International Development Planning Review

The limitations of climate change donor intervention as deus ex machina: evidence from Sorsogon, the Philippines

International Development Planning Review (2013), 35, (4), 371–394.

Abstract

This study reviews the empirical context of a relatively recent UN-sponsored infusion of climate change-related knowledge and skills for local development in Sorsogon City, in the Bicol region of the Philippines. While recognising the significant positive impacts of such targeted, pro-poor international aid, it points out that the diffusion of benefits is gradual at best, owing to the limitations of sociocultural context, administrative structures and the confounding influence of endemic practices of resilience. Enthusiasm for such developmental aid, often coveted by impoverished localities in the Global South, should be tempered by scholarly realisations on both sides that such grants, especially if they try to localise a phenomenon as complex as global environmental change, are fleeting over the long run, and therefore their advantages must be capitalised on quickly and learned well if these are to be passed on and multiplied at the grassroots.

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ADGER, N. et al. (2009) ‘Are There Social Limits to Adaptation to Climate Change?’, Climatic Change, 93, 335-54. ‘Are There Social Limits to Adaptation to Climate Change?’ Climatic Change 93 335 54 Google Scholar

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CUEVAS, S. (2011), ‘Climate Change, Vulnerability, and Risk Linkages’, International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 3, 29-60. ‘Climate Change, Vulnerability, and Risk Linkages’ International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 3 29 60 Google Scholar

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ERNSTON, H., VAN DER LEEUW, S., REDMAN, C., MEFFERT, D., DAVIS, G., ALFSEN, C. and ELMQVIST, T. (2010), ‘Urban Transitions: On Urban Resilience and Human-Dominated Ecosystems’, Ambio, 39, 531-45. ‘Urban Transitions: On Urban Resilience and Human-Dominated Ecosystems’ Ambio 39 531 45 Google Scholar

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FÜSSEL, H. and KLEIN, R. (2006), ‘Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: An Evolution in Conceptual Thinking’, Climatic Change, 75, 301-29. ‘Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: An Evolution in Conceptual Thinking’ Climatic Change 75 301 29 Google Scholar

GAILLARD, J. (2007), ‘Resilience of Traditional Societies in Facing Natural Hazards’, Disaster Prevention and Management, 16, 522-44. ‘Resilience of Traditional Societies in Facing Natural Hazards’ Disaster Prevention and Management 16 522 44 Google Scholar

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HUNT, A. and WATKISS, P. (2011), ‘Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Cities: A Review of the Literature,’ Climatic Change, 104, 13-49. ‘Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Cities: A Review of the Literature,’ Climatic Change 104 13 49 Google Scholar

JAVIER, A. (2002), ‘Public Entrepreneurship as a Local Governance Strategy in Decentralizing Poverty - Exemplary Initiatives from the Philippines’, Forum of International Development Studies, 21, 17-42. ‘Public Entrepreneurship as a Local Governance Strategy in Decentralizing Poverty - Exemplary Initiatives from the Philippines’ Forum of International Development Studies 21 17 42 Google Scholar

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KAWANAKA, T. (1998), ‘The Robredo Style: Philippine Local Politics in Transition’, Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies, 13, 5-36. ‘The Robredo Style: Philippine Local Politics in Transition’ Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies 13 5 36 Google Scholar

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KOVATS, S. and AKHTAR, R. (2008), ‘Climate, Climate Change, and Human Health in Asian Cities’, Environment and Urbanization, 20, 165-75. ‘Climate, Climate Change, and Human Health in Asian Cities’ Environment and Urbanization 20 165 75 Google Scholar

KRISHNA, A. (2003), ‘Partnerships Between Local Governments and Community-Based Organizations: Exploring the Scope for Synergy’, Public Administration and Development, 23, 361-71. ‘Partnerships Between Local Governments and Community-Based Organizations: Exploring the Scope for Synergy’ Public Administration and Development 23 361 71 Google Scholar

LAYA, M. and MARQUEZ, J. (2012), ‘Epitome of Political Leadership in Rodrigo R. Duterte of Davao City, Philippines’, IAMURE International Journal of Business and Management, 3, 104-17. ‘Epitome of Political Leadership in Rodrigo R. Duterte of Davao City, Philippines’ IAMURE International Journal of Business and Management 3 104 17 Google Scholar

