Indexer: The International Journal of Indexing (The)

What do readers expect from book indexes and how do they use them? An exploratory user study

Indexer: The International Journal of Indexing (The) (2015), 33, (3), 90–101.

Abstract

Current indexing practice is based on assumptions rather than knowledge about the behaviour of book index users. This exploratory user study investigated readers’ expectations and use of book indexes in order to fill this gap in knowledge. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six individuals who have regular exposure to books with indexes. Participants revealed that they have a clear understanding of the purpose and use of book indexes, despite being unable to recall any specific instruction in using indexes. They expect to find indexes in nonfiction books, and their choice of a book is influenced by the index. It is apparent from the results that users approach indexes in two ways – to gain a general overview of a book and to find specific topics in a book – depending on the context of index use and their familiarity with the book. It was also revealed that users have different expectations for ebook indexes than for print book indexes. The study was limited to participants who liked and used book indexes. Similar research into the expectations and behaviour of readers who do not use book indexes is needed to provide a complete picture; however, the results of this study could inform design of index usability testing and research on navigation within books.

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Abdullah, N. (2008) A study into usability of tools for searching and browsing e-books with particular reference to back-of-thebook index, PhD thesis, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. http://dspace.fsktm.um.edu.my/handle/1812/215 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2007) ‘Students’ reactions towards e-books in an university library collection.’ International Journal of the Book 5(1), 63–72. International Journal of the Book 5 63 72 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2008a) ‘Students’ attitudes towards e-books in a Scottish higher education institute, Part 1.’ Library Review 57(8), 593–605. doi: 10.1108/00242530810899577 Library Review 57 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2008b) ‘Students’ attitudes towards e-books in a Scottish higher education institute, Part 2 – analysis of e-book usage.’ Library Review 57(9), 676–89. doi: 10.1108/00242530810911798 Library Review 57 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2008c) ‘Using a task-based approach in evaluating the usability of BoBIs in an e-book environment.’ Advances in Information Retrieval: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4956, 246–57. Using a task-based approach in evaluating the usability of BoBIs in an e-book environment Advances in Information Retrieval: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4956 246 57 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2009) ‘Students’ attitudes towards e-books in a Scottish higher education institute, Part 3 – search and browse tasks.’ Library Review 58(1), 17–27. doi: 10.1108/00242530910928906 Library Review 58 Google Scholar

Anderson, J. D. (1993) Indexing standards: Are they possible? What good are they? Why bother? Paper for ASI 25th Annual Meeting, Port Aransas, Texas. Indexing standards: Are they possible? Google Scholar

Anderson, J. D. and Pérez-Carballo, J. (2005) Information retrieval and design. St Petersburg, Fla: Ometeca Institute. Information retrieval and design Google Scholar

Bakewell, K. (1990) ‘Towards a new international standard on indexing.’ The Indexer 17(2), 127–8. Towards a new international standard on indexing The Indexer 17 128 8 Google Scholar

Bakewell, K. (1993) ‘Research in indexing: more needed?’ The Indexer 18(3), 147–51. Research in indexing: more needed? The Indexer 18 147 51 Google Scholar

Banwell, L. and Coulson, G. (2004) ‘Users and user study methodology: the JUBILEE project.’ Information Research 9(2). www.informationr.net/ir/9-2/paper167.html Google Scholar

Barnum, C., Henderson, E., Hood, A. and Jordan, R. (2004) ‘Index versus full-text search: a usability study of user preference and performance.’ Technical Communication 51(2), 185–206. Users and user study methodology: the JUBILEE project Technical Communication 51 185 206 Google Scholar

Bell, H. K. (1993) ‘Vive la différence! The survival of the softest.’ The Indexer 18(4), 231–6. Vive la différence! The survival of the softest The Indexer 18 231 6 Google Scholar

Bell, H. K. (1996) ‘Whom should we aim to please?’ The Indexer 20(1), 3–5. Whom should we aim to please? The Indexer 20 3 5 Google Scholar

