Town Planning Review

Planning sustainable communities – skills and learning to envision future communities: an introduction

Town Planning Review (2010), 81, (5), 505–522.

Abstract

The aspiration of creating sustainable communities has been an important part of the UK government's agenda over the past decade, with the role for planning and other professions involved in place-making changing to include expectations of greater consultation and involvement of communities in decisionmaking. To date, most attention has been given to ensuring that planners are suitably skilled to undertake these new roles. Research conducted as part of an ESRC/HCA Initiative suggests that while opportunities have been provided for planners to acquire and reflect on their skills, more could be achieved by moving from a deficit, market-failure conception of skills needs to a 'strengths-based' approach. As community engagement is enhanced under the banner of the 'Big Society', this paper argues that significant questions need to be addressed over what sustainable communities are and the role planning professionals have in developing visions for such communities.

Planning sustainable communities – skills and learning to envision future communities: an introduction

Abstract

The aspiration of creating sustainable communities has been an important part of the UK government's agenda over the past decade, with the role for planning and other professions involved in place-making changing to include expectations of greater consultation and involvement of communities in decisionmaking. To date, most attention has been given to ensuring that planners are suitably skilled to undertake these new roles. Research conducted as part of an ESRC/HCA Initiative suggests that while opportunities have been provided for planners to acquire and reflect on their skills, more could be achieved by moving from a deficit, market-failure conception of skills needs to a 'strengths-based' approach. As community engagement is enhanced under the banner of the 'Big Society', this paper argues that significant questions need to be addressed over what sustainable communities are and the role planning professionals have in developing visions for such communities.

AGYEMAN, J. and ANGUS, B. (2003), 'The role of civic environmentalism in the pursuit of sustainable communities', Journal of Environmental Planning Management, 46, 345–63. The role of civic environmentalism in the pursuit of sustainable communities Journal of Environmental Planning Management 46 345 63 Google Scholar

ALLEN, C. and CROOKES, L. (2009), 'Fables of the reconstruction: a phenomenology of "place shaping" in the North of England', Town Planning Review, 80, 455–80. Fables of the reconstruction: a phenomenology of "place shaping" in the North of England Town Planning Review 80 455 80 Google Scholar

ATKINSON, R., BLANDY, S., FLINT, J. and LISTER, D. (2005), 'Gated cities of today? Barricaded residential development in England', Town Planning Review, 76, 401–22. Gated cities of today? Barricaded residential development in England Town Planning Review 76 401 22 Google Scholar

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BAGWELL, S. (2007), 'Skills needs for regeneration professionals', Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, 1, 191–204. Skills needs for regeneration professionals Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal 1 191 204 Google Scholar

BAILEY, N. (2005), 'The great skills debate: defining and delivering skills required for community regeneration in England', Planning, Practice and Research, 20, 341–52. The great skills debate: defining and delivering skills required for community regeneration in England Planning, Practice and Research 20 341 52 Google Scholar

BATTY, E., BEATTY, C., FODEN, M., LAWLESS, P., PEARSON, S. and WILSON, I. (2010), 'Involving local people in regeneration: evidence from the New Deal for Communities Programme, The New Deal for Communities National Evaluation: Final report – Volume 2', Department for Communities and Local Government, http://extra.shu.ac.uk/ndc/downloads/general/Volume%20two%20-%20Involving%20local%20people%20in%20regeneration.pdf Google Scholar

BLUNKETT, D. (2004), Speech to New Local Government Network annual conference, 22 January 2004, http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/docs3/db_nlgn.html Google Scholar

CABINET OFFICE (2010) 'Building the Big Society', (18 May) www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/media/407789/building-big-society.pdf Google Scholar

CALDEIRA, T. (2000), Cities of Walls: Crime, Segregation and Citizenship in San Paolo, Berkeley, CA, University of Berkeley Press. Cities of Walls: Crime, Segregation and Citizenship in San Paolo Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2006), Strong and prosperous communities: The Local Government White Paper, (Cm 6939-1), Norwich, HMSO. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (2000), Our towns and cities: the future – Delivering an urban renaissance, (Cm 4911), London, DETR. Google Scholar

