Hunter Gatherer Research

From mobility to motility

Changes in Baka mobilities and sociality in north-eastern Gabon

Hunter Gatherer Research (2015), 1, (4), 421–444.

Abstract

This article introduces the concept of motility, the capacity to be mobile, as a more in-depth way to account for changes in forager mobility and social organization. research with Baka foragers in north-eastern Gabon shows how they are shifting their subsistence livelihoods by taking up artisanal gold mining, and an extended theoretical approach is called for to give greater acknowledgement to resulting social challenges and changes in these communities. The predominant focus in both archaeological and anthropological discussions has been on observable facts of resource-oriented mobility and human–environment interaction. Motility adds to the understanding of diversified mobilities by focusing not only on actualized observable mobility, but by also considering the choices and limitations, which precede movement. The notion of mobility capital is here introduced to evidence how changing individual and group mobilities challenge Baka egalitarian social organization.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Adey, P 2010. Mobility. London and New York: Routledge. Mobility Google Scholar

Bahuchet, S 1992. Spatial mobility and access to resources among the African pygmies. In Casimir, MJ & Rao, A (eds) Mobility and territoriality. Social and spatial boundaries among foragers, fishers, pastoralists, and peripatetics. New York: Berg:205–257. Spatial mobility and access to resources among the African pygmies Mobility and territoriality. Social and spatial boundaries among foragers, fishers, pastoralists, and peripatetics 205 257 Google Scholar

Bahuchet, S 1993. L’invention des pygmées. Cahiers d’Études Africaines (331):153–181. L’invention des pygmées Cahiers d’Études Africaines 153 181 Google Scholar

Bailey, RC et al 1989. Hunting and gathering in tropical rain forest: Is it possible? American Anthropologist 91(1):59–82. Hunting and gathering in tropical rain forest: Is it possible? American Anthropologist 91 59 82 Google Scholar

Bauman, Z 1998. Globalization. The human consequences. New York and Chichester: Columbia University Press. Globalization. The human consequences Google Scholar

Bauman, Z 2000. Liquid modernity. Cambridge and Malden: Polity Press. Liquid modernity Google Scholar

Beckmann, J 2005. Mobility and safety. In Featherstone, M, Thrift, NJ, & Urry J (eds) Automobilities. London and Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE:81–120. Mobility and safety Automobilities 81 120 Google Scholar

Biesbrouck, K 1999. Agriculture among Equatorial African hunter-gatherers and the process of sedentarization: The case of the Bagyeli in Cameroon. In Biesbrouck, Elders, Rossel (eds) Central African hunter-gatherers in a multidisciplinary perspective. Challenging elusiveness. Leiden: Leiden University Press:189–206. Agriculture among Equatorial African hunter-gatherers and the process of sedentarization: The case of the Bagyeli in Cameroon Central African hunter-gatherers in a multidisciplinary perspective. Challenging elusiveness 189 206 Google Scholar

Binford, L 1980. Willow smoke and dogs’ tails: Hunter-gatherer settlement systems and archaeological site formation. American Antiquity 45(1):4–20. Willow smoke and dogs’ tails: Hunter-gatherer settlement systems and archaeological site formation American Antiquity 45 4 20 Google Scholar

Bird-David, N 1987. Single persons and social cohesion in a hunter-gatherer society. In Hockings, P (ed.) Dimensions of social life. Essays in honor of David G. Mandelbaum. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter:151–165. Single persons and social cohesion in a hunter-gatherer society Dimensions of social life. Essays in honor of David G. Mandelbaum 151 165 Google Scholar

Bourdieu, P 1986. The forms of capital. In Richardson, JG (ed.) Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. New York: Greenwood. The forms of capital Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education Google Scholar

Canzler, W, Kaufmann, V, & Kesselring, S 2008. Tracing mobilities. Towards a cosmopolitan perspective. Farnham: Ashgate. Tracing mobilities. Towards a cosmopolitan perspective Google Scholar

Class, N, Shove, E & Urry, J 2003. Changing Infrastructures. Measuring Socio-Spatial Inclusion/Exclusion. Report for DfT, Lancaster University. Google Scholar

Crampel, P 1890. Les Bayagas, petits hommes de la grande forêt équatoriale – lettre à Harry Alis. In Compte rendu des séances de la société de géographie. Paris. Les Bayagas, petits hommes de la grande forêt équatoriale – lettre à Harry Alis Compte rendu des séances de la société de géographie Google Scholar