Berg, S. A., Hoffmann, K. and Dawson, D. (2010) ‘Not on the same page: undergraduates’ information retrieval in electronic and print books.’ Journal of Academic Librarianship 36(6), 518–25. Journal of Academic Librarianship 36 518 25 Google Scholar

Bishop, A. P., Liddy, E. D. and Settel, B. (1991a) Index quality study, Part I: Quantitative description of back-of-book indexes. Paper for ‘Indexing tradition and innovation’, 22nd annual ASI conference, Wheat Ridge, Colo. Index quality study, Part I: Quantitative description of back-of-book indexes Google Scholar

Bishop, A. P., Liddy, E. D. and Settel, B. (1991b) Index quality study, Part II: Publishers’ survey and qualitative assessment. Paper for ‘Indexing tradition and innovation’, 22nd annual ASI conference, Wheat Ridge, Colo. Index quality study, Part II: Publishers’ survey and qualitative assessment Google Scholar

Bosschieter, P. (2006) ‘Back-of-the-book indexing in the Netherlands today.’ The Indexer 25(2), 86–8. Back-of-the-book indexing in the Netherlands today The Indexer 25 86 8 Google Scholar

Browne, G. and Coe, M. (2012) ‘Ebook navigation: browse, search and index.’ Australian Library Journal 61(4), 288–97. Ebook navigation: browse, search and index Australian Library Journal 61 288 97 Google Scholar

Browne, G. and Jermey, J. (2007) The indexing companion. Port Melbourne, Vic.: Cambridge University Press. The indexing companion Google Scholar

Case, D. O. (2012) Looking for information: a survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior, 3rd edn. Bingley, UK: Emerald. Looking for information: a survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior Google Scholar

Cleveland, D. B. and Cleveland, A. D. (1990) Introduction to indexing and abstracting. Englewood, Colo: Libraries Unlimited. Introduction to indexing and abstracting Google Scholar

Coe, M. (2014) ‘Where is the evidence? A review of book indexing research.’ The Indexer 32(4), 161–8. Where is the evidence? A review of book indexing research The Indexer 32 161 8 Google Scholar

Diodato, V. and Gandt, G. (1991) ‘Back of book indexes and the characteristics of author and nonauthor indexing: report of an exploratory study.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42(5), 341–50. Back of book indexes and the characteristics of author and nonauthor indexing: report of an exploratory study Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42 341 50 Google Scholar

Evans, R. T. (2002) Usability test: Index vs. full-text search. Paper presented at Southern Polytechnic State University, Marietta, Ga., 10 January. Usability test: Index vs. full-text search Google Scholar

Fidel, R. (2008) ‘Are we there yet? Mixed methods research in library and information science.’ Library and Information Science Research 30, 265–72. doi: 10.1016/j.lisr.2008.04.001 Are we there yet? Mixed methods research in library and information science Library and Information Science Research 30 Google Scholar

Flatoff, J. (2007) ‘Do children use indexes differently than adults? Summary of an informal survey of index users.’ Key Words 15(1), 19–30. Do children use indexes differently than adults? Summary of an informal survey of index users Key Words 15 19 30 Google Scholar

Gratch, B., Settel, B. and Atherton, P. (1978) ‘Characteristics of book indexes for subject retrieval in the humanities and social sciences.’ The Indexer 11(2), 14–23. Characteristics of book indexes for subject retrieval in the humanities and social sciences The Indexer 11 14 23 Google Scholar

Guest, G., Bunce, A. and Johnson, L. (2006) ‘How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability.’ Field Methods 18(1), 59–82. doi: 10.1177/1525822X05279903 How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability Field Methods 18 Google Scholar

Hanson, F. A. (2007) The trouble with culture: How computers are calming the culture wars. New York: SUNY Press. The trouble with culture: How computers are calming the culture wars Google Scholar

Harman, D. (2011) Information retrieval evaluation. New York: Morgan & Claypool. Information retrieval evaluation Google Scholar

