International Development Planning Review

‘We no longer have faith and trust in anyone’: misadventures in community consultation on the future of the Chagos Archipelago

International Development Planning Review (2016), 38, (4), 383–403.

Abstract

This article critically examines the consequences of different levels of public participation in decision-making processes for chronically disadvantaged and marginalised people. We present a case study of a public consultation commissioned by the UK government as part of a broader study into the feasibility of resettlement of the Chagos Archipelago, a remote British Overseas Territory in the Indian Ocean. The UK government has a long and troubled history of entanglements with the Chagossian community. We argue that the government and the consultants it commissioned failed to engage with this complex history, leading to particular challenges in establishing trust among community members and hindering the effectiveness of the consultation process. We show that consultations are not neutral, one-off ‘fact-finding’ endeavours but politically loaded exercises with lasting consequences for communities in terms of power, participation and vulnerability. We conclude that those involved in commissioning or conducting participatory projects should consider the historical, political and socio-economic dynamics of stakeholder communities to determine instances in which collaboration or empowerment (rather than merely dissemination, consultation or involvement) may be required to achieve fair, effective decision-making.

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Colson, E. (2003) ‘Forced migration and the anthropological response’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 16, 1–18. Forced migration and the anthropological response Journal of Refugee Studies 16 1 18 Google Scholar

Cook, D. (2002) ‘Consultation, for a change? Engaging users and communities in the policy process’, Social Policy & Administration, 36, 516–31. Consultation, for a change? Engaging users and communities in the policy process Social Policy & Administration 36 516 31 Google Scholar

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Eversole, R. (2012) ‘Remaking participation: challenges for community development practice’, Community Development Journal, 47, 29–41. Remaking participation: challenges for community development practice Community Development Journal 47 29 41 Google Scholar

FCO (Foreign and Commonwealth Office) (2009) ‘FCO consultation document: consultation on whether to establish a marine protected area in the British Indian Ocean Territory’, http://www.chagos-trust.org/fco-consultation-document-consultation-whether-establish-marineprotected-area-british-indian-ocean (accessed 26 July 2016). Google Scholar

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Griffiths, M. B. E. (2014) ‘Out of time: the temporal uncertainties of refused asylum seekers and immigration detainees’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40, 1–19. Out of time: the temporal uncertainties of refused asylum seekers and immigration detainees Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 40 1 19 Google Scholar

Head, B. W. (2011) ‘Australian experience: civic engagement as symbol and substance’, Public Administration and Development, 31, 102–12. Australian experience: civic engagement as symbol and substance Public Administration and Development 31 102 12 Google Scholar

Hickey, S. and Mohan, G. (2004) ‘Towards participation as transformation: critical themes and challenges participation’, in S. Hickey and G. Mohan (eds) Participation: from tyranny to transformation? Exploring new approaches to participation in development, London, Zed Books, 3–24. Towards participation as transformation: critical themes and challenges participation Participation: from tyranny to transformation? Exploring new approaches to participation in development 3 24 Google Scholar

HMG (Her Majesty’s Government) (2013) Consultation principles, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/305998/appendix-bconsultation-principles.pdf (accessed 11 October 2016). Google Scholar

IAPP (International Association for Public Participation) (2007) IAP2 spectrum of public participation, http://www.iap2.org/resource/resmgr/imported/IAP2%20Spectrum_vertical.pdf (accessed 10 March 2016). Google Scholar

Jeffery, L. (2013) ‘“We are the true guardians of the environment”: human-environment relations and debates about the future of the Chagos Archipelago’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 19, 300–18. “We are the true guardians of the environment”: human-environment relations and debates about the future of the Chagos Archipelago Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 19 300 18 Google Scholar

Jeffery, L. (2014) ‘Neither confirm nor deny: WikiLeaks evidence and the Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations in the judicial review of the Chagos Marine Protected Area’, Anthropology Today, 30, 9–13. Neither confirm nor deny: WikiLeaks evidence and the Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations in the judicial review of the Chagos Marine Protected Area Anthropology Today 30 9 13 Google Scholar