Dhellemmes, RP 1986. Le Père des Pygmées. Paris: Flammarion. Le Père des Pygmées Google Scholar

Dounias, E 1993. Perception and use of wild yams by the Baka hunter-gatherers in south Cameroon. In Hladik, CM et al (eds) Tropical forests, people and food. UNESCO: Pathernon Publishing Group, Paris:621–632. Perception and use of wild yams by the Baka hunter-gatherers in south Cameroon Tropical forests, people and food 621 632 Google Scholar

Dounias, E 2001. The management of wild yam tubers by the Baka Pygmies in Southern Cameroon. African study monographs. Supplementary issue 26:135–156. The management of wild yam tubers by the Baka Pygmies in Southern Cameroon African study monographs. Supplementary issue 26 135 156 Google Scholar

Featherstone, M, Thrift, NJ, & Urry, J (eds) 2005. Automobilities. London and Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Automobilities Google Scholar

Flamm, M, & Kaufmann, V 2006. Operationalising the concept of motility: A qualitative study. Mobilities 1(2):167–189. Operationalising the concept of motility: A qualitative study Mobilities 1 167 189 Google Scholar

Gell, A 1992. The anthropology of time. Cultural constructions of temporal maps and images. Oxford and Providence: Berg. The anthropology of time. Cultural constructions of temporal maps and images Google Scholar

Glick Schiller, N & Salazar, NB 2013. Regimes of mobility. Imaginaries and relationalities of power. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(2):1–18. Regimes of mobility. Imaginaries and relationalities of power Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39 1 18 Google Scholar

Headland, TN & Bailey, RC 1991. Introduction: Have hunter-gatherers ever lived in tropical rain forest independently of agriculture? Human Ecology 19(2):115–122. Introduction: Have hunter-gatherers ever lived in tropical rain forest independently of agriculture? Human Ecology 19 115 122 Google Scholar

Hewlett, B, van de Koppel, JMH & Cavalli Sforza, LL 1982. Exploration Ranges of Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic. Man 17(3):418–430. Exploration Ranges of Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic Man 17 418 430 Google Scholar

Ingold, T 2000. The perception of the environment. Essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. London. New York: Routledge. The perception of the environment. Essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. London Google Scholar

Joiris, DV 1998. La chasse, la chance, le chant: Aspects du système rituel des Baka du Cameroun. PhD dissertation, Free University of Brussels. Google Scholar

Joiris, DV 2003. The framework of Central African hunter-gatherers and neighbouring societies. African Study Monographs, Supplement 28:57–79. The framework of Central African hunter-gatherers and neighbouring societies African Study Monographs, Supplement 28 57 79 Google Scholar

Junge, M 2004. Mobility and motility. A comment to Beck, Urry and Bonss/Kesselring. Workshop at the Munich Reflexive Modernization Research Centre (SFB 536). Available online at http://www.mobilitypioneers.de/Dokumente/download/Statement-Junge-frei.pdf, accessed 4/05/2012. Google Scholar

Kaufmann, V 2002. Re-thinking mobility. Contemporary sociology. Aldershot: Ashgate. Re-thinking mobility Google Scholar

Kaufmann, V 2011. Rethinking the city. Urban dynamics and motility. New York and Lausanne: Routledge. Rethinking the city. Urban dynamics and motility Google Scholar

Kaufmann, V 2014. Mobility as a tool for sociology. Sociologica 1:1–17. Mobility as a tool for sociology Sociologica 1 1 17 Google Scholar

Kaufmann, V, Bergman, MM, & Joye, D 2004. Motility: mobility as capital. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 28(4):745–756. Motility: mobility as capital International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 28 745 756 Google Scholar

Kellerman, A 2012. Potential mobilities. Mobilities 7(1):171–183. Potential mobilities Mobilities 7 171 183 Google Scholar

Kelly, RL 1992. Mobility/sedentism: Concepts, archaeological measures, and effects. Annual Review of Anthropology 21(1):43–66. Mobility/sedentism: Concepts, archaeological measures, and effects Annual Review of Anthropology 21 43 66 Google Scholar

Kent, S 1992. Studying variability in the archaeological record: An ethnoarchaeological model for distinguishing mobility patterns. American Antiquity 57(4):635–660. Studying variability in the archaeological record: An ethnoarchaeological model for distinguishing mobility patterns American Antiquity 57 635 660 Google Scholar

