International Development Planning Review

Spatial planning in the global South: reflections on the Cape Town Spatial Development Framework

International Development Planning Review (2016), 38, (4), 405–423.

Abstract

Spatial planning has evolved from the master planning tradition into strategic forms in order to accommodate rapid urban change and anticipate environmental pressures. The strategic spatial plan is considered an essential element in providing certainty in rapidly changing urban areas while remaining implementation-focused and participatory. Debates persist, however, on the efficacy of spatial plans, particularly in the context of the global South. In South Africa these discussions focus on how spatial plans can contribute to necessary urban restructuring. This article evaluates whether such plans provide meaningful guidance in the continuous spatial unfolding of South Africa’s cities, using the Cape Town Spatial Development Framework as a case study. Analysis reveals that this framework is based on contradictory conceptualisations of space which disregard the complexity of the local situation, thus impacting on its efficacy. The study indicates that for spatial planning to be more efficient in this context, plans need to refocus on the reality of a city’s spatial evolution and move away from reliance on an end-state ideal.

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City of Cape Town (2001) Municipal spatial development framework draft two, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2012a) Valuation roll, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2012b) Cape Town spatial development framework, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2012c) Integrated development plan, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2013) Informal trading policy, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2014) Economic areas management programme, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

Crot, L. (2006) ‘“Scenographic” and “cosmetic” planning: globalization and territorial restructuring in Buenos Aires’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 28(3), 227–51. “Scenographic” and “cosmetic” planning: globalization and territorial restructuring in Buenos Aires Journal of Urban Affairs 28 227 51 Google Scholar

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Miraftab, F. (2009) ‘Insurgent planning: situating radical planning in the global south’, Planning Theory, 8, 32–50. Insurgent planning: situating radical planning in the global south Planning Theory 8 32 50 Google Scholar

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Todes, A. (2008) ‘Rethinking spatial planning’, Town and Regional Planning, 53, 9–13. Rethinking spatial planning Town and Regional Planning 53 9 13 Google Scholar

UN HABITAT (2008) State of the world’s cities 2010/2011: bridging the urban divide, Abingdon: Routledge (Earthscan). Google Scholar

UN HABITAT (2009) Planning sustainable cities: global report on human settlements, Abingdon, Routledge (Earthscan). Google Scholar

UN HABITAT (2012) State of cities report: 2012/2013, Abingdon: Routledge (Earthscan). Google Scholar

UN HABITAT (2013) Planning and design for sustainable urban mobility: global report on human settlements, 2013, Abingdon, Routledge (Earthscan). Google Scholar

UN HABITAT (2014) State of Africa’s cities 2014: re-imagining sustainable urban transitions, 2014, Abingdon: Routledge (Earthscan). Google Scholar

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Albrechts, L. (2001) ‘In pursuit of new approaches to strategic spatial planning: a European perspective’, International Planning Studies, 6(3), 293–310. In pursuit of new approaches to strategic spatial planning: a European perspective International Planning Studies 6 293 310 Google Scholar

Albrechts, L. (2006) ‘Shifts in strategic spatial planning? Some evidence from Europe and Australia’, Environment and Planning A, 38, 1149–70. Shifts in strategic spatial planning? Some evidence from Europe and Australia Environment and Planning A 38 1149 70 Google Scholar

Amin, A. and Thrift, N. (2002) Cities: reimagining the urban, London, Polity Press. Cities: reimagining the urban Google Scholar

Borchers, M., Mcgaffin, R., Steyn, L. and Watson, V. (2010) ‘Review of Draft 4 of the Cape Town spatial development framework’ (SDF Expert Review Panel Report), Cape Town, Cape Town City Council. Review of Draft 4 of the Cape Town spatial development framework Google Scholar

Bosworth, B. (2014) ‘From data to intelligence’, Earthworks for a Sustainable Built Environment, 22, 66–72. From data to intelligence Earthworks for a Sustainable Built Environment 22 66 72 Google Scholar