DURNING, B. and GLASSON, J. (2006), 'Delivering the planning system in England: skills' capacity constraints', Town Planning Review, 77, 457–84. Delivering the planning system in England: skills' capacity constraints Town Planning Review 77 457 84 Google Scholar

EGAN, SIR JOHN (2004), Skills for Sustainable Communities (The Egan Review), London, ODPM. Google Scholar

ETZIONI, A. (1996), The New Golden Rule: Community and Morality in a Democratic Society, New York, NY, Basic Books. The New Golden Rule: Community and Morality in a Democratic Society Google Scholar

GRAHAM, S. and MARVIN, S. (2001), Splintered Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition, London, Routledge. Splintered Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition Google Scholar

GRAVES, M. (2010), 'The structuring of urban life in a mixed-income housing "community"', City and Community, 9, 109–31. The structuring of urban life in a mixed-income housing "community" City and Community 9 109 31 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

GRINT, K. (2009), 'Purpose, power, knowledge, time and space: final report', Local Government Leadership, http://www.localleadership.gov.uk/totalplace/leadership/purpose-powerknowledge-time-space/ Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2006), 'Transforming governance: challenges of institutional adaptation and a new politics of space', European Planning Series, 14, 299–319. Transforming governance: challenges of institutional adaptation and a new politics of space European Planning Series 14 299 319 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies, London, Routledge. Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies Google Scholar

HEMPEL, L. C. (2009), 'Conceptual and analytical challenges in building sustainable communities', in D. A. Mazmanian and M. E. Kraft (eds), Toward Sustainable Communities: Transition and Transformations in Environmental Policy, 2nd ed., Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 33–62. Conceptual and analytical challenges in building sustainable communities Toward Sustainable Communities: Transition and Transformations in Environmental Policy 33 62 Google Scholar

IMRIE, R. and RACO, M. (eds) (2003), Urban Renaissance? New Labour, Community and Urban Policy, London, Policy Press. Urban Renaissance? New Labour, Community and Urban Policy Google Scholar

JONES, J. and EVANS, P. (2008), 'Rethinking sustainable urban regeneration: ambiguity, creativity and the shared territory', Environment and Planning A, 40, 1416–34. Rethinking sustainable urban regeneration: ambiguity, creativity and the shared territory Environment and Planning A 40 1416 34 Google Scholar

LEITCH, A. (2006), Prosperity for All in the Global Economy – World Class Skills (The Leitch Review of Skills), Norwich, HMSO. Google Scholar

LOW, S. (2003), Behind the Gates: Life, Security and the Pursuit of Happiness in Fortress America, London, Routledge. Behind the Gates: Life, Security and the Pursuit of Happiness in Fortress America Google Scholar

LYONS, M. (2007), Place-shaping: a shared ambition for the future of local government: Final Report, London, TSO. Google Scholar

MEEHAN, B. and THOMAS, I. (2006), 'Teamwork: education for entrants to the built environment professions', Environmental Education Research, 12, 609–23. Teamwork: education for entrants to the built environment professions Environmental Education Research 12 609 23 Google Scholar

NADIN, V. (2007) 'The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England', Planning Practice and Research, 22, 43–62. The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England Planning Practice and Research 22 43 62 Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2002), Sustainable Communities: Delivering through Planning, London: ODPM, www.communities.gov.uk/documents/corporate/pdf/SustainableCommunities.pdf Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2003), Sustainable Communities: Building for the Future, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2005) Planning Policy Statement 1: Delivering Sustainable Development, Norwich, TSO. Google Scholar

PECK, J. (2005), 'Struggling with the creative class', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29, 740–70. Struggling with the creative class International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29 740 70 Google Scholar

POW, C.-P. (2009), '"Good" and "real" places: a geographical–moral critique of territorial place-making', Geografiska Annaler, Series B, 91, 91–105. "Good" and "real" places: a geographical–moral critique of territorial place-making Geografiska Annaler, Series B 91 91 105 Google Scholar