Johncocks, B. (2008a) ‘Indexing by numbers: is there scope for metrics in index evaluation?’ The Indexer 26(4), 158–62. Indexing by numbers: is there scope for metrics in index evaluation? The Indexer 26 158 62 Google Scholar

Johncocks, B. (2008b) ‘Web 2.0 and users’ expectations of indexes.’ The Indexer 26(1), 18–24. The Indexer 26 18 24 Google Scholar

Kleinberg, I. (1993) Making the case for professional indexers: where is the proof? Paper for ASI 25th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 2022 May. Making the case for professional indexers: where is the proof? Google Scholar

Knight, G. N. (1979) Indexing, the art of. London: Allen & Unwin. Indexing, the art of Google Scholar

Liddy, E. D. and Jörgensen, C. L. (1993) Reality check! Book index characteristics that facilitate information access. Paper for ASI 25th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 20–22 May. Reality check! Book index characteristics that facilitate information access Google Scholar

Liddy, E. D. and Jörgensen, C. L. (1996) ‘Information access or information anxiety? An exploratory evaluation of book index features.’ The Indexer 20(2), 64–8. Information access or information anxiety? An exploratory evaluation of book index features The Indexer 20 64 8 Google Scholar

Lipetz, B.-A. (1989) ‘The usefulness of indexes.’ The Indexer 16(3), 173–6. The usefulness of indexes The Indexer 16 173 6 Google Scholar

Markey, K. (2007) ‘Twenty-five years of end-user searching, Part 2: Future research directions.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 58(8), 1123–30. Twenty-five years of end-user searching, Part 2: Future research directions Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 58 1123 30 Google Scholar

Marshall, C. (2010) Reading and writing the electronic book. New York: Morgan & Claypool. Reading and writing the electronic book Google Scholar

Marshall, C. and Rossman, G. B. (1999) Designing qualitative research, 3rd edn. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage. Designing qualitative research Google Scholar

Ménard, E. (2011) ‘Chicken or egg theory: do we truly know how they search?’ The Indexer 29(4), 150–6. Chicken or egg theory: do we truly know how they search? The Indexer 29 150 6 Google Scholar

Milstead, J. L. (1994) ‘Needs for research in indexing.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45(8), 577–82. Needs for research in indexing Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45 577 82 Google Scholar

Mooers, C. N. (1996) ‘Mooer’s law: or, why some retrieval systems are used and others are not.’ Bulletin of the American Sociey for Information Science Oct./Nov., 22–3. www.asis.org/Bulletin/Oct-96/OctNov96_Mooers.pdf Google Scholar

Neuman, W. L. (2011) Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 7th edn. Boston, Mass.: Allyn & Bacon. Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches Google Scholar

Noorhidawati, A. and Gibb, F. (2008) ‘How students use e-books – reading or referring?’ Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science 13(2), 1–14. How students use e-books – reading or referring? Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science 13 1 14 Google Scholar

Noorhidawati, A. and Gibb, F. (2008) ‘How students use e-books – reading or referring?’ Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science 13(2), 1–14. How students use e-books – reading or referring? Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science 13 1 14 Google Scholar

Olason, S. C. (2000) ‘Let’s get usable! Usability studies for indexes.’ The Indexer 22(2), 91–5. The Indexer 22 91 5 Google Scholar

Pickard, A. J. (2007) Research methods in information. London: Facet. Research methods in information Google Scholar

Regazzi, J. J. (1980) ‘Evaluating indexing systems: a review after Cranfield.’ The Indexer 12(1), 14–21. Evaluating indexing systems: a review after Cranfield The Indexer 22 14 21 Google Scholar

Regazzi, J. J. (1980) ‘Evaluating indexing systems: a review after Cranfield’ The Indexer 12(1), 14–21. Evaluating indexing systems: a review after Cranfield The Indexer 12 14 21 Google Scholar

