International Development Planning Review

Equitable planning through territories of exception: the contours of Medellin’s urban development projects

International Development Planning Review (2015), 37, (4), 373–397.

Abstract

In the last two decades, large-scale urban development projects (UDPs) have become ubiquitous. As strategic planning tools, UDPs are typically employed to trigger market-driven socio-spatial transformations in derelict areas of a city. This article explores whether the strategic features of UPDs might also serve the goals of a redistributive planning agenda in Latin America’s socio-spatially divided cities. I examine a UDP approach employed in Medellin, Colombia, adopted with the objective to redirect social investment towards informal neighbourhoods that were previously neglected by the formal planning system. The article sheds light on the rationale, benefits and contradictions of employing UDPs to achieve goals of socio-spatial justice. Albeit a promising tool for urban integration of marginalised districts, UDPs are built on contentious practices of exception from the legal planning framework. In highly unequal cities, such as Medellin, urban planning aimed at realising its transformative capacity should also be concerned with changing the regulatory and land rights systems that underpin socio-spatial injustices.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ACI (Agencia de Cooperación e Inversión de Medellin y el Area Metropolitana, Medellin’s Agency for International Cooperation and Investment), http://www.acimedellin.org/es/SaladePrensa/Noticias/tabid/111/NewsViewMode/full/NewsItemID/1171/Default.aspx (accessed 19 April 2013). Google Scholar

Angotti, T. (2013) ‘Urban Latin America: violence, enclaves, and struggles for land’, Latin American Perspectives, 40, 5–20. Urban Latin America: violence, enclaves, and struggles for land Latin American Perspectives 40 5 20 Google Scholar

Baptista, I. (2012) ‘Practices of exception in urban governance: reconfiguring power inside the state’, Urban Studies, 50, 39–54. Practices of exception in urban governance: reconfiguring power inside the state Urban Studies 50 39 54 Google Scholar

Bateman, M., Durán-Ortiz,J. P. and Maclean, K. (2011) ‘A post-Washington consensus approach to local economic development in Latin America? An example from Medellín, Colombia’, Overseas Development Institute, http://www.odi.org/publications/5666-latin-america-medellin-colombia-microfinance-post-washington-consensus-microcredit-microenter-prise-local-development (accessed 20 June 2015). Google Scholar

Berney, R. (2010) ‘Learning from Bogotá: how municipal experts transformed public space’, Journal of Urban Design, 15, 539–58. Learning from Bogotá: how municipal experts transformed public space Journal of Urban Design 15 539 58 Google Scholar

Block, T., Steyvers, K., Oosterlynck, S., Reynaert, H. and de Rynck, F. (2012) ‘When strategic plans fail to lead. a complexity acknowledging perspective on decision-making in urban development projects - the case of Kortrijk (Belgium)’, European Planning Studies, 20, 981–97. When strategic plans fail to lead. a complexity acknowledging perspective on decision-making in urban development projects - the case of Kortrijk (Belgium) European Planning Studies 20 981 97 Google Scholar

Brand, P. and Dávila, J. D. (2011) ‘Mobility innovation at the urban margins’, City, 15, 647–61. Mobility innovation at the urban margins City 15 647 61 Google Scholar

Burgess, R. and Carmona, M. (2009) ‘The shift of master planning to strategic planning’, in: M. Carmona (ed.), Planning through projects: moving from master planning to strategic planning, 30 cities, Amsterdam: Techne Press, 12–42. The shift of master planning to strategic planning Planning through projects: moving from master planning to strategic planning, 30 cities 12 42 Google Scholar

Caldeira, T. (2000) City of walls: crime, segregation, and citizenship in São Paulo, Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California. City of walls: crime, segregation, and citizenship in São Paulo Google Scholar

Caldeira, T. and Holston, J. (2005) ‘State and urban space in Brazil: from modernist urban planning to democratic interventions’, in A. Ong and S. J. Collier, (eds) Global assemblages: technology, politics, and ethics as anthropological problems, 393–416. State and urban space in Brazil: from modernist urban planning to democratic interventions Global assemblages: technology, politics, and ethics as anthropological problems 393 416 Google Scholar

Dapena, L. F. (2006) Núcleos de vida ciudadana. racionalidades y coyunturas en la gestión de un proyecto urbano, Bogotá, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Núcleos de vida ciudadana. racionalidades y coyunturas en la gestión de un proyecto urbano Google Scholar

Davila, J. D. (2009) ‘Being a mayor: the view from four Colombian cities’, Environment and Urbanization, 21, 37–57. Being a mayor: the view from four Colombian cities Environment and Urbanization 21 37 57 Google Scholar

Delgado, M. (2007) La ciudad mentirosa. fraude y miseria del ‘modelo Barcelona’, Madrid, Los Libros de la Catarata. La ciudad mentirosa. fraude y miseria del ‘modelo Barcelona’ Google Scholar