Brownhill, S. and Parker, G. (2010) ‘Why bother with good works? The relevance of public participation(s) in planning in a post-collaborative era’, Planning Practice and Research, 25(3), 275–82. Why bother with good works? The relevance of public participation(s) in planning in a post-collaborative era Planning Practice and Research 25 275 82 Google Scholar

Burger, M., Van Der Knaap, B. and Wall, R. (2014) ‘Polycentricity and the multiplexity of urban networks’, European Planning Studies, 22(4), 816–40. Polycentricity and the multiplexity of urban networks European Planning Studies 22 816 40 Google Scholar

Castells, M. (2000) The rise of the network society: the information age: economy, society and culture, Vol. 1 (Information Age Series), London, Blackwell. The rise of the network society: the information age: economy, society and culture Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2001) Municipal spatial development framework draft two, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2012a) Valuation roll, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2012b) Cape Town spatial development framework, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2012c) Integrated development plan, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2013) Informal trading policy, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2014) Economic areas management programme, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

Crot, L. (2006) ‘“Scenographic” and “cosmetic” planning: globalization and territorial restructuring in Buenos Aires’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 28(3), 227–51. “Scenographic” and “cosmetic” planning: globalization and territorial restructuring in Buenos Aires Journal of Urban Affairs 28 227 51 Google Scholar

Adams, D., Croudace, R. and Tiesdell, S. (2012) ‘Exploring the “notional property developer” as a policy construct’, Urban Studies, 49(12), 2577–96. Exploring the “notional property developer” as a policy construct Urban Studies 49 2577 96 Google Scholar

Dodson, J. (2009) ‘The infrastructure “turn” in Australian metropolitan planning’, International Planning Studies, 14(2), 109–23. The infrastructure “turn” in Australian metropolitan planning International Planning Studies 14 109 23 Google Scholar

Albrechts, L. (2001) ‘In pursuit of new approaches to strategic spatial planning: a European perspective’, International Planning Studies, 6(3), 293–310. In pursuit of new approaches to strategic spatial planning: a European perspective International Planning Studies 6 293 310 Google Scholar

Du Plessis, D. (2014) ‘A critical reflection on urban spatial planning practices and outcomes in post-apartheid South Africa’, Urban Forum, 25, 69–88. A critical reflection on urban spatial planning practices and outcomes in post-apartheid South Africa Urban Forum 25 69 88 Google Scholar

Albrechts, L. (2006) ‘Shifts in strategic spatial planning? Some evidence from Europe and Australia’, Environment and Planning A, 38, 1149–70. Shifts in strategic spatial planning? Some evidence from Europe and Australia Environment and Planning A 38 1149 70 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Amin, A. and Thrift, N. (2002) Cities: reimagining the urban, London, Polity Press. Cities: reimagining the urban Google Scholar

Graham, S. and Marvin, S. (2001) Splintering urbanism: networked infrastructures, technological mobilities and the urban condition, London, Routledge. Splintering urbanism: networked infrastructures, technological mobilities and the urban condition Google Scholar

Borchers, M., Mcgaffin, R., Steyn, L. and Watson, V. (2010) ‘Review of Draft 4 of the Cape Town spatial development framework’ (SDF Expert Review Panel Report), Cape Town, Cape Town City Council. Review of Draft 4 of the Cape Town spatial development framework Google Scholar

Hajer, M. and Zonneveld, W. (2000) ‘Spatial planning in the network society – rethinking the principles of planning in the Netherlands’, European Planning Studies, 8(3), 337–55. Spatial planning in the network society – rethinking the principles of planning in the Netherlands European Planning Studies 8 337 55 Google Scholar

Bosworth, B. (2014) ‘From data to intelligence’, Earthworks for a Sustainable Built Environment, 22, 66–72. From data to intelligence Earthworks for a Sustainable Built Environment 22 66 72 Google Scholar

Harrison, P., Todes, A. and Watson, V. (2008) Planning and transformation: lessons from the South African experience, London, Routledge. Planning and transformation: lessons from the South African experience Google Scholar

Brownhill, S. and Parker, G. (2010) ‘Why bother with good works? The relevance of public participation(s) in planning in a post-collaborative era’, Planning Practice and Research, 25(3), 275–82. Why bother with good works? The relevance of public participation(s) in planning in a post-collaborative era Planning Practice and Research 25 275 82 Google Scholar

