Town Planning Review

Perspectives on mixing housing types in the suburbs

Town Planning Review (2014), 85, (3), 363–386.

Abstract

Planners typically promote diversity and mixing as desirable social objectives: they assume that mixing housing types will generate social interaction and tolerance. Our research considers what those producing (i.e. planners, developers and municipal leaders) and those consuming (i.e. residents) Canadian suburbs believe mixing housing types can and does achieve. We examined suburban development trends using a comparative case study approach in four provinces. While planners and municipal councillors often advocated the benefits of mixed housing types, developers mitigated the risk of mixing at the neighbourhood scale by employing design strategies that separated particular housing types into price-sensitive pods, and residents remained sceptical about desirability of individual difference at the block level. Planners' ability to encourage block-level mixing in new areas remains constrained by homeowner perspectives that have changed relatively little over decades.

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ANDERSSON, R., MUSTERD, S., GALSTER, G. and KAUPPINEN, T. M. (2007), ‘What mix matters? Exploring the relationship between individuals’ incomes and different measures of their neighbourhood context', Housing Studies, 22, 637-60. ‘What mix matters? Exploring the relationship between individuals’ incomes and different measures of their neighbourhood context' Housing Studies 22 637 60 Google Scholar

ARTHURSON, K. (2012), Social Mix and the City: Challenging the Mixed Communities Consensus in Housing and Urban Planning Policies, Collingwood, CSIRO Publishing. Social Mix and the City: Challenging the Mixed Communities Consensus in Housing and Urban Planning Policies Google Scholar

ATKINSON, R. and KINTREA, K. (2000), ‘Owner-occupation, social mix and neighbourhood impacts’, Policy and Politics, 28, 93-108. ‘Owner-occupation, social mix and neighbourhood impacts’ Policy and Politics 28 93 108 Google Scholar

AUGUST, M. (2008), ‘Social mix and Canadian public housing redevelopment: experiences in Toronto’, Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 17, 82-100. ‘Social mix and Canadian public housing redevelopment: experiences in Toronto’ Canadian Journal of Urban Research 17 82 100 Google Scholar

BRETHERTON, J. and PLEACE, N. (2011), ‘A difficult mix: issues in achieving socioeconomic diversity in deprived UK neighbourhoods’, Urban Studies, 48, 3433-47. ‘A difficult mix: issues in achieving socioeconomic diversity in deprived UK neighbourhoods’ Urban Studies 48 3433 47 Google Scholar

CITY OF CALGARY (2007), Municipal Development Plan, Calgary, Land Use Planning and Policy Department. Google Scholar

CITY OF SURREY (2002), Official Community Plan By-Law 12900, Surrey, Planning and Development Department. Google Scholar

COLE, I. and GOODCHILD, B. (2001), ‘Social mix and the "balanced community" in British housing policy - a tale of two epochs’, GeoJournal, 51, 351-60. ‘Social mix and the "balanced community" in British housing policy - a tale of two epochs’ GeoJournal 51 351 60 Google Scholar

CONGRESS FOR THE NEW URBANISM (2001), ‘Charter of the new urbanism’. http://www.cnu.org/charter Google Scholar

CREESE, W. (1967), Search for Environment, New Haven, Yale University Press. Search for Environment Google Scholar

DAY, K. (2003), ‘New urbanism and the challenges of designing for diversity’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 23, 83-95. ‘New urbanism and the challenges of designing for diversity’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 23 83 95 Google Scholar

DUANY, A., PLATER-ZYBERK, E. and SPECK, J. (2000), Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream, New York, North Point Press. Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream Google Scholar

FAINSTEIN, S. (2005), ‘Cities and diversity: should we want it? Can we plan for it?’, Urban Affairs Review, 41, 3-19. ‘Cities and diversity: should we want it? Can we plan for it?’ Urban Affairs Review 41 3 19 Google Scholar

GALSTER, G. (2007), ‘Neighbourhood social mix as a goal of housing policy: a theoretical analysis’, European Journal of Housing Policy, 7, 19-43. ‘Neighbourhood social mix as a goal of housing policy: a theoretical analysis’ European Journal of Housing Policy 7 19 43 Google Scholar

