for free: Using Google Earth and IL WIS to map squatter settlements in Johannesburg’ 388 91 Google Scholar

HA, H. and WONG. T.-C. (1999), ‘Economic reforms and the New Master Plan of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Implementation issues and policy recommendations’, GeoJournal, 49, 301-9. ‘Economic reforms and the New Master Plan of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Implementation issues and policy recommendations’ GeoJournal 49 301 9 Google Scholar

HAN, S. S. and VU, K. T. (2008), ‘Land Acquisition in Transitional Hanoi, Vietnam’, Urban Studies, 45, 1097-117. ‘Land Acquisition in Transitional Hanoi, Vietnam’ Urban Studies 45 1097 117 Google Scholar

HANH, V. T. H. (2006), ‘Canal-side highway in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam - Issues of urban cultural conservation and tourism development’, GeoJournal, 66, 165-86. ‘Canal-side highway in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam - Issues of urban cultural conservation and tourism development’ GeoJournal 66 165 86 Google Scholar

HARMS, E. (2012), ‘Beauty as control in the new Saigon: Eviction, new urban zones, and atomized dissent in a Southeast Asian city’, American Ethnologist, 39, 735-50. ‘Beauty as control in the new Saigon: Eviction, new urban zones, and atomized dissent in a Southeast Asian city’ American Ethnologist 39 735 50 Google Scholar

HARTLEY, L. and TOAN, L. Q. (2008), Mapping Urban Poverty in Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi, Habitat for Humanity Vietnam. Mapping Urban Poverty in Ho Chi Minh City Google Scholar

JUMSAI, S. (1988), Naga: cultural origins in Siam and the West Pacific, Singapore, Oxford University Press. Naga: cultural origins in Siam and the West Pacific Google Scholar

KAKONEN, M. (2008), ‘Mekong Delta at the Crossroads: More Control or Adaption?’, Ambio, 37, 205-12. ‘Mekong Delta at the Crossroads: More Control or Adaption?’ Ambio 37 205 12 Google Scholar

LABBE, D. and MUSIL, C. (2013), ‘Periurban Land Redevelopment in Vietnam under Market Socialism’, Urban Studies, published online July 2013. ‘Periurban Land Redevelopment in Vietnam under Market Socialism’ Urban Studies Google Scholar

METH, P. (2013), ‘Millennium development goals and urban informal settlements: unintended consequences’, International Development Planning Review, 35, v-xii. ‘Millennium development goals and urban informal settlements: unintended consequences’ International Development Planning Review 35 v xii Google Scholar

MONKKONEN, P. (2008), ‘Using Online Satellite Imagery as a Research Tool: Mapping Changing Patterns of Urbanization in Mexico’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 28, 225-36. ‘Using Online Satellite Imagery as a Research Tool: Mapping Changing Patterns of Urbanization in Mexico’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 28 225 36 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

PHI, V. T. (2012), ‘Regional Development along Economic Corridors: Southern Coastal and Northern Sub-Corridors in Vietnam’, in Ishida, M. (ed.), Emerging Economic Corridors in the Mekong Region, BRC Research Report No. 8, Bangkok Research Center, IDE-JETRO. Google Scholar

PUGH, C. (2000), ‘Squatter settlements: Their sustainability, architectural contributions, and socio-economic roles’, Cities, 17, 325-37. ‘Squatter settlements: Their sustainability, architectural contributions, and socio-economic roles’ Cities 17 325 37 Google Scholar

QUANG, N. and KAMMEIER, H. D. (2002), ‘Changes in the political economy of Vietnam and their impacts on the built environment of Hanoi’, Cities, 19, 373-88. ‘Changes in the political economy of Vietnam and their impacts on the built environment of Hanoi’ Cities 19 373 88 Google Scholar

REIS, N. and MOLLINGA, P. (2009), Microcredit for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in the Mekong Delta: Policy implementation between the needs for clean water and ‘beautiful latrines’, ZEF Working Paper 49, Bonn, Center for Development Research. Microcredit for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in the Mekong Delta: Policy implementation between the needs for clean water and ‘beautiful latrines’ Google Scholar

RHINANE, H., HILALI, A., BERRADA, A. and HAKDAOUI, M. (2011), ‘Detecting Slums from SPOT Data in Casablanca Morocco Using an Object Based Approach’, Journal of Geographic Information System, 3, 217-24. ‘Detecting Slums from SPOT Data in Casablanca Morocco Using an Object Based Approach’ Journal of Geographic Information System 3 217 24 Google Scholar

SLINGSBY, M. and THUY, D. X. (2002), Development of a Detailed Action Plan for a Selected City (Can Tho), Vietnam, The Cities Alliance. Development of a Detailed Action Plan for a Selected City (Can Tho) Google Scholar