Haughton, G., Allmendinger, P., Counsell, D. and Vigar, G. (2010) The new spatial planning: territorial management with soft spaces and fuzzy boundaries, Abingdon, Routledge. The new spatial planning: territorial management with soft spaces and fuzzy boundaries Google Scholar

Burger, M., Van Der Knaap, B. and Wall, R. (2014) ‘Polycentricity and the multiplexity of urban networks’, European Planning Studies, 22(4), 816–40. Polycentricity and the multiplexity of urban networks European Planning Studies 22 816 40 Google Scholar

Castells, M. (2000) The rise of the network society: the information age: economy, society and culture, Vol. 1 (Information Age Series), London, Blackwell. The rise of the network society: the information age: economy, society and culture Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2004) ‘The treatment of space and place in new strategic spatial planning in Europe’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28(1), 45–67. The treatment of space and place in new strategic spatial planning in Europe International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 28 45 67 Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2001) Municipal spatial development framework draft two, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2007) Urban complexity and spatial strategies, London, Routledge. Urban complexity and spatial strategies Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2012a) Valuation roll, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2009) ‘In search of the “strategic” in spatial strategy making’, Planning Theory and Practice, 10(4), 439–57. In search of the “strategic” in spatial strategy making Planning Theory and Practice 10 439 57 Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2012b) Cape Town spatial development framework, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

Klink, J. (2014) ‘The hollowing out of Brazilian metropolitan governance as we know it: restructuring and rescaling the developmental state in metropolitan space’, Antipode, 46(3), 629–49. The hollowing out of Brazilian metropolitan governance as we know it: restructuring and rescaling the developmental state in metropolitan space Antipode 46 629 49 Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2012c) Integrated development plan, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

Klink, J. and Denaldi, R. (2012) ‘Metropolitan fragmentation and neo-localism in the periphery revisiting the case of Curitiba’, Urban Studies, 49(3), 543–61. Metropolitan fragmentation and neo-localism in the periphery revisiting the case of Curitiba Urban Studies 49 543 61 Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2013) Informal trading policy, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

Kombe, W. J. and Kreibich, V. (2000) ‘Reconciling informal and formal land management: an agenda for improving tenure security and urban governance in poor countries’, Habitat International, 24(2), 231–40. Reconciling informal and formal land management: an agenda for improving tenure security and urban governance in poor countries Habitat International 24 231 40 Google Scholar

McGaffen, R. (2015) Interview, 2015. City of Cape Town researcher and Senior Lecturer, University of Cape Town. Interview, 2015. City of Cape Town researcher and Senior Lecturer Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2014) Economic areas management programme, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

Miraftab, F. (2009) ‘Insurgent planning: situating radical planning in the global south’, Planning Theory, 8, 32–50. Insurgent planning: situating radical planning in the global south Planning Theory 8 32 50 Google Scholar

Crot, L. (2006) ‘“Scenographic” and “cosmetic” planning: globalization and territorial restructuring in Buenos Aires’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 28(3), 227–51. “Scenographic” and “cosmetic” planning: globalization and territorial restructuring in Buenos Aires Journal of Urban Affairs 28 227 51 Google Scholar

Murdoch, J. (2006) Post-structural geography, London, Sage. Post-structural geography Google Scholar

Dodson, J. (2009) ‘The infrastructure “turn” in Australian metropolitan planning’, International Planning Studies, 14(2), 109–23. The infrastructure “turn” in Australian metropolitan planning International Planning Studies 14 109 23 Google Scholar

Nnkya, T. J. (2007) Why planning does not work: land use planning and residents’ rights in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, Mkuki Na Nyota Publishers. Why planning does not work: land use planning and residents’ rights in Tanzania Google Scholar

Du Plessis, D. (2014) ‘A critical reflection on urban spatial planning practices and outcomes in post-apartheid South Africa’, Urban Forum, 25, 69–88. A critical reflection on urban spatial planning practices and outcomes in post-apartheid South Africa Urban Forum 25 69 88 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Odendaal, N. (2012) ‘Reality check: planning education in the African urban century’, Cities, 29(3), 174–82. Reality check: planning education in the African urban century Cities 29 174 82 Google Scholar