GANS, H. (1961a), ‘Planning and social life: friendship and neighbor relations in suburban communities’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 27, 134-40. ‘Planning and social life: friendship and neighbor relations in suburban communities’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 27 134 40 Google Scholar

GANS, H. (1961b), ‘The balanced community: homogeneity or heterogeneity in residential areas?’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 27, 176-84. ‘The balanced community: homogeneity or heterogeneity in residential areas?’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 27 176 84 Google Scholar

GANS, H. (1967), The Levittowners: Ways of Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community, New York, Pantheon Books. The Levittowners: Ways of Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community Google Scholar

GRANT, J. (2002), ‘Mixed use in theory and practice: Canadian experience with implementing a planning principle’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 68, 71-84. ‘Mixed use in theory and practice: Canadian experience with implementing a planning principle’ Journal of the American Planning Association 68 71 84 Google Scholar

GRANT, J. (2006), Planning the Good Community: New Urbanism in Theory and Practice, London and New York, Routledge. Planning the Good Community: New Urbanism in Theory and Practice Google Scholar

GRANT, J. (2009), ‘Theory and practice in planning the suburbs: challenges in implementing new urbanism and smart growth principles’, Planning Theory and Practice, 10, 11-33. ‘Theory and practice in planning the suburbs: challenges in implementing new urbanism and smart growth principles’ Planning Theory and Practice 10 11 33 Google Scholar

GRANT, J. and PERROTT, K. (2009), ‘Producing diversity in a new urbanism community’, Town Planning Review, 80, 267-89. ‘Producing diversity in a new urbanism community’ Town Planning Review 80 267 89 Google Scholar

GRANT, J. L. and SCOTT, D. E. (2012), ‘Complete communities versus the Canadian dream: representations of suburban aspirations’, Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 21, 132-57. ‘Complete communities versus the Canadian dream: representations of suburban aspirations’ Canadian Journal of Urban Research 21 132 57 Google Scholar

HACKWORTH, J. and MORIAH, A. (2006), ‘Neoliberalism, contingency and urban policy: the case of social housing in Ontario’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 30, 510-27. ‘Neoliberalism, contingency and urban policy: the case of social housing in Ontario’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 30 510 27 Google Scholar

HRM (HALIFAX REGIONAL MUNICIPALITY) (2006), Regional Municipal Planning Strategy, Halifax, Halifax Regional Municipality, Planning Services. Google Scholar

ISIN, E. and TOMALTY, R. (1993), Resettling Cities: Canadian Residential Intensification Initiatives, Ottawa, CMHC. Resettling Cities: Canadian Residential Intensification Initiatives Google Scholar

JACOBS, J. (1961), The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York, Vintage Books. The Death and Life of Great American Cities Google Scholar

JOSEPH, M. (2008), ‘Early resident experiences at a new mixed-income development in Chicago’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 30, 229-57. ‘Early resident experiences at a new mixed-income development in Chicago’ Journal of Urban Affairs 30 229 57 Google Scholar

JOSEPH, M. and CHASKIN, R. (2010), ‘Living in a mixed-income development: resident perceptions of the benefits and disadvantages of two developments in Chicago’, Urban Studies, 47, 2357-66. ‘Living in a mixed-income development: resident perceptions of the benefits and disadvantages of two developments in Chicago’ Urban Studies 47 2357 66 Google Scholar

KELLY, S. (2013), ‘The new normal: the figure of the condo owner in Toronto's Regent Park’, City & Society, 25, 173-94. ‘The new normal: the figure of the condo owner in Toronto's Regent Park’ City & Society 25 173 94 Google Scholar

KLEIT, R. G. (2005), ‘HOPE VI new communities: neighbourhood relationships in mixed-income housing’, Environment and Planning A, 37, 1413-41. ‘HOPE VI new communities: neighbourhood relationships in mixed-income housing’ Environment and Planning A 37 1413 41 Google Scholar

MACLACHLAN, I. and SAWADA, R. (1997), ‘Measures of income inequality and social polarization in Canadian metropolitan areas’, The Canadian Geographer, 41, 377-97. ‘Measures of income inequality and social polarization in Canadian metropolitan areas’ The Canadian Geographer 41 377 97 Google Scholar

MARCUSE, P. (1993), ‘What's so new about divided cities?’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 17, 355-65. ‘What's so new about divided cities?’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 17 355 65 Google Scholar

