International Development Planning Review

Who plans the African city? A case study of Maputo: part 2 – agency in action

International Development Planning Review (2015), 37, (4), 423–443.

Abstract

Urbanisation in sub-Saharan Africa constitutes a radically different context from that in the global North, in terms of scale and pace of urban change and the nature of political and economic structures where state capacities are limited and non-state action dominates. However, any urban planning that is generally practiced tends to be based on northern norms and methods, without significant impact. The article draws on empirical research examining state and non-state activities in urban land development in Maputo, Mozambique. Here, whereas land-use planning based on state control has limited impact, urban land is physically structured by urban dwellers aspiring to establish legitimate and viable forms of socioculturally informed physical order. In fact, even where such ‘ordered’ land-use practices are not implemented (whether by state or non-state actors), collective forms of sociocultural organisation still orientate and guide land-use practices in many ‘unplanned’ areas, and this remains the dominant form of land development. This leads to the query: who actually ‘plans’ the African city?

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Eskemose Andersen, J. (2012a) ‘Home space in the African city: built environment study’ (government study) Copenhagen, Danish Research Council. Home space in the African city: built environment study Google Scholar

Eskemose Andersen, J. (2012b) ‘Home space in the African city: socio-economic background’ (government study) Copenhagen, Danish Research Council. Home space in the African city: socio-economic background Google Scholar

Eskermose Andersen, J., Jenkins, P. and Nielsen, M. (2015), ‘Who plans the African city? A case study of Maputo: part 1: the structural context’, International Development and Planning Review, 37, 329–50. Who plans the African city? A case study of Maputo: part 1: the structural context International Development and Planning Review 37 329 50 Google Scholar

Gilbert, A. (2008) ‘Slums, tenants and home-ownership: on blindness to the obvious’, International Development Planning Review, 30, i–x. Slums, tenants and home-ownership: on blindness to the obvious International Development Planning Review 30 i x Google Scholar

Hansen, K. T. and Vaa, M. (2004) Reconsidering informality. perspectives from urban Africa, Uppsala, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Reconsidering informality. perspectives from urban Africa Google Scholar

Huchzermeyer, M. (2011a) Cities with ‘slums’. from informal settlement eradication to a right to the city in Africa, South Africa, Juta Academic. Cities with ‘slums’. from informal settlement eradication to a right to the city in Africa Google Scholar

Huchzermeyer, M. (2011b) Tenement cities. From 19th century Berlin to 21st century Nairobi, Trenton, Africa World Press. Tenement cities. From 19th century Berlin to 21st century Nairobi Google Scholar

Jenkins, P. (2001a) ‘Strengthening access to land for housing for the poor in Maputo, Mozambique’, International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, 25, 629–48. Strengthening access to land for housing for the poor in Maputo, Mozambique International Journal of Urban & Regional Research 25 629 48 Google Scholar

Jenkins, P. (2001b) ‘Emerging land markets for housing in Mozambique: the impact on the poor and alternatives to improve land access and urban development - an action research project in peri-urban Maputo’, (Research Paper No. 75) Edinburgh, School of Planning and Housing, Edinburgh College of Art/Heriot-Watt University. Emerging land markets for housing in Mozambique: the impact on the poor and alternatives to improve land access and urban development - an action research project in peri-urban Maputo Google Scholar

Jenkins, P. (2003) ‘In search of the urban-rural front-line in post-war Mozambique and Angola’, Environment & Urbanisation, 15, 121–34. In search of the urban-rural front-line in post-war Mozambique and Angola Environment & Urbanisation 15 121 34 Google Scholar

Jenkins, P. (2006) ‘The image of the city in Mozambique’, in D. Bryceson and D. Potts (eds), African urban economies: viability, vitality or vitiation of major cities in East and Southern Africa, Basingstoke, Palgrave, 107–30. The image of the city in Mozambique African urban economies: viability, vitality or vitiation of major cities in East and Southern Africa 107 30 Google Scholar

Jenkins, P. (2009) ‘African cities: competing claims on urban land’, in P. Nugent and F. Locatelli (eds) African cities: competing claims on urban spaces, Leiden, Brill, 81–108. African cities: competing claims on urban land African cities: competing claims on urban spaces 81 108 Google Scholar

Jenkins, P. (2012) ‘Home space in the African city: context report’ (report) Copenhagen, Danish Research Council, available at: http://www.homespace.dk/tl_files/uploads/publications/Full%20reports/HomeSpace_Context_Report.pdf (accessed 19 February 2015). Google Scholar

Jenkins, P. (2013) Urbanization, urbanism and urbanity: home spaces and house cultures in an African city, New York, Palgrave Macmillan. Urbanization, urbanism and urbanity: home spaces and house cultures in an African city, New York, Palgrave Macmillan Google Scholar

Kamete, A. Y. and Lindell, I. (2010) ‘The politics of “non-planning” interventions in African cities: unravelling the international and local dimensions in Harare and Maputo’, Journal of Southern African Studies, 36, 889–912. The politics of “non-planning” interventions in African cities: unravelling the international and local dimensions in Harare and Maputo Journal of Southern African Studies 36 889 912 Google Scholar

Kihato, C. W., Royston, L., Raimundo, J. A. and Raimundo I. M. (2013) ‘Multiple land regimes: rethinking land governance in Maputo’s peri-urban spaces’, Urban Forum, 24, DOI 10.1007/s12132-012-9163-z. Multiple land regimes: rethinking land governance in Maputo’s peri-urban spaces Urban Forum 24 Google Scholar

Nielsen, M. (2007) ‘Filling in the blanks. The potency of fragmented imageries of the state’, Review of African Political Economy, 34, 695–708. Filling in the blanks. The potency of fragmented imageries of the state Review of African Political Economy 34 695 708 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Nielsen, M. (2010) ‘Mimesis of the state. From natural disaster to urban citizenship on the outskirts of Maputo, Mozambique’, Social Analysis, 54, 153–73. Mimesis of the state. From natural disaster to urban citizenship on the outskirts of Maputo, Mozambique Social Analysis 54 73 73 Google Scholar

Nielsen, M. (2011) ‘Inverse governmentality. The paradoxical production of peri-urban planning in Maputo, Mozambique’, Critique of Anthropology, 31, 329–58. Inverse governmentality. The paradoxical production of peri-urban planning in Maputo, Mozambique Critique of Anthropology 31 329 58 Google Scholar

Nnkya T. J. (2007) Why Planning does not work. Land use planning and residents rights in Tanzania, Tanzania, Mkuki na Nyota. Why Planning does not work. Land use planning and residents rights in Tanzania Google Scholar

Rakodi, C. (2007) ‘Land for housing in African cities: are informal delivery systems institutionally robust and pro-poor?’, Global Urban Development Magazine, 3, available at: www.global-urban.org/GUDMag07Vol3Issi/Rakodi.htm (accessed 8 June 2014). Google Scholar

Rita-Ferreira, A. (1967/68) Os Africanos de lourenço marques, memórias do instituto de investigação científica de Moçambique Vol. 9 Sério C, Lourenço Marques, Instituto de Investigaçâo Científica de Moçambique. Os Africanos de lourenço marques, memórias do instituto de investigação científica de Moçambique Vol. 9 Sério C Google Scholar

Stasavage, D. (2000) ‘Causes and consequences of corruption: Mozambique in transition’, in A. Doig and R. Theobald (eds) Corruption and democratisation, London, Frank Cass, 65–97. Causes and consequences of corruption: Mozambique in transition Corruption and democratisation 65 97 Google Scholar

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Author details

Andersen, Jørgen Eskemose

Jenkins, Paul

Nielsen, Morten