Echeverri, A. and Orsini, F.M. (2010) ‘Informalidad y urbanismo social en Medellín’, in Hermelin-Arbaux, M., Echeverri A. and Giraldo. J. (eds) Medellín: medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad. Medellín, centro de estudios urbanos y ambientales, Universidad Eafit, 130–152. Informalidad y urbanismo social en Medellín Medellín: medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad. Medellín, centro de estudios urbanos y ambientales 130 152 Google Scholar

EDU (Empresa de Desarrollo Urbano de Medellin) (2013) ‘Proyectos urbanos integrales’, http://www.edu.gov.co/index.php/proyectos/proyectos-urbanos-integrales (accessed May 2013). Google Scholar

Friedmann, J. (2000) ‘The good city: in defense of utopian thinking’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24, 460–72. The good city: in defense of utopian thinking International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 24 460 72 Google Scholar

Gilbert, A. (2006) ‘Good urban governance: evidence from a model city?’, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 25, 392–419. Good urban governance: evidence from a model city? Bulletin of Latin American Research 25 392 419 Google Scholar

Giraldo-Ramirez, J. (2010) ‘Cambios en la interpretación, el comportamiento y las políticas publicas respecto a la violencia homicida en Medellín’, in Hermelin-Arbaux, M., Echeverri A. and J. Giraldo (eds) Medellín: Medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad, Medellín, Centro de Estudios Urbanos y Ambientales Universidad EAFIT, 294–318. Cambios en la interpretación, el comportamiento y las políticas publicas respecto a la violencia homicida en Medellín Medellín: Medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad, Medellín 294 318 Google Scholar

Goldfrank, B. and Schrank, A. (2009) ‘Municipal neoliberalism and municipal socialism: urban political economy in Latin America’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33, 443–62, doi:10.1111/j.1468–2427.2009.00834.x. Municipal neoliberalism and municipal socialism: urban political economy in Latin America International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33 443 62 Google Scholar

González, S. (2011) ‘Bilbao and Barcelona “in motion”: how urban regeneration ‘models’ travel and mutate in the global flows of policy tourism’, Urban Studies, 48, 1397–18. Bilbao and Barcelona “in motion”: how urban regeneration ‘models’ travel and mutate in the global flows of policy tourism Urban Studies 48 1397 18 Google Scholar

Gualdrón, Y. (2014) ‘Curador urbano de Medellín exoneró al Space de supervisión técnica’ (El Tiempo, Newspaper article), 12 May 2014, http://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/medellin/fiscalia-imputara-cargos-por-edificio-space/13973638 (accessed May 2014). Google Scholar

Gutierrez, F., Pinto, M. T., Arenas, J. C., Guzman, T. and Gutierrez, M. T. (2009) ‘Politics and security in three Colombian cities’, Working Paper No. 44 - Cities and Fragile States, DESTIN, LSE, http://www2.lse.ac.uk/internationalDevelopment/research/crisisStates/download/wp/wpSeries2/WP442.pdf (accessed April 2011). Google Scholar

Harvey, D. (2008 [1973]) Social justice and the city, Athens, GI, University of Georgia Press. Social justice and the city Google Scholar

Healey, P. (1997) Collaborating planning: shaping places in fragmented societies, London, Macmillan Place. Collaborating planning: shaping places in fragmented societies Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2010) ‘The transnational flow of knowledge and expertise in the planning field’, in Healey, P and Upton, R. (eds) Crossing borders: international exchange and planning practices, New York, Routledge, 1–27. The transnational flow of knowledge and expertise in the planning field Crossing borders: international exchange and planning practices 1 27 Google Scholar

Holston, J. (2007) Insurgent citizenship: disjunctions of democracy and modernity in Brazil, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Insurgent citizenship: disjunctions of democracy and modernity in Brazil Google Scholar

Irazábal, C. (2009) ‘One size does not fit all: land markets and property rights for the construction of the just city’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33, 558–63. One size does not fit all: land markets and property rights for the construction of the just city International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33 558 63 Google Scholar

Leyva-Botero, S. (2010) ‘El proceso de construcción de estatalidad local (1998–2009): La clave para entender el cambio de Medellín?’, in Hermelin-Arbaux, M., Echeverri, A. and Giraldo-Ramírez, J. (eds) Medellín: Medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad, Medellín, Centro de Estudios Urbanos y Ambientales, Universidad EAFIT, 271–93. El proceso de construcción de estatalidad local (1998–2009): La clave para entender el cambio de Medellín? Medellín: Medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad, Medellín 27 93 Google Scholar

Macleod, G. and Goodwin, M. (1999) ‘Space, scale and state strategy: rethinking urban and regional governance’, Progress in Human Geography, 23, 503–27. Space, scale and state strategy: rethinking urban and regional governance Progress in Human Geography 23 503 27 Google Scholar