MCCORMICK, N. J., JOSEPH, M. L. and CHASKIN, R. J. (2012), ‘The new stigma of relocated public housing residents: challenges to social identity in mixed-income developments’, City and Community, 11, 285-308. ‘The new stigma of relocated public housing residents: challenges to social identity in mixed-income developments’ City and Community 11 285 308 Google Scholar

MCPHERSON, M., SMITH-LOVIN, L. and BRASHEARS, M. E. (2006), ‘Social isolation in America: changes in core discussion networks over two decades’, American Sociological Review, 71, 353-75. ‘Social isolation in America: changes in core discussion networks over two decades’ American Sociological Review 71 353 75 Google Scholar

MUSTERD, S. (2008), ‘Residents’ views on social mix: social mix, social networks and stigmatisation in post-war housing estates in Europe', Urban Studies, 45, 897-915. ‘Residents’ views on social mix: social mix, social networks and stigmatisation in post-war housing estates in Europe' Urban Studies 45 897 915 Google Scholar

MUSTERD, S. and ANDERSSON, R. (2005), ‘Housing mix, social mix, and social opportunities’, Urban Affairs Review, 40, 761-90. ‘Housing mix, social mix, and social opportunities’ Urban Affairs Review 40 761 90 Google Scholar

PERIN, C. (1977), Everything in its Place: Social Order and Land Use in America, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Everything in its Place: Social Order and Land Use in America Google Scholar

PUNTER, J. (2003), The Vancouver Achievement: Urban Planning and Design, Vancouver, UBC Press. The Vancouver Achievement: Urban Planning and Design Google Scholar

PUTNAM, R. D. (2007), ‘E pluribus unum: diversity and community in the twenty-first century’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 30, 137-74. ‘E pluribus unum: diversity and community in the twenty-first century’ Scandinavian Political Studies 30 137 74 Google Scholar

ROSE, D. (2004), ‘Discourses and experiences of social mix in gentrifying neighbourhoods: a Montreal case study’, Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 13, 278-316. ‘Discourses and experiences of social mix in gentrifying neighbourhoods: a Montreal case study’ Canadian Journal of Urban Research 13 278 316 Google Scholar

ROSENBLATT, T., CHESHIRE, L. and LAWRENCE, G. (2009), ‘Social interaction and sense of community in a master planned community’, Housing, Theory and Society, 26, 122-42. ‘Social interaction and sense of community in a master planned community’ Housing, Theory and Society 26 122 42 Google Scholar

SANDERCOCK, L. (1998), Towards Cosmopolis: Planning for Multicultural Cities, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons. Towards Cosmopolis: Planning for Multicultural Cities Google Scholar

SARKISSIAN, W. (1976), ‘The idea of social mix in town planning: an historical review’, Urban Studies, 13, 231-46. ‘The idea of social mix in town planning: an historical review’ Urban Studies 13 231 46 Google Scholar

SEELEY, J. R., SIM, R. A., LOOSLEY, E. W. and RIESMAN, D. (1956), Crestwood Heights: A Study of the Culture of Suburban Life, New York, Basic Books. Crestwood Heights: A Study of the Culture of Suburban Life Google Scholar

STATISTICS CANADA (2007), ‘Community profiles, 2006 census’, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 92-591-XWE, Ottawa, Statistics Canada. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/prof/92-591/index.cfm?Lang=E Google Scholar

STATISTICS CANADA (2012), Focus on Geography Series, 2011 Census, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-310-XWE2011004, Ottawa, Statistics Canada. Google Scholar

STATISTICS CANADA (2013), ‘National household survey, focus on geography, 2011 census’. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/fogs-spg/?Lang=E Google Scholar

TACH, L. M. (2009), ‘More than bricks and mortar: neighborhood frames, social processes, and the mixed-income redevelopment of a public housing project’, City and Community, 8, 269-99. ‘More than bricks and mortar: neighborhood frames, social processes, and the mixed-income redevelopment of a public housing project’ City and Community 8 269 99 Google Scholar

TALEN, E. (2002), ‘The social goals of new urbanism’, Housing Policy Debate, 13, 165-88. ‘The social goals of new urbanism’ Housing Policy Debate 13 165 88 Google Scholar