SMITH, D. W. and SCARPAPI, J. L. (2000), ‘Urbanization in transitional societies: an overview of Vietnam and Hanoi’, Urban Geography, 21, 745-57. ‘Urbanization in transitional societies: an overview of Vietnam and Hanoi’ Urban Geography 21 745 57 Google Scholar

SOC (STATISTICAL OFFICE OF CAN THO CITY) (2010), Statistical Year Book of Can Tho City 2009, Can Tho City, Statistical Office of Can Tho City. Google Scholar

SOC (STATISTICAL OFFICE OF CAN THO CITY) (2011), Statistical Year Book of Can Tho City 2010, Can Tho City, Statistical Office of Can Tho City. Google Scholar

SPENCER, J. (2007), ‘Innovative systems to create peri-urban infrastructure: Assessment of a local partnership set up to provide water to the poor in Vietnam’, International Development Planning Review, 29, 1-22. ‘Innovative systems to create peri-urban infrastructure: Assessment of a local partnership set up to provide water to the poor in Vietnam’ International Development Planning Review 29 1 22 Google Scholar

SPENCER, J. (2008), ‘Household Strategies for Securing Clean Water: The Demand for Piped Water in Vietnam's Peri-Urban Settlements’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 28, 213-24. ‘Household Strategies for Securing Clean Water: The Demand for Piped Water in Vietnam's Peri-Urban Settlements’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 28 213 24 Google Scholar

SRV (SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM) (2004), Decree on compensation, support and resettlement when land is recovered by the State, No. 197/2004/ND-CP. Google Scholar

SRV (SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM) (2007), Decision Approving the Master Plan on Socio-Economic Development of Can Tho city in the 2006-2020 Period, No. 21/2007/QD-TTg. Google Scholar

STRANGER, G., TRUONG, T. V., NGOC, K. S., LUYEN, T. V. and THANH, T. T. (2005), ‘Arsenic in ground-waters of the Lower Mekong’, Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 27, 341-57. ‘Arsenic in ground-waters of the Lower Mekong’ Environmental Geochemistry and Health 27 341 57 Google Scholar

TAT, D. N. and TRINH, L. (2005), ‘Canal water pollution of Can Tho City in the Mekong Delta’, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sustainable Development in the Mekong River Basin, Ho Chi Minh City, Japan Science and Technology Agency and Southern Institute for Water Resources Research, 17-24. ‘Canal water pollution of Can Tho City in the Mekong Delta’ 17 24 Google Scholar

TAYLOR, P. (2006), ‘Rivers into Roads: The Terrestrialisation of a South-east Asian River Delta’, in M. Leybourne and A. Gaynor (eds), Water: Histories, Cultures, Ecologies, Crawley, University of Western Australia Press, 38-52. Water: Histories, Cultures, Ecologies 38 52 Google Scholar

THANH, N. P., MATSUI, Y. and FUJIWARA, T. (2010), ‘Household solid waste generation and characteristics in a Mekong Delta city, Vietnam’, Journal of Environmental Management, 91, 2307-21. ‘Household solid waste generation and characteristics in a Mekong Delta city, Vietnam’ Journal of Environmental Management 91 2307 21 Google Scholar

UNDP (UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME) (2013), The Millennium Development Goals Report 2013, New York, United Nations. Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2011), Workshop on Consultation and Technical Assistance to National Housing Development Strategy toward 2020, vision of 2030, media release, 8 March, UN-Habitat. Google Scholar

VAN DER STEEN, P., LENS, P. and LONG, T. T. (2010), Wastewater reuse toward adaption to climate change in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, Delft, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education. Wastewater reuse toward adaption to climate change in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam Google Scholar

VAN HOREN, B. (2004), ‘Community upgrading and institutional capacity building to benefit the urban poor in Asia’, paper presented to the Forum on Urban Infrastructure and Public Service Delivery for the Urban Poor Regional Focus: Asia, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and National Institute of Urban Affairs, New Delhi, 24-25 June. ‘Community upgrading and institutional capacity building to benefit the urban poor in Asia’ Google Scholar

VINH, N. Q. and LEAF, M. (1996), ‘City Life in the Village of Ghosts: A Case Study of Popular Housing in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam’, Habitat International, 20, 175-90. ‘City Life in the Village of Ghosts: A Case Study of Popular Housing in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam’ Habitat International 20 175 90 Google Scholar

WARNER, K. (2010), ‘Global Environmental change and migration: Governance challenges’, Global Environmental Change, 20, 402-13. ‘Global Environmental change and migration: Governance challenges’ Global Environmental Change 20 402 13 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2003), Volume 1 Environmental Assessment and RAP Summary Vietnam Urban Upgrading Project: Phase 1 (Vol. 7 RP189) http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2003/12/2874188/vietnam-urban-upgrading-project-resettlement-plan-vol-7-12 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2004), Urban Upgrading Project, World Bank http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P070197/urban-upgrading-project?xml:lang=en Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Hryczyszyn, Kate

Neil, David