Rubin, J. and Chisnell, D. (2008) Handbook of usability testing: How to plan, design, and conduct effective tests. New York: John Wiley. Retrieved from EBL database. Handbook of usability testing: How to plan, design, and conduct effective tests Google Scholar

Ryan, C. N. and Henselmeier, S. (2000) ‘Usability testing at Macmillan USA.’ Key Words 8(6), 198–202. Usability testing at Macmillan USA Key Words 8 198 202 Google Scholar

Shuter, J. (1993) Standards for indexes: Where do they come from and what use are they? Paper for ASI 25th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 20–22 May. Standards for indexes: Where do they come from and what use are they? Google Scholar

Solomon, P. (2002) ‘Discovering information in context.’ Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 36, 229–64. Discovering information in context Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 36 229 64 Google Scholar

Vakkari, P. (2003) ‘Task-based information searching.’ Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 37(1), 413–64. Task-based information searching Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 37 413 64 Google Scholar

Van der Meij, H. (2002) ‘Styling the index: is it time for a change?’ Journal of Information Science 28(3), 243–51. Styling the index: is it time for a change? Journal of Information Science 28 243 51 Google Scholar

Weinberg, B. H. (1994). ‘Indexes: a chapter from the Chicago manual of style, 14th edition: a review.’ The Indexer 19(2), 105–9. Indexes: a chapter from the Chicago manual of style, 14th edition: a review The Indexer 19 105 9 Google Scholar

Wellisch, H. H. (1991) Indexing from A to Z. New York: H. W. Wilson. Indexing from A to Z Google Scholar

Williams, P. L. and Bakewell, K. (1999) ‘Indexing children’s information books.’ The Indexer 21(4), 174–9. The Indexer 21 174 9 Google Scholar

Wilson, T. D. (2000) ‘Recent trends in user studies: action research and qualitative methods.’ Information Research 5(3). Recent trends in user studies: action research and qualitative methods Information Research 5 Google Scholar

Wilson, T. D. (2006a) ‘Information-seeking behaviour and the digital information world.’ The Indexer 25(1), 28–31. Information-seeking behaviour and the digital information world The Indexer 25 28 31 Google Scholar

Wilson, T. D. (2006b) ‘On user studies and information needs.’ Journal of Documentation 62(6), 658–70. On user studies and information needs Journal of Documentation 62 658 70 Google Scholar

Wittmann, C. (1990) ‘Subheadings in award-winning book indexes: a quantitative evaluation.’ The Indexer 17(1), 3–6. Subheadings in award-winning book indexes: a quantitative evaluation The Indexer 17 3 6 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. (2008) A study into usability of tools for searching and browsing e-books with particular reference to back-of-thebook index, PhD thesis, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. http://dspace.fsktm.um.edu.my/handle/1812/215 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2007) ‘Students’ reactions towards e-books in an university library collection.’ International Journal of the Book 5(1), 63–72. International Journal of the Book 5 63 72 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2008a) ‘Students’ attitudes towards e-books in a Scottish higher education institute, Part 1.’ Library Review 57(8), 593–605. doi: 10.1108/00242530810899577 Library Review 57 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2008b) ‘Students’ attitudes towards e-books in a Scottish higher education institute, Part 2 – analysis of e-book usage.’ Library Review 57(9), 676–89. doi: 10.1108/00242530810911798 Library Review 57 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2008c) ‘Using a task-based approach in evaluating the usability of BoBIs in an e-book environment.’ Advances in Information Retrieval: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4956, 246–57. Using a task-based approach in evaluating the usability of BoBIs in an e-book environment Advances in Information Retrieval: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4956 246 57 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2009) ‘Students’ attitudes towards e-books in a Scottish higher education institute, Part 3 – search and browse tasks.’ Library Review 58(1), 17–27. doi: 10.1108/00242530910928906 Library Review 58 Google Scholar

Anderson, J. D. (1993) Indexing standards: Are they possible? What good are they? Why bother? Paper for ASI 25th Annual Meeting, Port Aransas, Texas. Indexing standards: Are they possible? Google Scholar