TALEN, E. (2006), ‘Design that enables diversity: the complications of a planning ideal’, Journal of Planning Literature, 20, 233-49. ‘Design that enables diversity: the complications of a planning ideal’ Journal of Planning Literature 20 233 49 Google Scholar

TALEN, E. (2008), Design for Diversity, Oxford, Elsevier Ltd. Design for Diversity Google Scholar

THOMPSON-FAWCETT, M. (2003), ‘"Urbanist" lived experience: resident observations on life in Poundbury’, Urban Design International, 8, 67-84. ‘"Urbanist" lived experience: resident observations on life in Poundbury’ Urban Design International 8 67 84 Google Scholar

TOWN OF MARKHAM (2005), Official Plan, Markham, Town of Markham Planning Department. Google Scholar

VAN BECKHOVEN, E. and VAN KEMPEN, R. (2003), ‘Social effects of urban restructuring: A case study in Amsterdam and Utrecht, the Netherlands’, Housing Studies, 18, 853-75. ‘Social effects of urban restructuring: A case study in Amsterdam and Utrecht, the Netherlands’ Housing Studies 18 853 75 Google Scholar

VAN KEMPEN, R. and BOLT, G. (2009), ‘Social cohesion, social mix, and urban policies in the Netherlands’, Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 24, 457-75. ‘Social cohesion, social mix, and urban policies in the Netherlands’ Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 24 457 75 Google Scholar

WALKS, R. A. (2001), ‘The social ecology of the post-Fordist/global city? Economic restructuring and socio-spatial polarisation in the Toronto urban region’, Urban Studies, 38, 407-47. ‘The social ecology of the post-Fordist/global city? Economic restructuring and socio-spatial polarisation in the Toronto urban region’ Urban Studies 38 407 47 Google Scholar

WINSTANLEY, A., THORNS, D. C. and PERKINS, H. C. (2010), ‘Nostalgia, community and new housing developments: a critique of new urbanism incorporating a New Zealand perspective’, Urban Policy and Research, 21, 175-89. ‘Nostalgia, community and new housing developments: a critique of new urbanism incorporating a New Zealand perspective’ Urban Policy and Research 21 175 89 Google Scholar

WU, Z., HOU, F. and SCHIMMELE, C. M. (2011), ‘Racial diversity and sense of belonging in urban neighbourhoods’, City and Community, 10, 373-92. ‘Racial diversity and sense of belonging in urban neighbourhoods’ City and Community 10 373 92 Google Scholar

YOUNG, I. M. (1990), Justice and Politics of Difference, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Justice and Politics of Difference Google Scholar

ANDERSSON, R., MUSTERD, S., GALSTER, G. and KAUPPINEN, T. M. (2007), ‘What mix matters? Exploring the relationship between individuals’ incomes and different measures of their neighbourhood context', Housing Studies, 22, 637-60. ‘What mix matters? Exploring the relationship between individuals’ incomes and different measures of their neighbourhood context' Housing Studies 22 637 60 Google Scholar

ARTHURSON, K. (2012), Social Mix and the City: Challenging the Mixed Communities Consensus in Housing and Urban Planning Policies, Collingwood, CSIRO Publishing. Social Mix and the City: Challenging the Mixed Communities Consensus in Housing and Urban Planning Policies Google Scholar

ATKINSON, R. and KINTREA, K. (2000), ‘Owner-occupation, social mix and neighbourhood impacts’, Policy and Politics, 28, 93-108. ‘Owner-occupation, social mix and neighbourhood impacts’ Policy and Politics 28 93 108 Google Scholar

AUGUST, M. (2008), ‘Social mix and Canadian public housing redevelopment: experiences in Toronto’, Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 17, 82-100. ‘Social mix and Canadian public housing redevelopment: experiences in Toronto’ Canadian Journal of Urban Research 17 82 100 Google Scholar

BRETHERTON, J. and PLEACE, N. (2011), ‘A difficult mix: issues in achieving socioeconomic diversity in deprived UK neighbourhoods’, Urban Studies, 48, 3433-47. ‘A difficult mix: issues in achieving socioeconomic diversity in deprived UK neighbourhoods’ Urban Studies 48 3433 47 Google Scholar

CITY OF CALGARY (2007), Municipal Development Plan, Calgary, Land Use Planning and Policy Department. Google Scholar