Graham, S. and Marvin, S. (2001) Splintering urbanism: networked infrastructures, technological mobilities and the urban condition, London, Routledge. Splintering urbanism: networked infrastructures, technological mobilities and the urban condition Google Scholar

Robinson, P. McCarthy, J. and Forster, C. (eds) (2004) Urban reconstruction in the developing world: learning through an international best practice, Johannesburg, Heinemann Publishers. Urban reconstruction in the developing world: learning through an international best practice Google Scholar

Hajer, M. and Zonneveld, W. (2000) ‘Spatial planning in the network society – rethinking the principles of planning in the Netherlands’, European Planning Studies, 8(3), 337–55. Spatial planning in the network society – rethinking the principles of planning in the Netherlands European Planning Studies 8 337 55 Google Scholar

Roy, A. (2009) ‘Why India cannot plan its cities: informality, insurgence and the idiom of urbanization’, Planning Theory, 8(1), 76–87. Why India cannot plan its cities: informality, insurgence and the idiom of urbanization Planning Theory 8 76 87 Google Scholar

Harrison, P., Todes, A. and Watson, V. (2008) Planning and transformation: lessons from the South African experience, London, Routledge. Planning and transformation: lessons from the South African experience Google Scholar

SACN (South African Cities Network) (2011), State of the cities report, http://www.sacities.net/state-of-cities-reporting/45 (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

Haughton, G., Allmendinger, P., Counsell, D. and Vigar, G. (2010) The new spatial planning: territorial management with soft spaces and fuzzy boundaries, Abingdon, Routledge. The new spatial planning: territorial management with soft spaces and fuzzy boundaries Google Scholar

Searle, G. and Bunker, R. (2010) ‘Metropolitan strategic planning: an Australian paradigm?’, Planning Theory, 9(3), 163–80. Metropolitan strategic planning: an Australian paradigm? Planning Theory 9 163 80 Google Scholar

StatsSA (Statistics South Africa) (2011) Census 2011, http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=993&id=city-of-cape-town-municipality (accessed January 2011). Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2004) ‘The treatment of space and place in new strategic spatial planning in Europe’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28(1), 45–67. The treatment of space and place in new strategic spatial planning in Europe International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 28 45 67 Google Scholar

StatsSA (Statistics South Africa) (2013) Quarterly labour force survey 2013, http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=1854&PPN=P0211 (accessed January 2015). Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2007) Urban complexity and spatial strategies, London, Routledge. Urban complexity and spatial strategies Google Scholar

Tewdwr-Jones, M. and Allmendinger, P. (1998) ‘Deconstructing communicative rationality: a critique of Habermasian collaborative planning’, Environment and Planning A, 30(11), 1975–89. Deconstructing communicative rationality: a critique of Habermasian collaborative planning Environment and Planning A 30 1975 89 Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2009) ‘In search of the “strategic” in spatial strategy making’, Planning Theory and Practice, 10(4), 439–57. In search of the “strategic” in spatial strategy making Planning Theory and Practice 10 439 57 Google Scholar

Klink, J. (2014) ‘The hollowing out of Brazilian metropolitan governance as we know it: restructuring and rescaling the developmental state in metropolitan space’, Antipode, 46(3), 629–49. The hollowing out of Brazilian metropolitan governance as we know it: restructuring and rescaling the developmental state in metropolitan space Antipode 46 629 49 Google Scholar

Todes, A. (2008) ‘Rethinking spatial planning’, Town and Regional Planning, 53, 9–13. Rethinking spatial planning Town and Regional Planning 53 9 13 Google Scholar

UN HABITAT (2008) State of the world’s cities 2010/2011: bridging the urban divide, Abingdon: Routledge (Earthscan). Google Scholar

Klink, J. and Denaldi, R. (2012) ‘Metropolitan fragmentation and neo-localism in the periphery revisiting the case of Curitiba’, Urban Studies, 49(3), 543–61. Metropolitan fragmentation and neo-localism in the periphery revisiting the case of Curitiba Urban Studies 49 543 61 Google Scholar