McCann, E. and Ward, K. (2011) ‘Urban assemblages: territories, relations, practices, and power’, in McCann E. and Ward K. (eds.) Urban mobilities: cities and policymaking in the global age, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, xiii-xxxv. Urban assemblages: territories, relations, practices, and power Urban mobilities: cities and policymaking in the global age xiii xxxv Google Scholar

Mendieta, E. (2011) ‘Medellín and Bogotá: the global cities of the other globalization’, City, 15, 167–80. Medellín and Bogotá: the global cities of the other globalization City 15 167 80 Google Scholar

Monclús, F. J. (2003) ‘The Barcelona model: an original formula? From ‘reconstruction’ to strategic urban projects (1979–2004)’, Planning Perspectives, 18, 399–421. The Barcelona model: an original formula? From reconstruction’ to strategic urban projects (1979–2004) Planning Perspectives 18 399 421 Google Scholar

Piedrahita, C. and Gonzalez, J. (2010) ‘El ordenamiento territorial como mecanismo de transformación social: una mirada jurídica y política de la transformación urbana de la ciudad de Medellín’, in Hermelin-Arbaux, et al. (eds), Medellín: medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad. Medellín, centro de estudios urbanos y ambientales, Universidad Eafit, 205–22. El ordenamiento territorial como mecanismo de transformación social: una mirada jurídica y política de la transformación urbana de la ciudad de Medellín Medellín: medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad. Medellín, centro de estudios urbanos y ambientales 205 22 Google Scholar

Puerta, D. (2011) ‘Proyectos Urbanos Integrales, IUP’, in Alcaldía de Medellin, Laboratorio Medellin. Catálogo de diez prácticas vivas, Medellin, Alcaldía de Medellin, 70–83. Proyectos Urbanos Integrales, IUP Laboratorio Medellin. Catálogo de diez prácticas vivas, Medellin 70 83 Google Scholar

Rodgers, D. (2012) ‘Separate but equal democratization? Participation, politics, and urban segregation in Latin America,’ in D. Rodgers, J. Beall, and R. Kanbur, (eds), Latin American urban development into the 21st century. towards a renewed perspective on the city, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 123–44. Separate but equal democratization? Participation, politics, and urban segregation in Latin America Latin American urban development into the 21st century, towards a renewed perspective on the city 123 44 Google Scholar

Roldán, M. (2003) ‘Wounded Medellín: narcotics traffic against a background of industrial decline’, in J. Schneider, and I. Susser, Wounded cities: destruction and reconstruction in a globalized world, Oxford, Berg, 129–48. Wounded Medellín: narcotics traffic against a background of industrial decline Wounded cities: destruction and reconstruction in a globalized world 129 48 Google Scholar

Sánchez, L. A., Villa, M. I. and Riaño, P. (2011) La huella invisible de la guerra: desplazamiento forzado en la Comuna 13, Bogota, Comisión Nacional de Reparación y Reconciliación, Grupo de Memoria Histórica, Revista Semana and Taurus. La huella invisible de la guerra: desplazamiento forzado en la Comuna 13 Google Scholar

Soja, E. (2010) Seeking spatial justice, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. Seeking spatial justice Google Scholar

Steinberg, F. (2005) ‘Strategic urban planning in Latin America: experiences of building and managing the future’, Habitat International, 29, 69–93. Strategic urban planning in Latin America: experiences of building and managing the future Habitat International 29 69 93 Google Scholar

Swyngedouw, E., Moulaert, F. and Rodriguez, A. (2002) ‘Neoliberal urbanization in Europe: large-scale urban development projects and the new urban policy’, Antipode, 34, 547–82. Neoliberal urbanization in Europe: large-scale urban development projects and the new urban policy Antipode 34 547 82 Google Scholar

Tenjo-Galarza, J. (2011) De dónde van a salir los dos millones de empleos? in Razón Publica, online journal, 14 March 2011 http://www.razonpublica.com/index.php?option=com_contentandview=articleandid=1887:ide-donde-van-a-salir-los-dos-millones-de-empleosandcatid=167:articulos-recientes- (accessed March 2011). Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ACI (Agencia de Cooperación e Inversión de Medellin y el Area Metropolitana, Medellin’s Agency for International Cooperation and Investment), http://www.acimedellin.org/es/SaladePrensa/Noticias/tabid/111/NewsViewMode/full/NewsItemID/1171/Default.aspx (accessed 19 April 2013). Google Scholar

Angotti, T. (2013) ‘Urban Latin America: violence, enclaves, and struggles for land’, Latin American Perspectives, 40, 5–20. Urban Latin America: violence, enclaves, and struggles for land Latin American Perspectives 40 5 20 Google Scholar

Baptista, I. (2012) ‘Practices of exception in urban governance: reconfiguring power inside the state’, Urban Studies, 50, 39–54. Practices of exception in urban governance: reconfiguring power inside the state Urban Studies 50 39 54 Google Scholar