CITY OF SURREY (2002), Official Community Plan By-Law 12900, Surrey, Planning and Development Department. Google Scholar

COLE, I. and GOODCHILD, B. (2001), ‘Social mix and the "balanced community" in British housing policy - a tale of two epochs’, GeoJournal, 51, 351-60. ‘Social mix and the "balanced community" in British housing policy - a tale of two epochs’ GeoJournal 51 351 60 Google Scholar

CONGRESS FOR THE NEW URBANISM (2001), ‘Charter of the new urbanism’. http://www.cnu.org/charter Google Scholar

CREESE, W. (1967), Search for Environment, New Haven, Yale University Press. Search for Environment Google Scholar

DAY, K. (2003), ‘New urbanism and the challenges of designing for diversity’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 23, 83-95. ‘New urbanism and the challenges of designing for diversity’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 23 83 95 Google Scholar

DUANY, A., PLATER-ZYBERK, E. and SPECK, J. (2000), Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream, New York, North Point Press. Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream Google Scholar

FAINSTEIN, S. (2005), ‘Cities and diversity: should we want it? Can we plan for it?’, Urban Affairs Review, 41, 3-19. ‘Cities and diversity: should we want it? Can we plan for it?’ Urban Affairs Review 41 3 19 Google Scholar

GALSTER, G. (2007), ‘Neighbourhood social mix as a goal of housing policy: a theoretical analysis’, European Journal of Housing Policy, 7, 19-43. ‘Neighbourhood social mix as a goal of housing policy: a theoretical analysis’ European Journal of Housing Policy 7 19 43 Google Scholar

GANS, H. (1961a), ‘Planning and social life: friendship and neighbor relations in suburban communities’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 27, 134-40. ‘Planning and social life: friendship and neighbor relations in suburban communities’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 27 134 40 Google Scholar

GANS, H. (1961b), ‘The balanced community: homogeneity or heterogeneity in residential areas?’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 27, 176-84. ‘The balanced community: homogeneity or heterogeneity in residential areas?’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 27 176 84 Google Scholar

GANS, H. (1967), The Levittowners: Ways of Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community, New York, Pantheon Books. The Levittowners: Ways of Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community Google Scholar

GRANT, J. (2002), ‘Mixed use in theory and practice: Canadian experience with implementing a planning principle’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 68, 71-84. ‘Mixed use in theory and practice: Canadian experience with implementing a planning principle’ Journal of the American Planning Association 68 71 84 Google Scholar

GRANT, J. (2006), Planning the Good Community: New Urbanism in Theory and Practice, London and New York, Routledge. Planning the Good Community: New Urbanism in Theory and Practice Google Scholar

GRANT, J. (2009), ‘Theory and practice in planning the suburbs: challenges in implementing new urbanism and smart growth principles’, Planning Theory and Practice, 10, 11-33. ‘Theory and practice in planning the suburbs: challenges in implementing new urbanism and smart growth principles’ Planning Theory and Practice 10 11 33 Google Scholar

GRANT, J. and PERROTT, K. (2009), ‘Producing diversity in a new urbanism community’, Town Planning Review, 80, 267-89. ‘Producing diversity in a new urbanism community’ Town Planning Review 80 267 89 Google Scholar

GRANT, J. L. and SCOTT, D. E. (2012), ‘Complete communities versus the Canadian dream: representations of suburban aspirations’, Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 21, 132-57. ‘Complete communities versus the Canadian dream: representations of suburban aspirations’ Canadian Journal of Urban Research 21 132 57 Google Scholar

HACKWORTH, J. and MORIAH, A. (2006), ‘Neoliberalism, contingency and urban policy: the case of social housing in Ontario’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 30, 510-27. ‘Neoliberalism, contingency and urban policy: the case of social housing in Ontario’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 30 510 27 Google Scholar

HRM (HALIFAX REGIONAL MUNICIPALITY) (2006), Regional Municipal Planning Strategy, Halifax, Halifax Regional Municipality, Planning Services. Google Scholar

ISIN, E. and TOMALTY, R. (1993), Resettling Cities: Canadian Residential Intensification Initiatives, Ottawa, CMHC. Resettling Cities: Canadian Residential Intensification Initiatives Google Scholar