Kesselring, S 2006. Pioneering mobilities: new patterns of movement and motility in a mobile world. Environmental Planning A 38(2):269–279. Pioneering mobilities: new patterns of movement and motility in a mobile world Environmental Planning A 38 269 279 Google Scholar

Kitanishi, K 2006. The impact of cash and commoditization on the Baka hunter-gatherer society in southeastern Cameroon. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue 33:121–142. The impact of cash and commoditization on the Baka hunter-gatherer society in southeastern Cameroon African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue 33 121 142 Google Scholar

Knight, J 2003. Relocated to the roadside. Preliminary observations on the Forest People of Gabon. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue 28:81–121. Relocated to the roadside. Preliminary observations on the Forest People of Gabon African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue 28 81 121 Google Scholar

Köhler, A 2005. Money makes the world go round. Commodity sharing, gifting and exchange in the Baka (Pygmy) economy. In Widlok, T (ed.) Property and equality, Vol II. Encapsulation, commercialisation, discrimination. New York: Berghahn Books:32–55. Money makes the world go round. Commodity sharing, gifting and exchange in the Baka (Pygmy) economy Property and equality, Vol II. Encapsulation, commercialisation, discrimination 32 55 Google Scholar

Lahm, S 2002. L’Orpaillage au Nord-est du Gabon. Historique et analyse socioecologique. Libreville and Gabon: Multipress Gabon. L’Orpaillage au Nord-est du Gabon. Historique et analyse socioecologique Google Scholar

LeClerc, C 2001. En bordure de route. Espace social, dynamisme et relation à l’environnement chez les pygmées Baka du Sud-Est Cameroun. PhD thesis, Université de Paris X – Nanterre, Paris. Available online at http://www.theses.fr/2001PA100157 (accessed 15/05/2012). Google Scholar

Lee, RB, & Daly, RH 1999. The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers Google Scholar

Leonhardt, A 2006. Baka and the magic of the state: Between autochthony and citizenship. African Studies Review 49(2):69–94. Baka and the magic of the state: Between autochthony and citizenship African Studies Review 49 69 94 Google Scholar

Lewis, J and Köhler, A 2002. Putting hunter-gatherer and farmer relations in perspective. A commentary from Central Africa. In Kent, S (ed.) Ethnicity, hunter-gatherers, and the ‘other’: Association or assimilation in Africa. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press:276–305. Putting hunter-gatherer and farmer relations in perspective. A commentary from Central Africa Ethnicity, hunter-gatherers, and the ‘other’: Association or assimilation in Africa 276 305 Google Scholar

Nussbaum, MC 2003. Capabilities as fundamental entitlements. Sen and social justice. Feminist economics 9(2/3):33–59. Capabilities as fundamental entitlements. Sen and social justice Feminist economics 9 33 59 Google Scholar

Oetelaar, GA 2006. Mobility and territoriality on the Northwestern Plains of Alberta, Canada. A phenomenological approach. In Bressy (ed.) Notions de territoire et de mobilité. Exemples de l’Europe et des premières nations en Amérique du Nord avant le contact européen. Actes de sessions présentées au Xe congrès annuel de l’Association Européenne des Archéologues (EAA), Lyon, 8–11 September 2004 (ERAUL, 116). Mobility and territoriality on the Northwestern Plains of Alberta, Canada. A phenomenological approach Notions de territoire et de mobilité. Exemples de l’Europe et des premières nations en Amérique du Nord avant le contact européen Google Scholar

Ong, A 2006. Neoliberalism as exception: Mutations in citizenship and sovereignty. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Neoliberalism as exception: Mutations in citizenship and sovereignty Google Scholar

Panter-Brick, C, Layton, R, & Rowley-Conwy, P 2001. Hunter-gatherers. An interdisciplinary perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hunter-gatherers. An interdisciplinary perspective Google Scholar

Paulin, P 2007. The Baka of Gabon. The study of an endangered language and culture. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya. The Baka of Gabon. The study of an endangered language and culture Google Scholar

Paulin, P 2010. Les Baka du Gabon dans une dynamique de transformations culturelles: Perspectives linguistiques et anthropologiques. Doctoral thesis, University of Lyon. Google Scholar

Perreault, C, & Brantingham, PJ 2011. Mobility-driven cultural transmission along the forager–collector continuum. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 30(1):62–68. Mobility-driven cultural transmission along the forager–collector continuum Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 30 62 68 Google Scholar

Rapport, N 2010. Human nature as capacity. Transcending discourse and classification. New York: Berghahn Books. Human nature as capacity. Transcending discourse and classification Google Scholar