Anderson, J. D. and Pérez-Carballo, J. (2005) Information retrieval and design. St Petersburg, Fla: Ometeca Institute. Information retrieval and design Google Scholar

Bakewell, K. (1990) ‘Towards a new international standard on indexing.’ The Indexer 17(2), 127–8. Towards a new international standard on indexing The Indexer 17 128 8 Google Scholar

Bakewell, K. (1993) ‘Research in indexing: more needed?’ The Indexer 18(3), 147–51. Research in indexing: more needed? The Indexer 18 147 51 Google Scholar

Banwell, L. and Coulson, G. (2004) ‘Users and user study methodology: the JUBILEE project.’ Information Research 9(2). www.informationr.net/ir/9-2/paper167.html Google Scholar

Barnum, C., Henderson, E., Hood, A. and Jordan, R. (2004) ‘Index versus full-text search: a usability study of user preference and performance.’ Technical Communication 51(2), 185–206. Users and user study methodology: the JUBILEE project Technical Communication 51 185 206 Google Scholar

Bell, H. K. (1993) ‘Vive la différence! The survival of the softest.’ The Indexer 18(4), 231–6. Vive la différence! The survival of the softest The Indexer 18 231 6 Google Scholar

Bell, H. K. (1996) ‘Whom should we aim to please?’ The Indexer 20(1), 3–5. Whom should we aim to please? The Indexer 20 3 5 Google Scholar

Berg, S. A., Hoffmann, K. and Dawson, D. (2010) ‘Not on the same page: undergraduates’ information retrieval in electronic and print books.’ Journal of Academic Librarianship 36(6), 518–25. Journal of Academic Librarianship 36 518 25 Google Scholar

Bishop, A. P., Liddy, E. D. and Settel, B. (1991a) Index quality study, Part I: Quantitative description of back-of-book indexes. Paper for ‘Indexing tradition and innovation’, 22nd annual ASI conference, Wheat Ridge, Colo. Index quality study, Part I: Quantitative description of back-of-book indexes Google Scholar

Bishop, A. P., Liddy, E. D. and Settel, B. (1991b) Index quality study, Part II: Publishers’ survey and qualitative assessment. Paper for ‘Indexing tradition and innovation’, 22nd annual ASI conference, Wheat Ridge, Colo. Index quality study, Part II: Publishers’ survey and qualitative assessment Google Scholar

Bosschieter, P. (2006) ‘Back-of-the-book indexing in the Netherlands today.’ The Indexer 25(2), 86–8. Back-of-the-book indexing in the Netherlands today The Indexer 25 86 8 Google Scholar

Browne, G. and Coe, M. (2012) ‘Ebook navigation: browse, search and index.’ Australian Library Journal 61(4), 288–97. Ebook navigation: browse, search and index Australian Library Journal 61 288 97 Google Scholar

Browne, G. and Jermey, J. (2007) The indexing companion. Port Melbourne, Vic.: Cambridge University Press. The indexing companion Google Scholar

Case, D. O. (2012) Looking for information: a survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior, 3rd edn. Bingley, UK: Emerald. Looking for information: a survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior Google Scholar

Cleveland, D. B. and Cleveland, A. D. (1990) Introduction to indexing and abstracting. Englewood, Colo: Libraries Unlimited. Introduction to indexing and abstracting Google Scholar

Coe, M. (2014) ‘Where is the evidence? A review of book indexing research.’ The Indexer 32(4), 161–8. Where is the evidence? A review of book indexing research The Indexer 32 161 8 Google Scholar

Diodato, V. and Gandt, G. (1991) ‘Back of book indexes and the characteristics of author and nonauthor indexing: report of an exploratory study.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42(5), 341–50. Back of book indexes and the characteristics of author and nonauthor indexing: report of an exploratory study Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42 341 50 Google Scholar

Evans, R. T. (2002) Usability test: Index vs. full-text search. Paper presented at Southern Polytechnic State University, Marietta, Ga., 10 January. Usability test: Index vs. full-text search Google Scholar