Knudsen, J. C. (1995) ‘When trust is on trial: negotiating refugee narratives’, in E. V. Daniel and J. C. Knudsen (eds), Mistrusting refugees, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press, 13–35. When trust is on trial: negotiating refugee narratives Mistrusting refugees 13 35 Google Scholar

KPMG (2014a) Feasibility study for the resettlement of the British Indian Ocean Territory inception report, London, KPMG LLP, 19 March 2014. Google Scholar

KPMG (2014b) Feasibility study for the resettlement of the British Indian Ocean Territory draft report, London, KPMG LLP, 13 November 2014. Google Scholar

KPMG (2015) Feasibility study for the resettlement of the British Indian Ocean Territory Volume 1, London, KPMG LLP, 31 January 2015. Google Scholar

Kumar, S. (2002) Methods for community participation: a complete guide for practitioners, Rugby, Practical Action Publishing. Methods for community participation: a complete guide for practitioners Google Scholar

Maciejewski Scheer, A. and Höppner (2010) ‘The public consultation to the UK Climate Change Act 2010: a critical analysis’, Climate Policy, 10, 261–76. The public consultation to the UK Climate Change Act 2010: a critical analysis Climate Policy 10 261 76 Google Scholar

Madeley, J. (1985) Diego Garcia: a contrast to the Falklands, London, Minority Rights Group report no. 54. Diego Garcia: a contrast to the Falklands Google Scholar

Marimootoo, H. (1997) ‘Diego files’, in Week-end (weekly, 25 May 1997–10 August 1997), Port Louis, Mauritius. Diego files Week-end Google Scholar

Misztal, B. A. (2011) ‘Trust: acceptance of, precaution against and cause of vulnerability’, Comparative Sociology, 10, 358–79. Trust: acceptance of, precaution against and cause of vulnerability Comparative Sociology 10 358 79 Google Scholar

Mosse, D. (2005) Cultivating development: an ethnography of aid policy and practice, London: Pluto. Cultivating development: an ethnography of aid policy and practice Google Scholar

Nelson, N. and Wright, S. (1995) ‘Participation and power’, in N. Nelson and S. Wright (eds), 1–18. Participation and power 1 18 Google Scholar

Percy-Smith, B. (2010) ‘Councils, consultations and community: rethinking the spaces for children and young people’s participation’, Children’s Geographies, 8, 107–22. Councils, consultations and community: rethinking the spaces for children and young people Children’s Geographies 8 107 22 Google Scholar

Petersen, A. (2007) ‘Biobanks’ “engagements”: engendering trust or engineering consent?’, Genomics, Society and Policy, 3, 31–43. Biobanks Genomics, Society and Policy 3 31 43 Google Scholar

Posford Haskoning Ltd. (2002) Feasibility study for the resettlement of the Chagos Archipelago Phase 2B: volume I: executive summary, Final Report, London, Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Feasibility study for the resettlement of the Chagos Archipelago Phase 2B: volume I: executive summary Google Scholar

Schrijvers, J. (1995) ‘Participation and power: a transformative feminist research perspective’, in N. Nelson and S. Wright (eds), 19–29. Participation and power: a transformative feminist research perspective 19 29 Google Scholar

Stevenson, R. (2010) Whether to establish a marine protected area in the British Indian Ocean Territory, Consultation Report, London, Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Whether to establish a marine protected area in the British Indian Ocean Territory Google Scholar

Stirrat, R. L. (2000) ‘Cultures of consultancy’, Critique of Anthropology, 20, 31–46. Cultures of consultancy Critique of Anthropology 20 31 46 Google Scholar

Turton, D. (2003) Conceptualising forced migration, Refugee Studies Centre Working Paper No. 12, Refugee Studies Centre, International Development Centre, University of Oxford. Conceptualising forced migration Google Scholar

Voutira, E. and Harrell-Bond, B. (1995) ‘In search of the locus of trust: the social world of the refugee camp’, in E. V. Daniel and J. C. Knudsen (eds), 207–24. In search of the locus of trust: the social world of the refugee camp 207 24 Google Scholar