MERTZ, O. et al. (2011), ‘Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries’, Environmental Management, 43, 743-52. ‘Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries’ Environmental Management 43 743 52 Google Scholar

MONCKTON, C. (2006), ‘The Stern Report: Some Early Criticisms’, (Compilation of Reactions from Various Media), The Center for Science and Policy, Washington DC. ‘The Stern Report: Some Early Criticisms’, (Compilation of Reactions from Various Media) Google Scholar

MULLER, M. (2007), ‘Adapting to Climate Change: Water Management for Urban Resilience’, Environment and Urbanization, 19, 99-113. ‘Adapting to Climate Change: Water Management for Urban Resilience’ Environment and Urbanization 19 99 113 Google Scholar

NDCC (NATIONAL DISASTER COORDINATING COUNCIL) (2005), Basic Laws on the Implementation of Disaster Management Programs in the Philippines, Quezon City, National Disaster Coordinating Council. Google Scholar

NORRIS, F., STEPHENS, S., PFEFFERBAUM, B., WYCHE, K. and PFEFFERBAUM, R. (2008), ‘Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Theory, Set of Capacities, and Strategy for Disaster Readiness’, American Journal for Community Psychology, 41, 127-50. ‘Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Theory, Set of Capacities, and Strategy for Disaster Readiness’ American Journal for Community Psychology 41 127 50 Google Scholar

NSCB (NATIONAL STATISTICS COORDINATION BOARD) http://www.nscb.gov.ph/poverty/sae/NSCB_LocalPovertyPhilippines.pdf Google Scholar

PIETERSE, J. (1998), ‘My Paradigm or Yours? Alternative Development, Post-Development, Reflexive Development’, Development and Change, 29, 343-73. ‘My Paradigm or Yours? Alternative Development, Post-Development, Reflexive Development’ Development and Change 29 343 73 Google Scholar

PORFIRIEV, B. (2009), ‘Community Resilience and Vulnerability to Disasters: Qualitative Models and Megacities: A Comparison with Small Towns’, Environmental Hazards, 8, 23-37. ‘Community Resilience and Vulnerability to Disasters: Qualitative Models and Megacities: A Comparison with Small Towns’ Environmental Hazards 8 23 37 Google Scholar

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SATTERTHWAITE, D. (2009), ‘The Implications of Population Growth and Urbanization for Climate Change’, Environment and Urbanization, 21, 545-67. ‘The Implications of Population Growth and Urbanization for Climate Change’ Environment and Urbanization 21 545 67 Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D. (2010), ‘The Contribution of Cities to Global Warming and Their Potential Contributions to Solutions’, Environment and Urbanization Asia, 1, 1-12. ‘The Contribution of Cities to Global Warming and Their Potential Contributions to Solutions’ Environment and Urbanization Asia 1 1 12 Google Scholar

SEABROOK, J. (1993), Victims of Development, London, Verso. Victims of Development Google Scholar

SIMON, D. (2003), ‘Dilemmas of Development and Environment in a Globalizing World: Theory, Policy, and Praxis’, Progress in Development Studies, 3, 5-41. ‘Dilemmas of Development and Environment in a Globalizing World: Theory, Policy, and Praxis’ Progress in Development Studies 3 5 41 Google Scholar

SIMON, D. (2011), ‘Reconciling Development with the Challenges of Climate Change: Business as Usual or A New Paradigm?’, in D. Simon, D. Kjosavik, and P. Vedeld (eds), The Political Economy of Environment and Development in a Globalized World; Exploring the Frontiers, Tapir Academic, Oslo, 195-217. The Political Economy of Environment and Development in a Globalized World; Exploring the Frontiers 195 217 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

SORSOGON CITY GOVERNMENT (undated, probably between 2009n2012), Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment, Sorsogon. Google Scholar

SUSSKIND, L. (2010), ‘Responding to the risks posed by climate change’, Town Planning Review, 81, 217-35. ‘Responding to the risks posed by climate change’ Town Planning Review 81 217 35 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ADGER, N. et al. (2009) ‘Are There Social Limits to Adaptation to Climate Change?’, Climatic Change, 93, 335-54. ‘Are There Social Limits to Adaptation to Climate Change?’ Climatic Change 93 335 54 Google Scholar

AYERS, J. and FORSYTH, T. (2009), ‘Community-Based Adaptation to Climatic Change: Strengthening Resilience Through Development’, Environment, 51, 23-31. ‘Community-Based Adaptation to Climatic Change: Strengthening Resilience Through Development’ Environment 51 23 31 Google Scholar