Bateman, M., Durán-Ortiz,J. P. and Maclean, K. (2011) ‘A post-Washington consensus approach to local economic development in Latin America? An example from Medellín, Colombia’, Overseas Development Institute, http://www.odi.org/publications/5666-latin-america-medellin-colombia-microfinance-post-washington-consensus-microcredit-microenter-prise-local-development (accessed 20 June 2015). Google Scholar

Berney, R. (2010) ‘Learning from Bogotá: how municipal experts transformed public space’, Journal of Urban Design, 15, 539–58. Learning from Bogotá: how municipal experts transformed public space Journal of Urban Design 15 539 58 Google Scholar

Block, T., Steyvers, K., Oosterlynck, S., Reynaert, H. and de Rynck, F. (2012) ‘When strategic plans fail to lead. a complexity acknowledging perspective on decision-making in urban development projects - the case of Kortrijk (Belgium)’, European Planning Studies, 20, 981–97. When strategic plans fail to lead. a complexity acknowledging perspective on decision-making in urban development projects - the case of Kortrijk (Belgium) European Planning Studies 20 981 97 Google Scholar

Brand, P. and Dávila, J. D. (2011) ‘Mobility innovation at the urban margins’, City, 15, 647–61. Mobility innovation at the urban margins City 15 647 61 Google Scholar

Burgess, R. and Carmona, M. (2009) ‘The shift of master planning to strategic planning’, in: M. Carmona (ed.), Planning through projects: moving from master planning to strategic planning, 30 cities, Amsterdam: Techne Press, 12–42. The shift of master planning to strategic planning Planning through projects: moving from master planning to strategic planning, 30 cities 12 42 Google Scholar

Caldeira, T. (2000) City of walls: crime, segregation, and citizenship in São Paulo, Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California. City of walls: crime, segregation, and citizenship in São Paulo Google Scholar

Caldeira, T. and Holston, J. (2005) ‘State and urban space in Brazil: from modernist urban planning to democratic interventions’, in A. Ong and S. J. Collier, (eds) Global assemblages: technology, politics, and ethics as anthropological problems, 393–416. State and urban space in Brazil: from modernist urban planning to democratic interventions Global assemblages: technology, politics, and ethics as anthropological problems 393 416 Google Scholar

Dapena, L. F. (2006) Núcleos de vida ciudadana. racionalidades y coyunturas en la gestión de un proyecto urbano, Bogotá, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Núcleos de vida ciudadana. racionalidades y coyunturas en la gestión de un proyecto urbano Google Scholar

Davila, J. D. (2009) ‘Being a mayor: the view from four Colombian cities’, Environment and Urbanization, 21, 37–57. Being a mayor: the view from four Colombian cities Environment and Urbanization 21 37 57 Google Scholar

Delgado, M. (2007) La ciudad mentirosa. fraude y miseria del ‘modelo Barcelona’, Madrid, Los Libros de la Catarata. La ciudad mentirosa. fraude y miseria del ‘modelo Barcelona’ Google Scholar

Echeverri, A. and Orsini, F.M. (2010) ‘Informalidad y urbanismo social en Medellín’, in Hermelin-Arbaux, M., Echeverri A. and Giraldo. J. (eds) Medellín: medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad. Medellín, centro de estudios urbanos y ambientales, Universidad Eafit, 130–152. Informalidad y urbanismo social en Medellín Medellín: medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad. Medellín, centro de estudios urbanos y ambientales 130 152 Google Scholar

EDU (Empresa de Desarrollo Urbano de Medellin) (2013) ‘Proyectos urbanos integrales’, http://www.edu.gov.co/index.php/proyectos/proyectos-urbanos-integrales (accessed May 2013). Google Scholar

Friedmann, J. (2000) ‘The good city: in defense of utopian thinking’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24, 460–72. The good city: in defense of utopian thinking International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 24 460 72 Google Scholar

Gilbert, A. (2006) ‘Good urban governance: evidence from a model city?’, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 25, 392–419. Good urban governance: evidence from a model city? Bulletin of Latin American Research 25 392 419 Google Scholar

Giraldo-Ramirez, J. (2010) ‘Cambios en la interpretación, el comportamiento y las políticas publicas respecto a la violencia homicida en Medellín’, in Hermelin-Arbaux, M., Echeverri A. and J. Giraldo (eds) Medellín: Medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad, Medellín, Centro de Estudios Urbanos y Ambientales Universidad EAFIT, 294–318. Cambios en la interpretación, el comportamiento y las políticas publicas respecto a la violencia homicida en Medellín Medellín: Medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad, Medellín 294 318 Google Scholar

Goldfrank, B. and Schrank, A. (2009) ‘Municipal neoliberalism and municipal socialism: urban political economy in Latin America’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33, 443–62, doi:10.1111/j.1468–2427.2009.00834.x. Municipal neoliberalism and municipal socialism: urban political economy in Latin America International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33 443 62 Google Scholar