Fidel, R. (2008) ‘Are we there yet? Mixed methods research in library and information science.’ Library and Information Science Research 30, 265–72. doi: 10.1016/j.lisr.2008.04.001 Are we there yet? Mixed methods research in library and information science Library and Information Science Research 30 Google Scholar

Flatoff, J. (2007) ‘Do children use indexes differently than adults? Summary of an informal survey of index users.’ Key Words 15(1), 19–30. Do children use indexes differently than adults? Summary of an informal survey of index users Key Words 15 19 30 Google Scholar

Gratch, B., Settel, B. and Atherton, P. (1978) ‘Characteristics of book indexes for subject retrieval in the humanities and social sciences.’ The Indexer 11(2), 14–23. Characteristics of book indexes for subject retrieval in the humanities and social sciences The Indexer 11 14 23 Google Scholar

Guest, G., Bunce, A. and Johnson, L. (2006) ‘How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability.’ Field Methods 18(1), 59–82. doi: 10.1177/1525822X05279903 How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability Field Methods 18 Google Scholar

Hanson, F. A. (2007) The trouble with culture: How computers are calming the culture wars. New York: SUNY Press. The trouble with culture: How computers are calming the culture wars Google Scholar

Harman, D. (2011) Information retrieval evaluation. New York: Morgan & Claypool. Information retrieval evaluation Google Scholar

Johncocks, B. (2008a) ‘Indexing by numbers: is there scope for metrics in index evaluation?’ The Indexer 26(4), 158–62. Indexing by numbers: is there scope for metrics in index evaluation? The Indexer 26 158 62 Google Scholar

Johncocks, B. (2008b) ‘Web 2.0 and users’ expectations of indexes.’ The Indexer 26(1), 18–24. The Indexer 26 18 24 Google Scholar

Kleinberg, I. (1993) Making the case for professional indexers: where is the proof? Paper for ASI 25th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 2022 May. Making the case for professional indexers: where is the proof? Google Scholar

Knight, G. N. (1979) Indexing, the art of. London: Allen & Unwin. Indexing, the art of Google Scholar

Liddy, E. D. and Jörgensen, C. L. (1993) Reality check! Book index characteristics that facilitate information access. Paper for ASI 25th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 20–22 May. Reality check! Book index characteristics that facilitate information access Google Scholar

Liddy, E. D. and Jörgensen, C. L. (1996) ‘Information access or information anxiety? An exploratory evaluation of book index features.’ The Indexer 20(2), 64–8. Information access or information anxiety? An exploratory evaluation of book index features The Indexer 20 64 8 Google Scholar

Lipetz, B.-A. (1989) ‘The usefulness of indexes.’ The Indexer 16(3), 173–6. The usefulness of indexes The Indexer 16 173 6 Google Scholar

Markey, K. (2007) ‘Twenty-five years of end-user searching, Part 2: Future research directions.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 58(8), 1123–30. Twenty-five years of end-user searching, Part 2: Future research directions Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 58 1123 30 Google Scholar

Marshall, C. (2010) Reading and writing the electronic book. New York: Morgan & Claypool. Reading and writing the electronic book Google Scholar

Marshall, C. and Rossman, G. B. (1999) Designing qualitative research, 3rd edn. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage. Designing qualitative research Google Scholar

Ménard, E. (2011) ‘Chicken or egg theory: do we truly know how they search?’ The Indexer 29(4), 150–6. Chicken or egg theory: do we truly know how they search? The Indexer 29 150 6 Google Scholar

Milstead, J. L. (1994) ‘Needs for research in indexing.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45(8), 577–82. Needs for research in indexing Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45 577 82 Google Scholar

Mooers, C. N. (1996) ‘Mooer’s law: or, why some retrieval systems are used and others are not.’ Bulletin of the American Sociey for Information Science Oct./Nov., 22–3. www.asis.org/Bulletin/Oct-96/OctNov96_Mooers.pdf Google Scholar