RACO, M. (2007), Building Sustainable Communities: Spatial Policy and Labour Mobility in Post-war Britain, Bristol, Policy Press. Building Sustainable Communities: Spatial Policy and Labour Mobility in Post-war Britain Google Scholar

RACO, M. (2008), 'Key worker housing, welfare reform and the new spatial policy in England', Regional Studies, 42, 737–51. Key worker housing, welfare reform and the new spatial policy in England Regional Studies 42 737 51 Google Scholar

ROBERTS, P. (2005), 'Establishing skills for tomorrow', Town and Country Planning, 74, 296–97. Establishing skills for tomorrow Town and Country Planning 74 296 97 Google Scholar

ROBERTS, P. (2009), 'Shaping, making and managing places: creating and maintaining sustainable communities through the delivery of enhanced skills and knowledge', Town Planning Review, 80, 437–54. Shaping, making and managing places: creating and maintaining sustainable communities through the delivery of enhanced skills and knowledge Town Planning Review 80 437 54 Google Scholar

ROGERS, R. (1999), Towards an Urban Renaissance (Final Report of the Urban Task Force chaired by Lord Rogers of Riverside), London, E&FN Spon. Google Scholar

ROZEE, L. (2008), 'How planning can meet the challenges: In praise of Local Development Frameworks', Town Planning Review, 79, 594–622. How planning can meet the challenges: In praise of Local Development Frameworks Town Planning Review 79 594 622 Google Scholar

SAYCE, S. (2010), 'Skills development for built environment professionals', Research summary, Glasgow, University of Strathclyde, http://www.strath.ac.uk/media/departments/geographysociology/suscoms/pdfs/researchsummaries/Sayce.pdf Google Scholar

SHAW, D. and LORD, A. (2009), 'From land-use to "spatial planning": reflections on the reform of the English planning system', Town Planning Review, 80, 415–36. From land-use to "spatial planning": reflections on the reform of the English planning system Town Planning Review 80 415 36 Google Scholar

STEVENS, Q. (2009), '"Broken" public spaces in theory and practice', Town Planning Review, 80, 371–91. "Broken" public spaces in theory and practice Town Planning Review 80 371 91 Google Scholar

TALEN, E. (2005), New Urbanism and American Planning: The Conflict of Cultures, New York, NY, Routledge. New Urbanism and American Planning: The Conflict of Cultures Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WEBSTER, C., GLASZE, C. and FRANTZ, K. (2002), 'The global spread of gated communities', Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 29, 315–20. The global spread of gated communities Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 29 315 20 Google Scholar

AGYEMAN, J. and ANGUS, B. (2003), 'The role of civic environmentalism in the pursuit of sustainable communities', Journal of Environmental Planning Management, 46, 345–63. The role of civic environmentalism in the pursuit of sustainable communities Journal of Environmental Planning Management 46 345 63 Google Scholar

ALLEN, C. and CROOKES, L. (2009), 'Fables of the reconstruction: a phenomenology of "place shaping" in the North of England', Town Planning Review, 80, 455–80. Fables of the reconstruction: a phenomenology of "place shaping" in the North of England Town Planning Review 80 455 80 Google Scholar

ATKINSON, R., BLANDY, S., FLINT, J. and LISTER, D. (2005), 'Gated cities of today? Barricaded residential development in England', Town Planning Review, 76, 401–22. Gated cities of today? Barricaded residential development in England Town Planning Review 76 401 22 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BAGWELL, S. (2007), 'Skills needs for regeneration professionals', Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, 1, 191–204. Skills needs for regeneration professionals Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal 1 191 204 Google Scholar

BAILEY, N. (2005), 'The great skills debate: defining and delivering skills required for community regeneration in England', Planning, Practice and Research, 20, 341–52. The great skills debate: defining and delivering skills required for community regeneration in England Planning, Practice and Research 20 341 52 Google Scholar

BATTY, E., BEATTY, C., FODEN, M., LAWLESS, P., PEARSON, S. and WILSON, I. (2010), 'Involving local people in regeneration: evidence from the New Deal for Communities Programme, The New Deal for Communities National Evaluation: Final report – Volume 2', Department for Communities and Local Government, http://extra.shu.ac.uk/ndc/downloads/general/Volume%20two%20-%20Involving%20local%20people%20in%20regeneration.pdf Google Scholar