González, S. (2011) ‘Bilbao and Barcelona “in motion”: how urban regeneration ‘models’ travel and mutate in the global flows of policy tourism’, Urban Studies, 48, 1397–18. Bilbao and Barcelona “in motion”: how urban regeneration ‘models’ travel and mutate in the global flows of policy tourism Urban Studies 48 1397 18 Google Scholar

Gualdrón, Y. (2014) ‘Curador urbano de Medellín exoneró al Space de supervisión técnica’ (El Tiempo, Newspaper article), 12 May 2014, http://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/medellin/fiscalia-imputara-cargos-por-edificio-space/13973638 (accessed May 2014). Google Scholar

Gutierrez, F., Pinto, M. T., Arenas, J. C., Guzman, T. and Gutierrez, M. T. (2009) ‘Politics and security in three Colombian cities’, Working Paper No. 44 - Cities and Fragile States, DESTIN, LSE, http://www2.lse.ac.uk/internationalDevelopment/research/crisisStates/download/wp/wpSeries2/WP442.pdf (accessed April 2011). Google Scholar

Harvey, D. (2008 [1973]) Social justice and the city, Athens, GI, University of Georgia Press. Social justice and the city Google Scholar

Healey, P. (1997) Collaborating planning: shaping places in fragmented societies, London, Macmillan Place. Collaborating planning: shaping places in fragmented societies Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2010) ‘The transnational flow of knowledge and expertise in the planning field’, in Healey, P and Upton, R. (eds) Crossing borders: international exchange and planning practices, New York, Routledge, 1–27. The transnational flow of knowledge and expertise in the planning field Crossing borders: international exchange and planning practices 1 27 Google Scholar

Holston, J. (2007) Insurgent citizenship: disjunctions of democracy and modernity in Brazil, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Insurgent citizenship: disjunctions of democracy and modernity in Brazil Google Scholar

Irazábal, C. (2009) ‘One size does not fit all: land markets and property rights for the construction of the just city’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33, 558–63. One size does not fit all: land markets and property rights for the construction of the just city International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33 558 63 Google Scholar

Leyva-Botero, S. (2010) ‘El proceso de construcción de estatalidad local (1998–2009): La clave para entender el cambio de Medellín?’, in Hermelin-Arbaux, M., Echeverri, A. and Giraldo-Ramírez, J. (eds) Medellín: Medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad, Medellín, Centro de Estudios Urbanos y Ambientales, Universidad EAFIT, 271–93. El proceso de construcción de estatalidad local (1998–2009): La clave para entender el cambio de Medellín? Medellín: Medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad, Medellín 27 93 Google Scholar

Macleod, G. and Goodwin, M. (1999) ‘Space, scale and state strategy: rethinking urban and regional governance’, Progress in Human Geography, 23, 503–27. Space, scale and state strategy: rethinking urban and regional governance Progress in Human Geography 23 503 27 Google Scholar

McCann, E. and Ward, K. (2011) ‘Urban assemblages: territories, relations, practices, and power’, in McCann E. and Ward K. (eds.) Urban mobilities: cities and policymaking in the global age, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, xiii-xxxv. Urban assemblages: territories, relations, practices, and power Urban mobilities: cities and policymaking in the global age xiii xxxv Google Scholar

Mendieta, E. (2011) ‘Medellín and Bogotá: the global cities of the other globalization’, City, 15, 167–80. Medellín and Bogotá: the global cities of the other globalization City 15 167 80 Google Scholar

Monclús, F. J. (2003) ‘The Barcelona model: an original formula? From ‘reconstruction’ to strategic urban projects (1979–2004)’, Planning Perspectives, 18, 399–421. The Barcelona model: an original formula? From reconstruction’ to strategic urban projects (1979–2004) Planning Perspectives 18 399 421 Google Scholar

Piedrahita, C. and Gonzalez, J. (2010) ‘El ordenamiento territorial como mecanismo de transformación social: una mirada jurídica y política de la transformación urbana de la ciudad de Medellín’, in Hermelin-Arbaux, et al. (eds), Medellín: medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad. Medellín, centro de estudios urbanos y ambientales, Universidad Eafit, 205–22. El ordenamiento territorial como mecanismo de transformación social: una mirada jurídica y política de la transformación urbana de la ciudad de Medellín Medellín: medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad. Medellín, centro de estudios urbanos y ambientales 205 22 Google Scholar

Puerta, D. (2011) ‘Proyectos Urbanos Integrales, IUP’, in Alcaldía de Medellin, Laboratorio Medellin. Catálogo de diez prácticas vivas, Medellin, Alcaldía de Medellin, 70–83. Proyectos Urbanos Integrales, IUP Laboratorio Medellin. Catálogo de diez prácticas vivas, Medellin 70 83 Google Scholar

Rodgers, D. (2012) ‘Separate but equal democratization? Participation, politics, and urban segregation in Latin America,’ in D. Rodgers, J. Beall, and R. Kanbur, (eds), Latin American urban development into the 21st century. towards a renewed perspective on the city, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 123–44. Separate but equal democratization? Participation, politics, and urban segregation in Latin America Latin American urban development into the 21st century, towards a renewed perspective on the city 123 44 Google Scholar