Neuman, W. L. (2011) Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 7th edn. Boston, Mass.: Allyn & Bacon. Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches Google Scholar

Noorhidawati, A. and Gibb, F. (2008) ‘How students use e-books – reading or referring?’ Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science 13(2), 1–14. How students use e-books – reading or referring? Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science 13 1 14 Google Scholar

Noorhidawati, A. and Gibb, F. (2008) ‘How students use e-books – reading or referring?’ Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science 13(2), 1–14. How students use e-books – reading or referring? Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science 13 1 14 Google Scholar

Olason, S. C. (2000) ‘Let’s get usable! Usability studies for indexes.’ The Indexer 22(2), 91–5. The Indexer 22 91 5 Google Scholar

Pickard, A. J. (2007) Research methods in information. London: Facet. Research methods in information Google Scholar

Regazzi, J. J. (1980) ‘Evaluating indexing systems: a review after Cranfield.’ The Indexer 12(1), 14–21. Evaluating indexing systems: a review after Cranfield The Indexer 22 14 21 Google Scholar

Regazzi, J. J. (1980) ‘Evaluating indexing systems: a review after Cranfield’ The Indexer 12(1), 14–21. Evaluating indexing systems: a review after Cranfield The Indexer 12 14 21 Google Scholar

Rubin, J. and Chisnell, D. (2008) Handbook of usability testing: How to plan, design, and conduct effective tests. New York: John Wiley. Retrieved from EBL database. Handbook of usability testing: How to plan, design, and conduct effective tests Google Scholar

Ryan, C. N. and Henselmeier, S. (2000) ‘Usability testing at Macmillan USA.’ Key Words 8(6), 198–202. Usability testing at Macmillan USA Key Words 8 198 202 Google Scholar

Shuter, J. (1993) Standards for indexes: Where do they come from and what use are they? Paper for ASI 25th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 20–22 May. Standards for indexes: Where do they come from and what use are they? Google Scholar

Solomon, P. (2002) ‘Discovering information in context.’ Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 36, 229–64. Discovering information in context Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 36 229 64 Google Scholar

Vakkari, P. (2003) ‘Task-based information searching.’ Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 37(1), 413–64. Task-based information searching Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 37 413 64 Google Scholar

Van der Meij, H. (2002) ‘Styling the index: is it time for a change?’ Journal of Information Science 28(3), 243–51. Styling the index: is it time for a change? Journal of Information Science 28 243 51 Google Scholar

Weinberg, B. H. (1994). ‘Indexes: a chapter from the Chicago manual of style, 14th edition: a review.’ The Indexer 19(2), 105–9. Indexes: a chapter from the Chicago manual of style, 14th edition: a review The Indexer 19 105 9 Google Scholar

Wellisch, H. H. (1991) Indexing from A to Z. New York: H. W. Wilson. Indexing from A to Z Google Scholar

Williams, P. L. and Bakewell, K. (1999) ‘Indexing children’s information books.’ The Indexer 21(4), 174–9. The Indexer 21 174 9 Google Scholar

Wilson, T. D. (2000) ‘Recent trends in user studies: action research and qualitative methods.’ Information Research 5(3). Recent trends in user studies: action research and qualitative methods Information Research 5 Google Scholar

Wilson, T. D. (2006a) ‘Information-seeking behaviour and the digital information world.’ The Indexer 25(1), 28–31. Information-seeking behaviour and the digital information world The Indexer 25 28 31 Google Scholar

Wilson, T. D. (2006b) ‘On user studies and information needs.’ Journal of Documentation 62(6), 658–70. On user studies and information needs Journal of Documentation 62 658 70 Google Scholar

Wittmann, C. (1990) ‘Subheadings in award-winning book indexes: a quantitative evaluation.’ The Indexer 17(1), 3–6. Subheadings in award-winning book indexes: a quantitative evaluation The Indexer 17 3 6 Google Scholar

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Author details

Coe, Mary