BLUNKETT, D. (2004), Speech to New Local Government Network annual conference, 22 January 2004, http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/docs3/db_nlgn.html Google Scholar

CABINET OFFICE (2010) 'Building the Big Society', (18 May) www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/media/407789/building-big-society.pdf Google Scholar

CALDEIRA, T. (2000), Cities of Walls: Crime, Segregation and Citizenship in San Paolo, Berkeley, CA, University of Berkeley Press. Cities of Walls: Crime, Segregation and Citizenship in San Paolo Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2006), Strong and prosperous communities: The Local Government White Paper, (Cm 6939-1), Norwich, HMSO. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (2000), Our towns and cities: the future – Delivering an urban renaissance, (Cm 4911), London, DETR. Google Scholar

DURNING, B. and GLASSON, J. (2006), 'Delivering the planning system in England: skills' capacity constraints', Town Planning Review, 77, 457–84. Delivering the planning system in England: skills' capacity constraints Town Planning Review 77 457 84 Google Scholar

EGAN, SIR JOHN (2004), Skills for Sustainable Communities (The Egan Review), London, ODPM. Google Scholar

ETZIONI, A. (1996), The New Golden Rule: Community and Morality in a Democratic Society, New York, NY, Basic Books. The New Golden Rule: Community and Morality in a Democratic Society Google Scholar

GRAHAM, S. and MARVIN, S. (2001), Splintered Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition, London, Routledge. Splintered Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition Google Scholar

GRAVES, M. (2010), 'The structuring of urban life in a mixed-income housing "community"', City and Community, 9, 109–31. The structuring of urban life in a mixed-income housing "community" City and Community 9 109 31 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

GRINT, K. (2009), 'Purpose, power, knowledge, time and space: final report', Local Government Leadership, http://www.localleadership.gov.uk/totalplace/leadership/purpose-powerknowledge-time-space/ Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2006), 'Transforming governance: challenges of institutional adaptation and a new politics of space', European Planning Series, 14, 299–319. Transforming governance: challenges of institutional adaptation and a new politics of space European Planning Series 14 299 319 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies, London, Routledge. Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies Google Scholar

HEMPEL, L. C. (2009), 'Conceptual and analytical challenges in building sustainable communities', in D. A. Mazmanian and M. E. Kraft (eds), Toward Sustainable Communities: Transition and Transformations in Environmental Policy, 2nd ed., Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 33–62. Conceptual and analytical challenges in building sustainable communities Toward Sustainable Communities: Transition and Transformations in Environmental Policy 33 62 Google Scholar

IMRIE, R. and RACO, M. (eds) (2003), Urban Renaissance? New Labour, Community and Urban Policy, London, Policy Press. Urban Renaissance? New Labour, Community and Urban Policy Google Scholar

JONES, J. and EVANS, P. (2008), 'Rethinking sustainable urban regeneration: ambiguity, creativity and the shared territory', Environment and Planning A, 40, 1416–34. Rethinking sustainable urban regeneration: ambiguity, creativity and the shared territory Environment and Planning A 40 1416 34 Google Scholar

LEITCH, A. (2006), Prosperity for All in the Global Economy – World Class Skills (The Leitch Review of Skills), Norwich, HMSO. Google Scholar

LOW, S. (2003), Behind the Gates: Life, Security and the Pursuit of Happiness in Fortress America, London, Routledge. Behind the Gates: Life, Security and the Pursuit of Happiness in Fortress America Google Scholar

LYONS, M. (2007), Place-shaping: a shared ambition for the future of local government: Final Report, London, TSO. Google Scholar

MEEHAN, B. and THOMAS, I. (2006), 'Teamwork: education for entrants to the built environment professions', Environmental Education Research, 12, 609–23. Teamwork: education for entrants to the built environment professions Environmental Education Research 12 609 23 Google Scholar