Rupp, S 2003. Interethnic relations in Southeastern Cameroon. Challenging the ‘Hunter-gatherer’–‘Farmer’ Dichotomy. African study monographs, Supplementary Issue 28:37–56. Interethnic relations in Southeastern Cameroon. Challenging the ‘Hunter-gatherer’–‘Farmer’ Dichotomy African study monographs, Supplementary Issue 28 37 56 Google Scholar

Rupp, S 2011. Forests of belonging: Identities, ethnicities, and stereotypes in the Congo River basin. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Forests of belonging: Identities, ethnicities, and stereotypes in the Congo River basin Google Scholar

Schmidt-Kallert, E 2009. Beyond the urban rural divide: Tracing the livelihood strategies of multi-locational households. In Hill, A & Weiß, K (eds) Festschrift für Volker Kreibich und Günter Kroes, Dortmunder Beiträge zur Raumplanung (48). University Dortmund:15–29. Beyond the urban rural divide: Tracing the livelihood strategies of multi-locational households Festschrift für Volker Kreibich und Günter Kroes, Dortmunder Beiträge zur Raumplanung (48) 15 29 Google Scholar

Schuler, M, et al 1997. Eine integrative Sicht der Mobilität. Im Hinblick auf ein neues Paradigma der Mobilitätsforschung. Ed. Schweizerischer Wissenschaftsrat. Bern: Schweizerischer Wissenschaftsrat. Eine integrative Sicht der Mobilität. Im Hinblick auf ein neues Paradigma der Mobilitätsforschung Google Scholar

Sen, A 2005. Human rights and capabilities. Journal of Human Development 6(2):151–166. Human rights and capabilities Journal of Human Development 6 151 166 Google Scholar

Sheller, M, & Urry, J 2006. The new mobilities paradigm. Environmental Planning A 38(2):207–226. The new mobilities paradigm Environmental Planning A 38 207 226 Google Scholar

Terashima, H, Ichikawa, M, & Sawada, M 1988. Wild plant utilization of the Balese and the Efe of the Ituri forest, the Republic of Zaire. African Study Monographs. Supplementary Issue 8:1–78. Wild plant utilization of the Balese and the Efe of the Ituri forest, the Republic of Zaire African Study Monographs. Supplementary Issue 8 1 78 Google Scholar

Tilly, C 2001. Relational origins of inequality. Anthropological Theory 1(3):355–372. Relational origins of inequality Anthropological Theory 1 355 372 Google Scholar

Urry, J 2007. Mobilities. Cambridge, UK and Malden, MA: Polity. Mobilities Google Scholar

Vallois, H, & Marquer, P 1976. Les Pygmées Baká du Cameroun. Anthropologie et ethnographie avec une annexe démographique. Paris: Éd. du Muséum (Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle Série A, 100). Les Pygmées Baká du Cameroun. Anthropologie et ethnographie avec une annexe démographique Google Scholar

Weichhart, P 2009. Multilokalität – Konzepte, Theoriebezüge und Forschungsfragen. Informationen zur Raumentwicklung 1/2:1–14. Multilokalität – Konzepte, Theoriebezüge und Forschungsfragen Informationen zur Raumentwicklung 1/2 1 14 Google Scholar

Weig, D 2013. Motility and relational mobility of the Baka in North-Eastern Gabon. PhD thesis, University of Cologne, Germany. Available online at http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/5238 (accessed 16/08/2013). Google Scholar

Weig, D 2015. Social change mirrored in Baka dance and movement. Hunter Gatherer Research 1(1):61–83. Social change mirrored in Baka dance and movement Hunter Gatherer Research 1 61 83 Google Scholar

Widlok, T et al 2012. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing integrated socioenvironmental systems. Quaternary International 259–272. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing integrated socioenvironmental systems Quaternary International 259 272 Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 1982. Egalitarian societies. Man 17(3):431–451. Egalitarian societies Man 17 431 451 Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 2001. The political status of hunter-gatherers in present-day and future Africa. In Barnard, A & Kenrick, J (eds) Africa’s indigenous peoples: ‘First peoples’ or ‘marginalized minorities’? Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh. The political status of hunter-gatherers in present-day and future Africa Africa’s indigenous peoples: ‘First peoples’ or ‘marginalized minorities’? Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 2005. Egalitarian societies revisited. In Widlok, T (ed.) Property and equality, Vol I. Ritualization, sharing, egalitarianism. New York: Berghahn Books. Egalitarian societies revisited Property and equality, Vol I. Ritualization, sharing, egalitarianism Google Scholar