Woost, M. (1997) ‘Alternative vocabularies of development? “Community” and “participation” in development discourse in Sri Lanka’, in R. D. Grillo and R. L. Stirrat (eds) Discourses of development: anthropological perspectives, Oxford, Berg, 229–53. Alternative vocabularies of development? “community” and “participation” in development discourse in Sri Lanka Discourses of development: anthropological perspectives 229 53 Google Scholar

Aguilar, J. L. (1984) ‘Trust and exchange: expressive and instrumental dimensions of reciprocity in a peasant community’, Ethos, 12, 3–29. Trust and exchange: expressive and instrumental dimensions of reciprocity in a peasant community Ethos 12 3 29 Google Scholar

Barnes, R., Auburn, T. and Lea, S. (2004) ‘Citizenship in practice’, Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 187–206. Citizenship in practice Journal of Social Psychology 43 187 206 Google Scholar

Cernea, M. M. (1996) ‘Understanding and preventing impoverishment from displacement – reflections on the state of knowledge’, in C. McDowell (ed.) Understanding impoverishment: the consequences of development-induced displacement, Oxford, Berghahn, 13–32. Understanding and preventing impoverishment from displacement – reflections on the state of knowledge Understanding impoverishment: the consequences of development-induced displacement 13 32 Google Scholar

Chambers, R. (1995) ‘Paradigm shifts and the practice of participatory research and development’, in N. Nelson and S. Wright (eds) Power and participatory development: theory and research, London, International Technology Publications, 30–42. Paradigm shifts and the practice of participatory research and development Power and participatory development: theory and research 30 42 Google Scholar

Cleaver, F. (1999) ‘Paradoxes of participation: questioning participatory approaches to development’, Journal of International Development, 11, 597–612. Paradoxes of participation: questioning participatory approaches to development Journal of International Development 11 597 612 Google Scholar

Colson, E. (1989) ‘Overview’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 18, 1–16. Overview Annual Review of Anthropology 18 1 16 Google Scholar

Colson, E. (2003) ‘Forced migration and the anthropological response’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 16, 1–18. Forced migration and the anthropological response Journal of Refugee Studies 16 1 18 Google Scholar

Cook, D. (2002) ‘Consultation, for a change? Engaging users and communities in the policy process’, Social Policy & Administration, 36, 516–31. Consultation, for a change? Engaging users and communities in the policy process Social Policy & Administration 36 516 31 Google Scholar

Cooke, B. and Kothari, U. (2001) ‘The case for participation as tyranny’, in B. Cooke and U. Kothari (eds) Participation: the new tyranny?, London, Zed Books, 1–15. The case for participation as tyranny Participation: the new tyranny? 1 15 Google Scholar

de Wet, C. (2006) ‘Risk, complexity and local initiative in forced resettlement outcomes’, in C. de Wet (ed.) Development-induced displacement: problems, polices and people, Oxford, Berghahn, 180–202. Risk, complexity and local initiative in forced resettlement outcomes Development-induced displacement: problems, polices and people 180 202 Google Scholar

Eversole, R. (2003) ‘Managing the pitfalls of participatory development: some insight from Australia’, World Development, 31, 781–95. Managing the pitfalls of participatory development: some insight from Australia World Development 31 781 95 Google Scholar

Eversole, R. (2012) ‘Remaking participation: challenges for community development practice’, Community Development Journal, 47, 29–41. Remaking participation: challenges for community development practice Community Development Journal 47 29 41 Google Scholar

FCO (Foreign and Commonwealth Office) (2009) ‘FCO consultation document: consultation on whether to establish a marine protected area in the British Indian Ocean Territory’, http://www.chagos-trust.org/fco-consultation-document-consultation-whether-establish-marineprotected-area-british-indian-ocean (accessed 26 July 2016). Google Scholar

FCO (Foreign and Commonwealth Office) (2013) Written statements, http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201314/cmhansrd/cm130708/wmstext/130708m0001.htm (accessed 26 July 2016). Google Scholar