Roldán, M. (2003) ‘Wounded Medellín: narcotics traffic against a background of industrial decline’, in J. Schneider, and I. Susser, Wounded cities: destruction and reconstruction in a globalized world, Oxford, Berg, 129–48. Wounded Medellín: narcotics traffic against a background of industrial decline Wounded cities: destruction and reconstruction in a globalized world 129 48 Google Scholar

Sánchez, L. A., Villa, M. I. and Riaño, P. (2011) La huella invisible de la guerra: desplazamiento forzado en la Comuna 13, Bogota, Comisión Nacional de Reparación y Reconciliación, Grupo de Memoria Histórica, Revista Semana and Taurus. La huella invisible de la guerra: desplazamiento forzado en la Comuna 13 Google Scholar

Soja, E. (2010) Seeking spatial justice, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. Seeking spatial justice Google Scholar

Steinberg, F. (2005) ‘Strategic urban planning in Latin America: experiences of building and managing the future’, Habitat International, 29, 69–93. Strategic urban planning in Latin America: experiences of building and managing the future Habitat International 29 69 93 Google Scholar

Swyngedouw, E., Moulaert, F. and Rodriguez, A. (2002) ‘Neoliberal urbanization in Europe: large-scale urban development projects and the new urban policy’, Antipode, 34, 547–82. Neoliberal urbanization in Europe: large-scale urban development projects and the new urban policy Antipode 34 547 82 Google Scholar

Tenjo-Galarza, J. (2011) De dónde van a salir los dos millones de empleos? in Razón Publica, online journal, 14 March 2011 http://www.razonpublica.com/index.php?option=com_contentandview=articleandid=1887:ide-donde-van-a-salir-los-dos-millones-de-empleosandcatid=167:articulos-recientes- (accessed March 2011). Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ACI (Agencia de Cooperación e Inversión de Medellin y el Area Metropolitana, Medellin’s Agency for International Cooperation and Investment), http://www.acimedellin.org/es/SaladePrensa/Noticias/tabid/111/NewsViewMode/full/NewsItemID/1171/Default.aspx (accessed 19 April 2013). Google Scholar

Angotti, T. (2013) ‘Urban Latin America: violence, enclaves, and struggles for land’, Latin American Perspectives, 40, 5–20. Urban Latin America: violence, enclaves, and struggles for land Latin American Perspectives 40 5 20 Google Scholar

Baptista, I. (2012) ‘Practices of exception in urban governance: reconfiguring power inside the state’, Urban Studies, 50, 39–54. Practices of exception in urban governance: reconfiguring power inside the state Urban Studies 50 39 54 Google Scholar

Bateman, M., Durán-Ortiz,J. P. and Maclean, K. (2011) ‘A post-Washington consensus approach to local economic development in Latin America? An example from Medellín, Colombia’, Overseas Development Institute, http://www.odi.org/publications/5666-latin-america-medellin-colombia-microfinance-post-washington-consensus-microcredit-microenter-prise-local-development (accessed 20 June 2015). Google Scholar

Berney, R. (2010) ‘Learning from Bogotá: how municipal experts transformed public space’, Journal of Urban Design, 15, 539–58. Learning from Bogotá: how municipal experts transformed public space Journal of Urban Design 15 539 58 Google Scholar

Block, T., Steyvers, K., Oosterlynck, S., Reynaert, H. and de Rynck, F. (2012) ‘When strategic plans fail to lead. a complexity acknowledging perspective on decision-making in urban development projects - the case of Kortrijk (Belgium)’, European Planning Studies, 20, 981–97. When strategic plans fail to lead. a complexity acknowledging perspective on decision-making in urban development projects - the case of Kortrijk (Belgium) European Planning Studies 20 981 97 Google Scholar

Brand, P. and Dávila, J. D. (2011) ‘Mobility innovation at the urban margins’, City, 15, 647–61. Mobility innovation at the urban margins City 15 647 61 Google Scholar

Burgess, R. and Carmona, M. (2009) ‘The shift of master planning to strategic planning’, in: M. Carmona (ed.), Planning through projects: moving from master planning to strategic planning, 30 cities, Amsterdam: Techne Press, 12–42. The shift of master planning to strategic planning Planning through projects: moving from master planning to strategic planning, 30 cities 12 42 Google Scholar

Caldeira, T. (2000) City of walls: crime, segregation, and citizenship in São Paulo, Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California. City of walls: crime, segregation, and citizenship in São Paulo Google Scholar

Caldeira, T. and Holston, J. (2005) ‘State and urban space in Brazil: from modernist urban planning to democratic interventions’, in A. Ong and S. J. Collier, (eds) Global assemblages: technology, politics, and ethics as anthropological problems, 393–416. State and urban space in Brazil: from modernist urban planning to democratic interventions Global assemblages: technology, politics, and ethics as anthropological problems 393 416 Google Scholar