NADIN, V. (2007) 'The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England', Planning Practice and Research, 22, 43–62. The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England Planning Practice and Research 22 43 62 Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2002), Sustainable Communities: Delivering through Planning, London: ODPM, www.communities.gov.uk/documents/corporate/pdf/SustainableCommunities.pdf Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2003), Sustainable Communities: Building for the Future, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2005) Planning Policy Statement 1: Delivering Sustainable Development, Norwich, TSO. Google Scholar

PECK, J. (2005), 'Struggling with the creative class', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29, 740–70. Struggling with the creative class International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29 740 70 Google Scholar

POW, C.-P. (2009), '"Good" and "real" places: a geographical–moral critique of territorial place-making', Geografiska Annaler, Series B, 91, 91–105. "Good" and "real" places: a geographical–moral critique of territorial place-making Geografiska Annaler, Series B 91 91 105 Google Scholar

RACO, M. (2007), Building Sustainable Communities: Spatial Policy and Labour Mobility in Post-war Britain, Bristol, Policy Press. Building Sustainable Communities: Spatial Policy and Labour Mobility in Post-war Britain Google Scholar

RACO, M. (2008), 'Key worker housing, welfare reform and the new spatial policy in England', Regional Studies, 42, 737–51. Key worker housing, welfare reform and the new spatial policy in England Regional Studies 42 737 51 Google Scholar

ROBERTS, P. (2005), 'Establishing skills for tomorrow', Town and Country Planning, 74, 296–97. Establishing skills for tomorrow Town and Country Planning 74 296 97 Google Scholar

ROBERTS, P. (2009), 'Shaping, making and managing places: creating and maintaining sustainable communities through the delivery of enhanced skills and knowledge', Town Planning Review, 80, 437–54. Shaping, making and managing places: creating and maintaining sustainable communities through the delivery of enhanced skills and knowledge Town Planning Review 80 437 54 Google Scholar

ROGERS, R. (1999), Towards an Urban Renaissance (Final Report of the Urban Task Force chaired by Lord Rogers of Riverside), London, E&FN Spon. Google Scholar

ROZEE, L. (2008), 'How planning can meet the challenges: In praise of Local Development Frameworks', Town Planning Review, 79, 594–622. How planning can meet the challenges: In praise of Local Development Frameworks Town Planning Review 79 594 622 Google Scholar

SAYCE, S. (2010), 'Skills development for built environment professionals', Research summary, Glasgow, University of Strathclyde, http://www.strath.ac.uk/media/departments/geographysociology/suscoms/pdfs/researchsummaries/Sayce.pdf Google Scholar

SHAW, D. and LORD, A. (2009), 'From land-use to "spatial planning": reflections on the reform of the English planning system', Town Planning Review, 80, 415–36. From land-use to "spatial planning": reflections on the reform of the English planning system Town Planning Review 80 415 36 Google Scholar

STEVENS, Q. (2009), '"Broken" public spaces in theory and practice', Town Planning Review, 80, 371–91. "Broken" public spaces in theory and practice Town Planning Review 80 371 91 Google Scholar

TALEN, E. (2005), New Urbanism and American Planning: The Conflict of Cultures, New York, NY, Routledge. New Urbanism and American Planning: The Conflict of Cultures Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WEBSTER, C., GLASZE, C. and FRANTZ, K. (2002), 'The global spread of gated communities', Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 29, 315–20. The global spread of gated communities Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 29 315 20 Google Scholar

AGYEMAN, J. and ANGUS, B. (2003), 'The role of civic environmentalism in the pursuit of sustainable communities', Journal of Environmental Planning Management, 46, 345–63. The role of civic environmentalism in the pursuit of sustainable communities Journal of Environmental Planning Management 46 345 63 Google Scholar

ALLEN, C. and CROOKES, L. (2009), 'Fables of the reconstruction: a phenomenology of "place shaping" in the North of England', Town Planning Review, 80, 455–80. Fables of the reconstruction: a phenomenology of "place shaping" in the North of England Town Planning Review 80 455 80 Google Scholar