FCO (Foreign and Commonwealth Office) (2015) Progress in reviewing policy on resettlement of the British Indian Ocean Territory, https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/progress-in-reviewingpolicy-on-resettlement-of-the-british-indian-ocean-territory (accessed 26 July 2016). Google Scholar

Fiorino, D. J. (1990) ‘Citizen participation and environmental risk: a survey of institutional mechanisms’, Science, Technology and Human Values, 15(2): 226–43. Citizen participation and environmental risk: a survey of institutional mechanisms Science, Technology and Human Values 15 226 43 Google Scholar

Gambetta, D. (1988) ‘Can we trust trust?’ in D. Gambetta (ed.) Trust: making and breaking cooperative relations, Oxford, Blackwell, 213–37. Can we trust trust? Trust: making and breaking cooperative relations 213 37 Google Scholar

Gardner, K. and Lewis, D. (1996) Anthropology, development and the post-modern challenge, London, Pluto. Anthropology, development and the post-modern challenge Google Scholar

Gifford, R. D. and Dunne, R. P. (2012) ‘Chagos Islands analysis note on the resettlement studies’, https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnx0aGVjaGFnb3NhcmNoaXBlbGFnbzJ8Z3g6NjcwZjVlZGMxNzFlYzM0Yw (accessed 10 March 2016). Google Scholar

Gifford, R. D. and Dunne, R. P. (2014) ‘A dispossessed people: the depopulation of the Chagos Archipelago 1965–1973’, Population, Space and Place, 20, 37–49. A dispossessed people: the depopulation of the Chagos Archipelago 1965–1973 Population, Space and Place 20 37 49 Google Scholar

Griffiths, M. B. E. (2014) ‘Out of time: the temporal uncertainties of refused asylum seekers and immigration detainees’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40, 1–19. Out of time: the temporal uncertainties of refused asylum seekers and immigration detainees Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 40 1 19 Google Scholar

Head, B. W. (2011) ‘Australian experience: civic engagement as symbol and substance’, Public Administration and Development, 31, 102–12. Australian experience: civic engagement as symbol and substance Public Administration and Development 31 102 12 Google Scholar

Hickey, S. and Mohan, G. (2004) ‘Towards participation as transformation: critical themes and challenges participation’, in S. Hickey and G. Mohan (eds) Participation: from tyranny to transformation? Exploring new approaches to participation in development, London, Zed Books, 3–24. Towards participation as transformation: critical themes and challenges participation Participation: from tyranny to transformation? Exploring new approaches to participation in development 3 24 Google Scholar

HMG (Her Majesty’s Government) (2013) Consultation principles, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/305998/appendix-bconsultation-principles.pdf (accessed 11 October 2016). Google Scholar

IAPP (International Association for Public Participation) (2007) IAP2 spectrum of public participation, http://www.iap2.org/resource/resmgr/imported/IAP2%20Spectrum_vertical.pdf (accessed 10 March 2016). Google Scholar

Jeffery, L. (2013) ‘“We are the true guardians of the environment”: human-environment relations and debates about the future of the Chagos Archipelago’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 19, 300–18. “We are the true guardians of the environment”: human-environment relations and debates about the future of the Chagos Archipelago Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 19 300 18 Google Scholar

Jeffery, L. (2014) ‘Neither confirm nor deny: WikiLeaks evidence and the Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations in the judicial review of the Chagos Marine Protected Area’, Anthropology Today, 30, 9–13. Neither confirm nor deny: WikiLeaks evidence and the Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations in the judicial review of the Chagos Marine Protected Area Anthropology Today 30 9 13 Google Scholar

Knudsen, J. C. (1995) ‘When trust is on trial: negotiating refugee narratives’, in E. V. Daniel and J. C. Knudsen (eds), Mistrusting refugees, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press, 13–35. When trust is on trial: negotiating refugee narratives Mistrusting refugees 13 35 Google Scholar

KPMG (2014a) Feasibility study for the resettlement of the British Indian Ocean Territory inception report, London, KPMG LLP, 19 March 2014. Google Scholar