Dapena, L. F. (2006) Núcleos de vida ciudadana. racionalidades y coyunturas en la gestión de un proyecto urbano, Bogotá, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Núcleos de vida ciudadana. racionalidades y coyunturas en la gestión de un proyecto urbano Google Scholar

Davila, J. D. (2009) ‘Being a mayor: the view from four Colombian cities’, Environment and Urbanization, 21, 37–57. Being a mayor: the view from four Colombian cities Environment and Urbanization 21 37 57 Google Scholar

Delgado, M. (2007) La ciudad mentirosa. fraude y miseria del ‘modelo Barcelona’, Madrid, Los Libros de la Catarata. La ciudad mentirosa. fraude y miseria del ‘modelo Barcelona’ Google Scholar

Echeverri, A. and Orsini, F.M. (2010) ‘Informalidad y urbanismo social en Medellín’, in Hermelin-Arbaux, M., Echeverri A. and Giraldo. J. (eds) Medellín: medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad. Medellín, centro de estudios urbanos y ambientales, Universidad Eafit, 130–152. Informalidad y urbanismo social en Medellín Medellín: medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad. Medellín, centro de estudios urbanos y ambientales 130 152 Google Scholar

EDU (Empresa de Desarrollo Urbano de Medellin) (2013) ‘Proyectos urbanos integrales’, http://www.edu.gov.co/index.php/proyectos/proyectos-urbanos-integrales (accessed May 2013). Google Scholar

Friedmann, J. (2000) ‘The good city: in defense of utopian thinking’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24, 460–72. The good city: in defense of utopian thinking International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 24 460 72 Google Scholar

Gilbert, A. (2006) ‘Good urban governance: evidence from a model city?’, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 25, 392–419. Good urban governance: evidence from a model city? Bulletin of Latin American Research 25 392 419 Google Scholar

Giraldo-Ramirez, J. (2010) ‘Cambios en la interpretación, el comportamiento y las políticas publicas respecto a la violencia homicida en Medellín’, in Hermelin-Arbaux, M., Echeverri A. and J. Giraldo (eds) Medellín: Medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad, Medellín, Centro de Estudios Urbanos y Ambientales Universidad EAFIT, 294–318. Cambios en la interpretación, el comportamiento y las políticas publicas respecto a la violencia homicida en Medellín Medellín: Medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad, Medellín 294 318 Google Scholar

Goldfrank, B. and Schrank, A. (2009) ‘Municipal neoliberalism and municipal socialism: urban political economy in Latin America’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33, 443–62, doi:10.1111/j.1468–2427.2009.00834.x. Municipal neoliberalism and municipal socialism: urban political economy in Latin America International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33 443 62 Google Scholar

González, S. (2011) ‘Bilbao and Barcelona “in motion”: how urban regeneration ‘models’ travel and mutate in the global flows of policy tourism’, Urban Studies, 48, 1397–18. Bilbao and Barcelona “in motion”: how urban regeneration ‘models’ travel and mutate in the global flows of policy tourism Urban Studies 48 1397 18 Google Scholar

Gualdrón, Y. (2014) ‘Curador urbano de Medellín exoneró al Space de supervisión técnica’ (El Tiempo, Newspaper article), 12 May 2014, http://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/medellin/fiscalia-imputara-cargos-por-edificio-space/13973638 (accessed May 2014). Google Scholar

Gutierrez, F., Pinto, M. T., Arenas, J. C., Guzman, T. and Gutierrez, M. T. (2009) ‘Politics and security in three Colombian cities’, Working Paper No. 44 - Cities and Fragile States, DESTIN, LSE, http://www2.lse.ac.uk/internationalDevelopment/research/crisisStates/download/wp/wpSeries2/WP442.pdf (accessed April 2011). Google Scholar

Harvey, D. (2008 [1973]) Social justice and the city, Athens, GI, University of Georgia Press. Social justice and the city Google Scholar

Healey, P. (1997) Collaborating planning: shaping places in fragmented societies, London, Macmillan Place. Collaborating planning: shaping places in fragmented societies Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2010) ‘The transnational flow of knowledge and expertise in the planning field’, in Healey, P and Upton, R. (eds) Crossing borders: international exchange and planning practices, New York, Routledge, 1–27. The transnational flow of knowledge and expertise in the planning field Crossing borders: international exchange and planning practices 1 27 Google Scholar

Holston, J. (2007) Insurgent citizenship: disjunctions of democracy and modernity in Brazil, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Insurgent citizenship: disjunctions of democracy and modernity in Brazil Google Scholar

Irazábal, C. (2009) ‘One size does not fit all: land markets and property rights for the construction of the just city’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33, 558–63. One size does not fit all: land markets and property rights for the construction of the just city International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33 558 63 Google Scholar