JACOBS, J. (1961), The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York, Vintage Books. The Death and Life of Great American Cities Google Scholar

JOSEPH, M. (2008), ‘Early resident experiences at a new mixed-income development in Chicago’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 30, 229-57. ‘Early resident experiences at a new mixed-income development in Chicago’ Journal of Urban Affairs 30 229 57 Google Scholar

JOSEPH, M. and CHASKIN, R. (2010), ‘Living in a mixed-income development: resident perceptions of the benefits and disadvantages of two developments in Chicago’, Urban Studies, 47, 2357-66. ‘Living in a mixed-income development: resident perceptions of the benefits and disadvantages of two developments in Chicago’ Urban Studies 47 2357 66 Google Scholar

KELLY, S. (2013), ‘The new normal: the figure of the condo owner in Toronto's Regent Park’, City & Society, 25, 173-94. ‘The new normal: the figure of the condo owner in Toronto's Regent Park’ City & Society 25 173 94 Google Scholar

KLEIT, R. G. (2005), ‘HOPE VI new communities: neighbourhood relationships in mixed-income housing’, Environment and Planning A, 37, 1413-41. ‘HOPE VI new communities: neighbourhood relationships in mixed-income housing’ Environment and Planning A 37 1413 41 Google Scholar

MACLACHLAN, I. and SAWADA, R. (1997), ‘Measures of income inequality and social polarization in Canadian metropolitan areas’, The Canadian Geographer, 41, 377-97. ‘Measures of income inequality and social polarization in Canadian metropolitan areas’ The Canadian Geographer 41 377 97 Google Scholar

MARCUSE, P. (1993), ‘What's so new about divided cities?’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 17, 355-65. ‘What's so new about divided cities?’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 17 355 65 Google Scholar

MCCORMICK, N. J., JOSEPH, M. L. and CHASKIN, R. J. (2012), ‘The new stigma of relocated public housing residents: challenges to social identity in mixed-income developments’, City and Community, 11, 285-308. ‘The new stigma of relocated public housing residents: challenges to social identity in mixed-income developments’ City and Community 11 285 308 Google Scholar

MCPHERSON, M., SMITH-LOVIN, L. and BRASHEARS, M. E. (2006), ‘Social isolation in America: changes in core discussion networks over two decades’, American Sociological Review, 71, 353-75. ‘Social isolation in America: changes in core discussion networks over two decades’ American Sociological Review 71 353 75 Google Scholar

MUSTERD, S. (2008), ‘Residents’ views on social mix: social mix, social networks and stigmatisation in post-war housing estates in Europe', Urban Studies, 45, 897-915. ‘Residents’ views on social mix: social mix, social networks and stigmatisation in post-war housing estates in Europe' Urban Studies 45 897 915 Google Scholar

MUSTERD, S. and ANDERSSON, R. (2005), ‘Housing mix, social mix, and social opportunities’, Urban Affairs Review, 40, 761-90. ‘Housing mix, social mix, and social opportunities’ Urban Affairs Review 40 761 90 Google Scholar

PERIN, C. (1977), Everything in its Place: Social Order and Land Use in America, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Everything in its Place: Social Order and Land Use in America Google Scholar

PUNTER, J. (2003), The Vancouver Achievement: Urban Planning and Design, Vancouver, UBC Press. The Vancouver Achievement: Urban Planning and Design Google Scholar

PUTNAM, R. D. (2007), ‘E pluribus unum: diversity and community in the twenty-first century’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 30, 137-74. ‘E pluribus unum: diversity and community in the twenty-first century’ Scandinavian Political Studies 30 137 74 Google Scholar

ROSE, D. (2004), ‘Discourses and experiences of social mix in gentrifying neighbourhoods: a Montreal case study’, Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 13, 278-316. ‘Discourses and experiences of social mix in gentrifying neighbourhoods: a Montreal case study’ Canadian Journal of Urban Research 13 278 316 Google Scholar

ROSENBLATT, T., CHESHIRE, L. and LAWRENCE, G. (2009), ‘Social interaction and sense of community in a master planned community’, Housing, Theory and Society, 26, 122-42. ‘Social interaction and sense of community in a master planned community’ Housing, Theory and Society 26 122 42 Google Scholar