WWF France 2012. Raconte-moi les forêts. Le premier webdocumentaire produit par le WWF France. Available online at http://webdoc.wwf.fr (accessed on 10/12/2012). Google Scholar

Young, I 1980. Throwing like a girl: A phenomenology of feminine body comportment motility and spatiality. Human Studies 3(1):137–156. Throwing like a girl: A phenomenology of feminine body comportment motility and spatiality Human Studies 3 137 156 Google Scholar

Adey, P 2010. Mobility. London and New York: Routledge. Mobility Google Scholar

Bahuchet, S 1992. Spatial mobility and access to resources among the African pygmies. In Casimir, MJ & Rao, A (eds) Mobility and territoriality. Social and spatial boundaries among foragers, fishers, pastoralists, and peripatetics. New York: Berg:205–257. Spatial mobility and access to resources among the African pygmies Mobility and territoriality. Social and spatial boundaries among foragers, fishers, pastoralists, and peripatetics 205 257 Google Scholar

Bahuchet, S 1993. L’invention des pygmées. Cahiers d’Études Africaines (331):153–181. L’invention des pygmées Cahiers d’Études Africaines 153 181 Google Scholar

Bailey, RC et al 1989. Hunting and gathering in tropical rain forest: Is it possible? American Anthropologist 91(1):59–82. Hunting and gathering in tropical rain forest: Is it possible? American Anthropologist 91 59 82 Google Scholar

Bauman, Z 1998. Globalization. The human consequences. New York and Chichester: Columbia University Press. Globalization. The human consequences Google Scholar

Bauman, Z 2000. Liquid modernity. Cambridge and Malden: Polity Press. Liquid modernity Google Scholar

Beckmann, J 2005. Mobility and safety. In Featherstone, M, Thrift, NJ, & Urry J (eds) Automobilities. London and Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE:81–120. Mobility and safety Automobilities 81 120 Google Scholar

Biesbrouck, K 1999. Agriculture among Equatorial African hunter-gatherers and the process of sedentarization: The case of the Bagyeli in Cameroon. In Biesbrouck, Elders, Rossel (eds) Central African hunter-gatherers in a multidisciplinary perspective. Challenging elusiveness. Leiden: Leiden University Press:189–206. Agriculture among Equatorial African hunter-gatherers and the process of sedentarization: The case of the Bagyeli in Cameroon Central African hunter-gatherers in a multidisciplinary perspective. Challenging elusiveness 189 206 Google Scholar

Binford, L 1980. Willow smoke and dogs’ tails: Hunter-gatherer settlement systems and archaeological site formation. American Antiquity 45(1):4–20. Willow smoke and dogs’ tails: Hunter-gatherer settlement systems and archaeological site formation American Antiquity 45 4 20 Google Scholar

Bird-David, N 1987. Single persons and social cohesion in a hunter-gatherer society. In Hockings, P (ed.) Dimensions of social life. Essays in honor of David G. Mandelbaum. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter:151–165. Single persons and social cohesion in a hunter-gatherer society Dimensions of social life. Essays in honor of David G. Mandelbaum 151 165 Google Scholar

Bourdieu, P 1986. The forms of capital. In Richardson, JG (ed.) Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. New York: Greenwood. The forms of capital Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education Google Scholar

Canzler, W, Kaufmann, V, & Kesselring, S 2008. Tracing mobilities. Towards a cosmopolitan perspective. Farnham: Ashgate. Tracing mobilities. Towards a cosmopolitan perspective Google Scholar

Class, N, Shove, E & Urry, J 2003. Changing Infrastructures. Measuring Socio-Spatial Inclusion/Exclusion. Report for DfT, Lancaster University. Google Scholar

Crampel, P 1890. Les Bayagas, petits hommes de la grande forêt équatoriale – lettre à Harry Alis. In Compte rendu des séances de la société de géographie. Paris. Les Bayagas, petits hommes de la grande forêt équatoriale – lettre à Harry Alis Compte rendu des séances de la société de géographie Google Scholar

Dhellemmes, RP 1986. Le Père des Pygmées. Paris: Flammarion. Le Père des Pygmées Google Scholar