BANKOFF, G. (2007), ‘Dangers To Going It Alone: Social Capital and the Origins of Community Resilience in the Philippines’, Continuity and Change, 22, 327-55. ‘Dangers To Going It Alone: Social Capital and the Origins of Community Resilience in the Philippines’ Continuity and Change 22 327 55 Google Scholar

BOTZEN, W. and VAN DEN BERGH, J. (2009), ‘Managing Natural Disaster Risks in a Changing Climate’, Environmental Hazards, 8, 209-25. ‘Managing Natural Disaster Risks in a Changing Climate’ Environmental Hazards 8 209 25 Google Scholar

BOYD, E., OSBAHR, H., ERICKSEN, P., TOMPKINS, E., LEMOS, M. and MILLER, F. (2008), ‘Resilience and Climatizing Development: Examples and Policy Implications’, Development, 51, 390-96. ‘Resilience and Climatizing Development: Examples and Policy Implications’ Development 51 390 96 Google Scholar

BROOKS, N., GRIST, N. and BROWN, N. (2009), ‘Development Futures in the Context of Climate Change: Challenging the Present and Learning from the Past’, Development Policy Review, 27, 741-65. ‘Development Futures in the Context of Climate Change: Challenging the Present and Learning from the Past’ Development Policy Review 27 741 65 Google Scholar

BULL-KAMANGA, L., DIAGNE, K., LAVELL, A., LEON, E., LERISE, F., MACGREGOR, H., MASKREY, A., MESHACK, M., PELLING, M., REID, H., SATTERTHWAITE, D., SONGSORE, J., WESTGATE, K. and YITAMBE, A. (2003), ‘From Everyday Hazards to Disasters: The Accumulation of Risk in Urban Areas’, Environment and Urbanization, 15, 193-203. ‘From Everyday Hazards to Disasters: The Accumulation of Risk in Urban Areas’ Environment and Urbanization 15 193 203 Google Scholar

CANNON, T. and MÜLLER-MAHN, D. (2010) ‘Vulnerability, Resilience, and Development Discourses in Context of Climate Change’, Natural Hazards, 55, 621-35. ‘Vulnerability, Resilience, and Development Discourses in Context of Climate Change’ Natural Hazards 55 621 35 Google Scholar

CRIST, E. (2007), ‘Beyond the Climate Crisis: A Critique of Climate Change Discourse’, Telos, 141, 29-55. ‘Beyond the Climate Crisis: A Critique of Climate Change Discourse’ Telos 141 29 55 Google Scholar

CUEVAS, S. (2011), ‘Climate Change, Vulnerability, and Risk Linkages’, International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 3, 29-60. ‘Climate Change, Vulnerability, and Risk Linkages’ International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 3 29 60 Google Scholar

DELFIN, F. and GAILLARD, J. (2008), ‘Extreme Versus Quotidian: Addressing Temporal Dichotomies in Philippine Disaster Management’, Public Administration and Development, 28, 190-99. ‘Extreme Versus Quotidian: Addressing Temporal Dichotomies in Philippine Disaster Management’ Public Administration and Development 28 190 99 Google Scholar

DIONEDA, L. (2011), ‘Sorsogon City Climate Change Action Planning’, Case Presentation Delivered for the Conference on Philippine Cities and Climate Change 2011: Towards a Roadmap for an Urban Agenda, Dusit Hotel Makati City, Metro Manila, 3 October. ‘Sorsogon City Climate Change Action Planning’ Google Scholar

DODMAN, D. (2009), ‘Blaming Cities for Climate Change? An Analysis of Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories’, Environment and Urbanization, 21, 185-201. ‘Blaming Cities for Climate Change? An Analysis of Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories’ Environment and Urbanization 21 185 201 Google Scholar

ERNSTON, H., VAN DER LEEUW, S., REDMAN, C., MEFFERT, D., DAVIS, G., ALFSEN, C. and ELMQVIST, T. (2010), ‘Urban Transitions: On Urban Resilience and Human-Dominated Ecosystems’, Ambio, 39, 531-45. ‘Urban Transitions: On Urban Resilience and Human-Dominated Ecosystems’ Ambio 39 531 45 Google Scholar