Leyva-Botero, S. (2010) ‘El proceso de construcción de estatalidad local (1998–2009): La clave para entender el cambio de Medellín?’, in Hermelin-Arbaux, M., Echeverri, A. and Giraldo-Ramírez, J. (eds) Medellín: Medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad, Medellín, Centro de Estudios Urbanos y Ambientales, Universidad EAFIT, 271–93. El proceso de construcción de estatalidad local (1998–2009): La clave para entender el cambio de Medellín? Medellín: Medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad, Medellín 27 93 Google Scholar

Macleod, G. and Goodwin, M. (1999) ‘Space, scale and state strategy: rethinking urban and regional governance’, Progress in Human Geography, 23, 503–27. Space, scale and state strategy: rethinking urban and regional governance Progress in Human Geography 23 503 27 Google Scholar

McCann, E. and Ward, K. (2011) ‘Urban assemblages: territories, relations, practices, and power’, in McCann E. and Ward K. (eds.) Urban mobilities: cities and policymaking in the global age, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, xiii-xxxv. Urban assemblages: territories, relations, practices, and power Urban mobilities: cities and policymaking in the global age xiii xxxv Google Scholar

Mendieta, E. (2011) ‘Medellín and Bogotá: the global cities of the other globalization’, City, 15, 167–80. Medellín and Bogotá: the global cities of the other globalization City 15 167 80 Google Scholar

Monclús, F. J. (2003) ‘The Barcelona model: an original formula? From ‘reconstruction’ to strategic urban projects (1979–2004)’, Planning Perspectives, 18, 399–421. The Barcelona model: an original formula? From reconstruction’ to strategic urban projects (1979–2004) Planning Perspectives 18 399 421 Google Scholar

Piedrahita, C. and Gonzalez, J. (2010) ‘El ordenamiento territorial como mecanismo de transformación social: una mirada jurídica y política de la transformación urbana de la ciudad de Medellín’, in Hermelin-Arbaux, et al. (eds), Medellín: medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad. Medellín, centro de estudios urbanos y ambientales, Universidad Eafit, 205–22. El ordenamiento territorial como mecanismo de transformación social: una mirada jurídica y política de la transformación urbana de la ciudad de Medellín Medellín: medio ambiente, urbanismo, sociedad. Medellín, centro de estudios urbanos y ambientales 205 22 Google Scholar

Puerta, D. (2011) ‘Proyectos Urbanos Integrales, IUP’, in Alcaldía de Medellin, Laboratorio Medellin. Catálogo de diez prácticas vivas, Medellin, Alcaldía de Medellin, 70–83. Proyectos Urbanos Integrales, IUP Laboratorio Medellin. Catálogo de diez prácticas vivas, Medellin 70 83 Google Scholar

Rodgers, D. (2012) ‘Separate but equal democratization? Participation, politics, and urban segregation in Latin America,’ in D. Rodgers, J. Beall, and R. Kanbur, (eds), Latin American urban development into the 21st century. towards a renewed perspective on the city, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 123–44. Separate but equal democratization? Participation, politics, and urban segregation in Latin America Latin American urban development into the 21st century, towards a renewed perspective on the city 123 44 Google Scholar

Roldán, M. (2003) ‘Wounded Medellín: narcotics traffic against a background of industrial decline’, in J. Schneider, and I. Susser, Wounded cities: destruction and reconstruction in a globalized world, Oxford, Berg, 129–48. Wounded Medellín: narcotics traffic against a background of industrial decline Wounded cities: destruction and reconstruction in a globalized world 129 48 Google Scholar

Sánchez, L. A., Villa, M. I. and Riaño, P. (2011) La huella invisible de la guerra: desplazamiento forzado en la Comuna 13, Bogota, Comisión Nacional de Reparación y Reconciliación, Grupo de Memoria Histórica, Revista Semana and Taurus. La huella invisible de la guerra: desplazamiento forzado en la Comuna 13 Google Scholar

Soja, E. (2010) Seeking spatial justice, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. Seeking spatial justice Google Scholar

Steinberg, F. (2005) ‘Strategic urban planning in Latin America: experiences of building and managing the future’, Habitat International, 29, 69–93. Strategic urban planning in Latin America: experiences of building and managing the future Habitat International 29 69 93 Google Scholar

Swyngedouw, E., Moulaert, F. and Rodriguez, A. (2002) ‘Neoliberal urbanization in Europe: large-scale urban development projects and the new urban policy’, Antipode, 34, 547–82. Neoliberal urbanization in Europe: large-scale urban development projects and the new urban policy Antipode 34 547 82 Google Scholar

Tenjo-Galarza, J. (2011) De dónde van a salir los dos millones de empleos? in Razón Publica, online journal, 14 March 2011 http://www.razonpublica.com/index.php?option=com_contentandview=articleandid=1887:ide-donde-van-a-salir-los-dos-millones-de-empleosandcatid=167:articulos-recientes- (accessed March 2011). Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Sotomayor, Luisa