ATKINSON, R., BLANDY, S., FLINT, J. and LISTER, D. (2005), 'Gated cities of today? Barricaded residential development in England', Town Planning Review, 76, 401–22. Gated cities of today? Barricaded residential development in England Town Planning Review 76 401 22 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BAGWELL, S. (2007), 'Skills needs for regeneration professionals', Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, 1, 191–204. Skills needs for regeneration professionals Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal 1 191 204 Google Scholar

BAILEY, N. (2005), 'The great skills debate: defining and delivering skills required for community regeneration in England', Planning, Practice and Research, 20, 341–52. The great skills debate: defining and delivering skills required for community regeneration in England Planning, Practice and Research 20 341 52 Google Scholar

BATTY, E., BEATTY, C., FODEN, M., LAWLESS, P., PEARSON, S. and WILSON, I. (2010), 'Involving local people in regeneration: evidence from the New Deal for Communities Programme, The New Deal for Communities National Evaluation: Final report – Volume 2', Department for Communities and Local Government, http://extra.shu.ac.uk/ndc/downloads/general/Volume%20two%20-%20Involving%20local%20people%20in%20regeneration.pdf Google Scholar

BLUNKETT, D. (2004), Speech to New Local Government Network annual conference, 22 January 2004, http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/docs3/db_nlgn.html Google Scholar

CABINET OFFICE (2010) 'Building the Big Society', (18 May) www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/media/407789/building-big-society.pdf Google Scholar

CALDEIRA, T. (2000), Cities of Walls: Crime, Segregation and Citizenship in San Paolo, Berkeley, CA, University of Berkeley Press. Cities of Walls: Crime, Segregation and Citizenship in San Paolo Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2006), Strong and prosperous communities: The Local Government White Paper, (Cm 6939-1), Norwich, HMSO. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (2000), Our towns and cities: the future – Delivering an urban renaissance, (Cm 4911), London, DETR. Google Scholar

DURNING, B. and GLASSON, J. (2006), 'Delivering the planning system in England: skills' capacity constraints', Town Planning Review, 77, 457–84. Delivering the planning system in England: skills' capacity constraints Town Planning Review 77 457 84 Google Scholar

EGAN, SIR JOHN (2004), Skills for Sustainable Communities (The Egan Review), London, ODPM. Google Scholar

ETZIONI, A. (1996), The New Golden Rule: Community and Morality in a Democratic Society, New York, NY, Basic Books. The New Golden Rule: Community and Morality in a Democratic Society Google Scholar

GRAHAM, S. and MARVIN, S. (2001), Splintered Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition, London, Routledge. Splintered Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition Google Scholar

GRAVES, M. (2010), 'The structuring of urban life in a mixed-income housing "community"', City and Community, 9, 109–31. The structuring of urban life in a mixed-income housing "community" City and Community 9 109 31 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

GRINT, K. (2009), 'Purpose, power, knowledge, time and space: final report', Local Government Leadership, http://www.localleadership.gov.uk/totalplace/leadership/purpose-powerknowledge-time-space/ Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2006), 'Transforming governance: challenges of institutional adaptation and a new politics of space', European Planning Series, 14, 299–319. Transforming governance: challenges of institutional adaptation and a new politics of space European Planning Series 14 299 319 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies, London, Routledge. Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies Google Scholar

HEMPEL, L. C. (2009), 'Conceptual and analytical challenges in building sustainable communities', in D. A. Mazmanian and M. E. Kraft (eds), Toward Sustainable Communities: Transition and Transformations in Environmental Policy, 2nd ed., Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 33–62. Conceptual and analytical challenges in building sustainable communities Toward Sustainable Communities: Transition and Transformations in Environmental Policy 33 62 Google Scholar

IMRIE, R. and RACO, M. (eds) (2003), Urban Renaissance? New Labour, Community and Urban Policy, London, Policy Press. Urban Renaissance? New Labour, Community and Urban Policy Google Scholar

JONES, J. and EVANS, P. (2008), 'Rethinking sustainable urban regeneration: ambiguity, creativity and the shared territory', Environment and Planning A, 40, 1416–34. Rethinking sustainable urban regeneration: ambiguity, creativity and the shared territory Environment and Planning A 40 1416 34 Google Scholar