FOURNIER, V. (2008), ‘Escaping from the Economy: The Politics of Degrowth’, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 28, 528-45. ‘Escaping from the Economy: The Politics of Degrowth’ International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 28 528 45 Google Scholar

FÜSSEL, H. and KLEIN, R. (2006), ‘Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: An Evolution in Conceptual Thinking’, Climatic Change, 75, 301-29. ‘Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: An Evolution in Conceptual Thinking’ Climatic Change 75 301 29 Google Scholar

GAILLARD, J. (2007), ‘Resilience of Traditional Societies in Facing Natural Hazards’, Disaster Prevention and Management, 16, 522-44. ‘Resilience of Traditional Societies in Facing Natural Hazards’ Disaster Prevention and Management 16 522 44 Google Scholar

GORE, A. (1992), Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit, New York, Rodale Books. Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit Google Scholar

HUNT, A. and WATKISS, P. (2011), ‘Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Cities: A Review of the Literature,’ Climatic Change, 104, 13-49. ‘Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Cities: A Review of the Literature,’ Climatic Change 104 13 49 Google Scholar

JAVIER, A. (2002), ‘Public Entrepreneurship as a Local Governance Strategy in Decentralizing Poverty - Exemplary Initiatives from the Philippines’, Forum of International Development Studies, 21, 17-42. ‘Public Entrepreneurship as a Local Governance Strategy in Decentralizing Poverty - Exemplary Initiatives from the Philippines’ Forum of International Development Studies 21 17 42 Google Scholar

JOHNSON, T. and WEAVER, C. (2009), ‘A Framework for Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water and Watershed Systems’, Environmental Management, 43, 118-34. ‘A Framework for Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water and Watershed Systems’ Environmental Management 43 118 34 Google Scholar

KAWANAKA, T. (1998), ‘The Robredo Style: Philippine Local Politics in Transition’, Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies, 13, 5-36. ‘The Robredo Style: Philippine Local Politics in Transition’ Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies 13 5 36 Google Scholar

KING, P., ANNANDALE, D. and BAILEY, J. (2003), ‘Integrated Economic and Environmental Planning in Asia: A Review of Progress and Proposals for Policy Reform’, Progress in Planning, 59, 233-315. ‘Integrated Economic and Environmental Planning in Asia: A Review of Progress and Proposals for Policy Reform’ Progress in Planning 59 233 315 Google Scholar

KOVATS, S. and AKHTAR, R. (2008), ‘Climate, Climate Change, and Human Health in Asian Cities’, Environment and Urbanization, 20, 165-75. ‘Climate, Climate Change, and Human Health in Asian Cities’ Environment and Urbanization 20 165 75 Google Scholar

KRISHNA, A. (2003), ‘Partnerships Between Local Governments and Community-Based Organizations: Exploring the Scope for Synergy’, Public Administration and Development, 23, 361-71. ‘Partnerships Between Local Governments and Community-Based Organizations: Exploring the Scope for Synergy’ Public Administration and Development 23 361 71 Google Scholar

LAYA, M. and MARQUEZ, J. (2012), ‘Epitome of Political Leadership in Rodrigo R. Duterte of Davao City, Philippines’, IAMURE International Journal of Business and Management, 3, 104-17. ‘Epitome of Political Leadership in Rodrigo R. Duterte of Davao City, Philippines’ IAMURE International Journal of Business and Management 3 104 17 Google Scholar

MERTZ, O. et al. (2011), ‘Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries’, Environmental Management, 43, 743-52. ‘Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries’ Environmental Management 43 743 52 Google Scholar

MONCKTON, C. (2006), ‘The Stern Report: Some Early Criticisms’, (Compilation of Reactions from Various Media), The Center for Science and Policy, Washington DC. ‘The Stern Report: Some Early Criticisms’, (Compilation of Reactions from Various Media) Google Scholar

MULLER, M. (2007), ‘Adapting to Climate Change: Water Management for Urban Resilience’, Environment and Urbanization, 19, 99-113. ‘Adapting to Climate Change: Water Management for Urban Resilience’ Environment and Urbanization 19 99 113 Google Scholar

NDCC (NATIONAL DISASTER COORDINATING COUNCIL) (2005), Basic Laws on the Implementation of Disaster Management Programs in the Philippines, Quezon City, National Disaster Coordinating Council. Google Scholar