SANDERCOCK, L. (1998), Towards Cosmopolis: Planning for Multicultural Cities, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons. Towards Cosmopolis: Planning for Multicultural Cities Google Scholar

SARKISSIAN, W. (1976), ‘The idea of social mix in town planning: an historical review’, Urban Studies, 13, 231-46. ‘The idea of social mix in town planning: an historical review’ Urban Studies 13 231 46 Google Scholar

SEELEY, J. R., SIM, R. A., LOOSLEY, E. W. and RIESMAN, D. (1956), Crestwood Heights: A Study of the Culture of Suburban Life, New York, Basic Books. Crestwood Heights: A Study of the Culture of Suburban Life Google Scholar

STATISTICS CANADA (2007), ‘Community profiles, 2006 census’, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 92-591-XWE, Ottawa, Statistics Canada. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/prof/92-591/index.cfm?Lang=E Google Scholar

STATISTICS CANADA (2012), Focus on Geography Series, 2011 Census, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-310-XWE2011004, Ottawa, Statistics Canada. Google Scholar

STATISTICS CANADA (2013), ‘National household survey, focus on geography, 2011 census’. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/fogs-spg/?Lang=E Google Scholar

TACH, L. M. (2009), ‘More than bricks and mortar: neighborhood frames, social processes, and the mixed-income redevelopment of a public housing project’, City and Community, 8, 269-99. ‘More than bricks and mortar: neighborhood frames, social processes, and the mixed-income redevelopment of a public housing project’ City and Community 8 269 99 Google Scholar

TALEN, E. (2002), ‘The social goals of new urbanism’, Housing Policy Debate, 13, 165-88. ‘The social goals of new urbanism’ Housing Policy Debate 13 165 88 Google Scholar

TALEN, E. (2006), ‘Design that enables diversity: the complications of a planning ideal’, Journal of Planning Literature, 20, 233-49. ‘Design that enables diversity: the complications of a planning ideal’ Journal of Planning Literature 20 233 49 Google Scholar

TALEN, E. (2008), Design for Diversity, Oxford, Elsevier Ltd. Design for Diversity Google Scholar

THOMPSON-FAWCETT, M. (2003), ‘"Urbanist" lived experience: resident observations on life in Poundbury’, Urban Design International, 8, 67-84. ‘"Urbanist" lived experience: resident observations on life in Poundbury’ Urban Design International 8 67 84 Google Scholar

TOWN OF MARKHAM (2005), Official Plan, Markham, Town of Markham Planning Department. Google Scholar

VAN BECKHOVEN, E. and VAN KEMPEN, R. (2003), ‘Social effects of urban restructuring: A case study in Amsterdam and Utrecht, the Netherlands’, Housing Studies, 18, 853-75. ‘Social effects of urban restructuring: A case study in Amsterdam and Utrecht, the Netherlands’ Housing Studies 18 853 75 Google Scholar

VAN KEMPEN, R. and BOLT, G. (2009), ‘Social cohesion, social mix, and urban policies in the Netherlands’, Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 24, 457-75. ‘Social cohesion, social mix, and urban policies in the Netherlands’ Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 24 457 75 Google Scholar

WALKS, R. A. (2001), ‘The social ecology of the post-Fordist/global city? Economic restructuring and socio-spatial polarisation in the Toronto urban region’, Urban Studies, 38, 407-47. ‘The social ecology of the post-Fordist/global city? Economic restructuring and socio-spatial polarisation in the Toronto urban region’ Urban Studies 38 407 47 Google Scholar

WINSTANLEY, A., THORNS, D. C. and PERKINS, H. C. (2010), ‘Nostalgia, community and new housing developments: a critique of new urbanism incorporating a New Zealand perspective’, Urban Policy and Research, 21, 175-89. ‘Nostalgia, community and new housing developments: a critique of new urbanism incorporating a New Zealand perspective’ Urban Policy and Research 21 175 89 Google Scholar

WU, Z., HOU, F. and SCHIMMELE, C. M. (2011), ‘Racial diversity and sense of belonging in urban neighbourhoods’, City and Community, 10, 373-92. ‘Racial diversity and sense of belonging in urban neighbourhoods’ City and Community 10 373 92 Google Scholar

YOUNG, I. M. (1990), Justice and Politics of Difference, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Justice and Politics of Difference Google Scholar

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