UN HABITAT (2009) Planning sustainable cities: global report on human settlements, Abingdon, Routledge (Earthscan). Google Scholar

Kombe, W. J. and Kreibich, V. (2000) ‘Reconciling informal and formal land management: an agenda for improving tenure security and urban governance in poor countries’, Habitat International, 24(2), 231–40. Reconciling informal and formal land management: an agenda for improving tenure security and urban governance in poor countries Habitat International 24 231 40 Google Scholar

McGaffen, R. (2015) Interview, 2015. City of Cape Town researcher and Senior Lecturer, University of Cape Town. Interview, 2015. City of Cape Town researcher and Senior Lecturer Google Scholar

UN HABITAT (2012) State of cities report: 2012/2013, Abingdon: Routledge (Earthscan). Google Scholar

Miraftab, F. (2009) ‘Insurgent planning: situating radical planning in the global south’, Planning Theory, 8, 32–50. Insurgent planning: situating radical planning in the global south Planning Theory 8 32 50 Google Scholar

UN HABITAT (2013) Planning and design for sustainable urban mobility: global report on human settlements, 2013, Abingdon, Routledge (Earthscan). Google Scholar

Murdoch, J. (2006) Post-structural geography, London, Sage. Post-structural geography Google Scholar

UN HABITAT (2014) State of Africa’s cities 2014: re-imagining sustainable urban transitions, 2014, Abingdon: Routledge (Earthscan). Google Scholar

Nnkya, T. J. (2007) Why planning does not work: land use planning and residents’ rights in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, Mkuki Na Nyota Publishers. Why planning does not work: land use planning and residents’ rights in Tanzania Google Scholar

Watson, V. (2002a) Change and continuity in spatial planning: metropolitan planning in Cape Town under political transition, London, Routledge. Change and continuity in spatial planning: metropolitan planning in Cape Town under political transition Google Scholar

Odendaal, N. (2012) ‘Reality check: planning education in the African urban century’, Cities, 29(3), 174–82. Reality check: planning education in the African urban century Cities 29 174 82 Google Scholar

Robinson, P. McCarthy, J. and Forster, C. (eds) (2004) Urban reconstruction in the developing world: learning through an international best practice, Johannesburg, Heinemann Publishers. Urban reconstruction in the developing world: learning through an international best practice Google Scholar

Watson, V. (2002b) ‘The usefulness of normative planning theories in the context of sub-Saharan Africa’, Planning Theory, 1(1), 27–52. The usefulness of normative planning theories in the context of sub-Saharan Africa Planning Theory 1 27 52 Google Scholar

Roy, A. (2009) ‘Why India cannot plan its cities: informality, insurgence and the idiom of urbanization’, Planning Theory, 8(1), 76–87. Why India cannot plan its cities: informality, insurgence and the idiom of urbanization Planning Theory 8 76 87 Google Scholar

Watson, V. (2003b) MSDF review phase 1: spatial analysis, trends and implications, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. MSDF review phase 1: spatial analysis, trends and implications Google Scholar

Watson, V. (2009a) ‘“The planned city sweeps the poor away …”: Urban planning and 21st century urbanisation’, Progress in Planning, 72, 151–93. “The planned city sweeps the poor away …”: Urban planning and 21st century urbanisation Progress in Planning 72 151 93 Google Scholar

SACN (South African Cities Network) (2011), State of the cities report, http://www.sacities.net/state-of-cities-reporting/45 (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

Watson, V. (2009b) ‘Seeing from the South: refocusing urban planning on the globe’s central urban issues’, Urban Studies, 46(11), 2259–75. Seeing from the South: refocusing urban planning on the globe Urban Studies 46 2259 75 Google Scholar

Searle, G. and Bunker, R. (2010) ‘Metropolitan strategic planning: an Australian paradigm?’, Planning Theory, 9(3), 163–80. Metropolitan strategic planning: an Australian paradigm? Planning Theory 9 163 80 Google Scholar

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Odendaal, Nancy

McCann, Adele