NORRIS, F., STEPHENS, S., PFEFFERBAUM, B., WYCHE, K. and PFEFFERBAUM, R. (2008), ‘Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Theory, Set of Capacities, and Strategy for Disaster Readiness’, American Journal for Community Psychology, 41, 127-50. ‘Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Theory, Set of Capacities, and Strategy for Disaster Readiness’ American Journal for Community Psychology 41 127 50 Google Scholar

NSCB (NATIONAL STATISTICS COORDINATION BOARD) http://www.nscb.gov.ph/poverty/sae/NSCB_LocalPovertyPhilippines.pdf Google Scholar

PIETERSE, J. (1998), ‘My Paradigm or Yours? Alternative Development, Post-Development, Reflexive Development’, Development and Change, 29, 343-73. ‘My Paradigm or Yours? Alternative Development, Post-Development, Reflexive Development’ Development and Change 29 343 73 Google Scholar

PORFIRIEV, B. (2009), ‘Community Resilience and Vulnerability to Disasters: Qualitative Models and Megacities: A Comparison with Small Towns’, Environmental Hazards, 8, 23-37. ‘Community Resilience and Vulnerability to Disasters: Qualitative Models and Megacities: A Comparison with Small Towns’ Environmental Hazards 8 23 37 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ROGGEMA, R. (2009), Adaptation to Climate Change: A Spatial Challenge, Dordrecht, Springer Publications. Adaptation to Climate Change: A Spatial Challenge Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D. (2009), ‘The Implications of Population Growth and Urbanization for Climate Change’, Environment and Urbanization, 21, 545-67. ‘The Implications of Population Growth and Urbanization for Climate Change’ Environment and Urbanization 21 545 67 Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D. (2010), ‘The Contribution of Cities to Global Warming and Their Potential Contributions to Solutions’, Environment and Urbanization Asia, 1, 1-12. ‘The Contribution of Cities to Global Warming and Their Potential Contributions to Solutions’ Environment and Urbanization Asia 1 1 12 Google Scholar

SEABROOK, J. (1993), Victims of Development, London, Verso. Victims of Development Google Scholar

SIMON, D. (2003), ‘Dilemmas of Development and Environment in a Globalizing World: Theory, Policy, and Praxis’, Progress in Development Studies, 3, 5-41. ‘Dilemmas of Development and Environment in a Globalizing World: Theory, Policy, and Praxis’ Progress in Development Studies 3 5 41 Google Scholar

SIMON, D. (2011), ‘Reconciling Development with the Challenges of Climate Change: Business as Usual or A New Paradigm?’, in D. Simon, D. Kjosavik, and P. Vedeld (eds), The Political Economy of Environment and Development in a Globalized World; Exploring the Frontiers, Tapir Academic, Oslo, 195-217. The Political Economy of Environment and Development in a Globalized World; Exploring the Frontiers 195 217 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

SORSOGON CITY GOVERNMENT (undated, probably between 2009n2012), Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment, Sorsogon. Google Scholar

SUSSKIND, L. (2010), ‘Responding to the risks posed by climate change’, Town Planning Review, 81, 217-35. ‘Responding to the risks posed by climate change’ Town Planning Review 81 217 35 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ADGER, N. et al. (2009) ‘Are There Social Limits to Adaptation to Climate Change?’, Climatic Change, 93, 335-54. ‘Are There Social Limits to Adaptation to Climate Change?’ Climatic Change 93 335 54 Google Scholar

AYERS, J. and FORSYTH, T. (2009), ‘Community-Based Adaptation to Climatic Change: Strengthening Resilience Through Development’, Environment, 51, 23-31. ‘Community-Based Adaptation to Climatic Change: Strengthening Resilience Through Development’ Environment 51 23 31 Google Scholar

BANKOFF, G. (2007), ‘Dangers To Going It Alone: Social Capital and the Origins of Community Resilience in the Philippines’, Continuity and Change, 22, 327-55. ‘Dangers To Going It Alone: Social Capital and the Origins of Community Resilience in the Philippines’ Continuity and Change 22 327 55 Google Scholar

BOTZEN, W. and VAN DEN BERGH, J. (2009), ‘Managing Natural Disaster Risks in a Changing Climate’, Environmental Hazards, 8, 209-25. ‘Managing Natural Disaster Risks in a Changing Climate’ Environmental Hazards 8 209 25 Google Scholar