LEITCH, A. (2006), Prosperity for All in the Global Economy – World Class Skills (The Leitch Review of Skills), Norwich, HMSO. Google Scholar

LOW, S. (2003), Behind the Gates: Life, Security and the Pursuit of Happiness in Fortress America, London, Routledge. Behind the Gates: Life, Security and the Pursuit of Happiness in Fortress America Google Scholar

LYONS, M. (2007), Place-shaping: a shared ambition for the future of local government: Final Report, London, TSO. Google Scholar

MEEHAN, B. and THOMAS, I. (2006), 'Teamwork: education for entrants to the built environment professions', Environmental Education Research, 12, 609–23. Teamwork: education for entrants to the built environment professions Environmental Education Research 12 609 23 Google Scholar

NADIN, V. (2007) 'The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England', Planning Practice and Research, 22, 43–62. The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England Planning Practice and Research 22 43 62 Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2002), Sustainable Communities: Delivering through Planning, London: ODPM, www.communities.gov.uk/documents/corporate/pdf/SustainableCommunities.pdf Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2003), Sustainable Communities: Building for the Future, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2005) Planning Policy Statement 1: Delivering Sustainable Development, Norwich, TSO. Google Scholar

PECK, J. (2005), 'Struggling with the creative class', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29, 740–70. Struggling with the creative class International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29 740 70 Google Scholar

POW, C.-P. (2009), '"Good" and "real" places: a geographical–moral critique of territorial place-making', Geografiska Annaler, Series B, 91, 91–105. "Good" and "real" places: a geographical–moral critique of territorial place-making Geografiska Annaler, Series B 91 91 105 Google Scholar

RACO, M. (2007), Building Sustainable Communities: Spatial Policy and Labour Mobility in Post-war Britain, Bristol, Policy Press. Building Sustainable Communities: Spatial Policy and Labour Mobility in Post-war Britain Google Scholar

RACO, M. (2008), 'Key worker housing, welfare reform and the new spatial policy in England', Regional Studies, 42, 737–51. Key worker housing, welfare reform and the new spatial policy in England Regional Studies 42 737 51 Google Scholar

ROBERTS, P. (2005), 'Establishing skills for tomorrow', Town and Country Planning, 74, 296–97. Establishing skills for tomorrow Town and Country Planning 74 296 97 Google Scholar

ROBERTS, P. (2009), 'Shaping, making and managing places: creating and maintaining sustainable communities through the delivery of enhanced skills and knowledge', Town Planning Review, 80, 437–54. Shaping, making and managing places: creating and maintaining sustainable communities through the delivery of enhanced skills and knowledge Town Planning Review 80 437 54 Google Scholar

ROGERS, R. (1999), Towards an Urban Renaissance (Final Report of the Urban Task Force chaired by Lord Rogers of Riverside), London, E&FN Spon. Google Scholar

ROZEE, L. (2008), 'How planning can meet the challenges: In praise of Local Development Frameworks', Town Planning Review, 79, 594–622. How planning can meet the challenges: In praise of Local Development Frameworks Town Planning Review 79 594 622 Google Scholar

SAYCE, S. (2010), 'Skills development for built environment professionals', Research summary, Glasgow, University of Strathclyde, http://www.strath.ac.uk/media/departments/geographysociology/suscoms/pdfs/researchsummaries/Sayce.pdf Google Scholar

SHAW, D. and LORD, A. (2009), 'From land-use to "spatial planning": reflections on the reform of the English planning system', Town Planning Review, 80, 415–36. From land-use to "spatial planning": reflections on the reform of the English planning system Town Planning Review 80 415 36 Google Scholar

STEVENS, Q. (2009), '"Broken" public spaces in theory and practice', Town Planning Review, 80, 371–91. "Broken" public spaces in theory and practice Town Planning Review 80 371 91 Google Scholar

TALEN, E. (2005), New Urbanism and American Planning: The Conflict of Cultures, New York, NY, Routledge. New Urbanism and American Planning: The Conflict of Cultures Google Scholar

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Details

Author details

Rogerson, Robert

Sadler, Sue

Wong, Cecilia

Green, Anne