KPMG (2014b) Feasibility study for the resettlement of the British Indian Ocean Territory draft report, London, KPMG LLP, 13 November 2014. Google Scholar

KPMG (2015) Feasibility study for the resettlement of the British Indian Ocean Territory Volume 1, London, KPMG LLP, 31 January 2015. Google Scholar

Kumar, S. (2002) Methods for community participation: a complete guide for practitioners, Rugby, Practical Action Publishing. Methods for community participation: a complete guide for practitioners Google Scholar

Maciejewski Scheer, A. and Höppner (2010) ‘The public consultation to the UK Climate Change Act 2010: a critical analysis’, Climate Policy, 10, 261–76. The public consultation to the UK Climate Change Act 2010: a critical analysis Climate Policy 10 261 76 Google Scholar

Madeley, J. (1985) Diego Garcia: a contrast to the Falklands, London, Minority Rights Group report no. 54. Diego Garcia: a contrast to the Falklands Google Scholar

Marimootoo, H. (1997) ‘Diego files’, in Week-end (weekly, 25 May 1997–10 August 1997), Port Louis, Mauritius. Diego files Week-end Google Scholar

Misztal, B. A. (2011) ‘Trust: acceptance of, precaution against and cause of vulnerability’, Comparative Sociology, 10, 358–79. Trust: acceptance of, precaution against and cause of vulnerability Comparative Sociology 10 358 79 Google Scholar

Mosse, D. (2005) Cultivating development: an ethnography of aid policy and practice, London: Pluto. Cultivating development: an ethnography of aid policy and practice Google Scholar

Nelson, N. and Wright, S. (1995) ‘Participation and power’, in N. Nelson and S. Wright (eds), 1–18. Participation and power 1 18 Google Scholar

Percy-Smith, B. (2010) ‘Councils, consultations and community: rethinking the spaces for children and young people’s participation’, Children’s Geographies, 8, 107–22. Councils, consultations and community: rethinking the spaces for children and young people Children’s Geographies 8 107 22 Google Scholar

Petersen, A. (2007) ‘Biobanks’ “engagements”: engendering trust or engineering consent?’, Genomics, Society and Policy, 3, 31–43. Biobanks Genomics, Society and Policy 3 31 43 Google Scholar

Posford Haskoning Ltd. (2002) Feasibility study for the resettlement of the Chagos Archipelago Phase 2B: volume I: executive summary, Final Report, London, Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Feasibility study for the resettlement of the Chagos Archipelago Phase 2B: volume I: executive summary Google Scholar

Schrijvers, J. (1995) ‘Participation and power: a transformative feminist research perspective’, in N. Nelson and S. Wright (eds), 19–29. Participation and power: a transformative feminist research perspective 19 29 Google Scholar

Stevenson, R. (2010) Whether to establish a marine protected area in the British Indian Ocean Territory, Consultation Report, London, Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Whether to establish a marine protected area in the British Indian Ocean Territory Google Scholar

Stirrat, R. L. (2000) ‘Cultures of consultancy’, Critique of Anthropology, 20, 31–46. Cultures of consultancy Critique of Anthropology 20 31 46 Google Scholar

Turton, D. (2003) Conceptualising forced migration, Refugee Studies Centre Working Paper No. 12, Refugee Studies Centre, International Development Centre, University of Oxford. Conceptualising forced migration Google Scholar

Voutira, E. and Harrell-Bond, B. (1995) ‘In search of the locus of trust: the social world of the refugee camp’, in E. V. Daniel and J. C. Knudsen (eds), 207–24. In search of the locus of trust: the social world of the refugee camp 207 24 Google Scholar

Woost, M. (1997) ‘Alternative vocabularies of development? “Community” and “participation” in development discourse in Sri Lanka’, in R. D. Grillo and R. L. Stirrat (eds) Discourses of development: anthropological perspectives, Oxford, Berg, 229–53. Alternative vocabularies of development? “community” and “participation” in development discourse in Sri Lanka Discourses of development: anthropological perspectives 229 53 Google Scholar

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