BOYD, E., OSBAHR, H., ERICKSEN, P., TOMPKINS, E., LEMOS, M. and MILLER, F. (2008), ‘Resilience and Climatizing Development: Examples and Policy Implications’, Development, 51, 390-96. ‘Resilience and Climatizing Development: Examples and Policy Implications’ Development 51 390 96 Google Scholar

BROOKS, N., GRIST, N. and BROWN, N. (2009), ‘Development Futures in the Context of Climate Change: Challenging the Present and Learning from the Past’, Development Policy Review, 27, 741-65. ‘Development Futures in the Context of Climate Change: Challenging the Present and Learning from the Past’ Development Policy Review 27 741 65 Google Scholar

BULL-KAMANGA, L., DIAGNE, K., LAVELL, A., LEON, E., LERISE, F., MACGREGOR, H., MASKREY, A., MESHACK, M., PELLING, M., REID, H., SATTERTHWAITE, D., SONGSORE, J., WESTGATE, K. and YITAMBE, A. (2003), ‘From Everyday Hazards to Disasters: The Accumulation of Risk in Urban Areas’, Environment and Urbanization, 15, 193-203. ‘From Everyday Hazards to Disasters: The Accumulation of Risk in Urban Areas’ Environment and Urbanization 15 193 203 Google Scholar

CANNON, T. and MÜLLER-MAHN, D. (2010) ‘Vulnerability, Resilience, and Development Discourses in Context of Climate Change’, Natural Hazards, 55, 621-35. ‘Vulnerability, Resilience, and Development Discourses in Context of Climate Change’ Natural Hazards 55 621 35 Google Scholar

CRIST, E. (2007), ‘Beyond the Climate Crisis: A Critique of Climate Change Discourse’, Telos, 141, 29-55. ‘Beyond the Climate Crisis: A Critique of Climate Change Discourse’ Telos 141 29 55 Google Scholar

CUEVAS, S. (2011), ‘Climate Change, Vulnerability, and Risk Linkages’, International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 3, 29-60. ‘Climate Change, Vulnerability, and Risk Linkages’ International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 3 29 60 Google Scholar

DELFIN, F. and GAILLARD, J. (2008), ‘Extreme Versus Quotidian: Addressing Temporal Dichotomies in Philippine Disaster Management’, Public Administration and Development, 28, 190-99. ‘Extreme Versus Quotidian: Addressing Temporal Dichotomies in Philippine Disaster Management’ Public Administration and Development 28 190 99 Google Scholar

DIONEDA, L. (2011), ‘Sorsogon City Climate Change Action Planning’, Case Presentation Delivered for the Conference on Philippine Cities and Climate Change 2011: Towards a Roadmap for an Urban Agenda, Dusit Hotel Makati City, Metro Manila, 3 October. ‘Sorsogon City Climate Change Action Planning’ Google Scholar

DODMAN, D. (2009), ‘Blaming Cities for Climate Change? An Analysis of Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories’, Environment and Urbanization, 21, 185-201. ‘Blaming Cities for Climate Change? An Analysis of Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories’ Environment and Urbanization 21 185 201 Google Scholar

ERNSTON, H., VAN DER LEEUW, S., REDMAN, C., MEFFERT, D., DAVIS, G., ALFSEN, C. and ELMQVIST, T. (2010), ‘Urban Transitions: On Urban Resilience and Human-Dominated Ecosystems’, Ambio, 39, 531-45. ‘Urban Transitions: On Urban Resilience and Human-Dominated Ecosystems’ Ambio 39 531 45 Google Scholar

FOURNIER, V. (2008), ‘Escaping from the Economy: The Politics of Degrowth’, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 28, 528-45. ‘Escaping from the Economy: The Politics of Degrowth’ International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 28 528 45 Google Scholar

FÜSSEL, H. and KLEIN, R. (2006), ‘Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: An Evolution in Conceptual Thinking’, Climatic Change, 75, 301-29. ‘Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: An Evolution in Conceptual Thinking’ Climatic Change 75 301 29 Google Scholar

GAILLARD, J. (2007), ‘Resilience of Traditional Societies in Facing Natural Hazards’, Disaster Prevention and Management, 16, 522-44. ‘Resilience of Traditional Societies in Facing Natural Hazards’ Disaster Prevention and Management 16 522 44 Google Scholar

GORE, A. (1992), Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit, New York, Rodale Books. Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit Google Scholar

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Gomez, José