Dounias, E 1993. Perception and use of wild yams by the Baka hunter-gatherers in south Cameroon. In Hladik, CM et al (eds) Tropical forests, people and food. UNESCO: Pathernon Publishing Group, Paris:621–632. Perception and use of wild yams by the Baka hunter-gatherers in south Cameroon Tropical forests, people and food 621 632 Google Scholar

Dounias, E 2001. The management of wild yam tubers by the Baka Pygmies in Southern Cameroon. African study monographs. Supplementary issue 26:135–156. The management of wild yam tubers by the Baka Pygmies in Southern Cameroon African study monographs. Supplementary issue 26 135 156 Google Scholar

Featherstone, M, Thrift, NJ, & Urry, J (eds) 2005. Automobilities. London and Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Automobilities Google Scholar

Flamm, M, & Kaufmann, V 2006. Operationalising the concept of motility: A qualitative study. Mobilities 1(2):167–189. Operationalising the concept of motility: A qualitative study Mobilities 1 167 189 Google Scholar

Gell, A 1992. The anthropology of time. Cultural constructions of temporal maps and images. Oxford and Providence: Berg. The anthropology of time. Cultural constructions of temporal maps and images Google Scholar

Glick Schiller, N & Salazar, NB 2013. Regimes of mobility. Imaginaries and relationalities of power. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(2):1–18. Regimes of mobility. Imaginaries and relationalities of power Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39 1 18 Google Scholar

Headland, TN & Bailey, RC 1991. Introduction: Have hunter-gatherers ever lived in tropical rain forest independently of agriculture? Human Ecology 19(2):115–122. Introduction: Have hunter-gatherers ever lived in tropical rain forest independently of agriculture? Human Ecology 19 115 122 Google Scholar

Hewlett, B, van de Koppel, JMH & Cavalli Sforza, LL 1982. Exploration Ranges of Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic. Man 17(3):418–430. Exploration Ranges of Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic Man 17 418 430 Google Scholar

Ingold, T 2000. The perception of the environment. Essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. London. New York: Routledge. The perception of the environment. Essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. London Google Scholar

Joiris, DV 1998. La chasse, la chance, le chant: Aspects du système rituel des Baka du Cameroun. PhD dissertation, Free University of Brussels. Google Scholar

Joiris, DV 2003. The framework of Central African hunter-gatherers and neighbouring societies. African Study Monographs, Supplement 28:57–79. The framework of Central African hunter-gatherers and neighbouring societies African Study Monographs, Supplement 28 57 79 Google Scholar

Junge, M 2004. Mobility and motility. A comment to Beck, Urry and Bonss/Kesselring. Workshop at the Munich Reflexive Modernization Research Centre (SFB 536). Available online at http://www.mobilitypioneers.de/Dokumente/download/Statement-Junge-frei.pdf, accessed 4/05/2012. Google Scholar

Kaufmann, V 2002. Re-thinking mobility. Contemporary sociology. Aldershot: Ashgate. Re-thinking mobility Google Scholar

Kaufmann, V 2011. Rethinking the city. Urban dynamics and motility. New York and Lausanne: Routledge. Rethinking the city. Urban dynamics and motility Google Scholar

Kaufmann, V 2014. Mobility as a tool for sociology. Sociologica 1:1–17. Mobility as a tool for sociology Sociologica 1 1 17 Google Scholar

Kaufmann, V, Bergman, MM, & Joye, D 2004. Motility: mobility as capital. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 28(4):745–756. Motility: mobility as capital International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 28 745 756 Google Scholar

Kellerman, A 2012. Potential mobilities. Mobilities 7(1):171–183. Potential mobilities Mobilities 7 171 183 Google Scholar

Kelly, RL 1992. Mobility/sedentism: Concepts, archaeological measures, and effects. Annual Review of Anthropology 21(1):43–66. Mobility/sedentism: Concepts, archaeological measures, and effects Annual Review of Anthropology 21 43 66 Google Scholar

Kent, S 1992. Studying variability in the archaeological record: An ethnoarchaeological model for distinguishing mobility patterns. American Antiquity 57(4):635–660. Studying variability in the archaeological record: An ethnoarchaeological model for distinguishing mobility patterns American Antiquity 57 635 660 Google Scholar

Kesselring, S 2006. Pioneering mobilities: new patterns of movement and motility in a mobile world. Environmental Planning A 38(2):269–279. Pioneering mobilities: new patterns of movement and motility in a mobile world Environmental Planning A 38 269 279 Google Scholar

Kitanishi, K 2006. The impact of cash and commoditization on the Baka hunter-gatherer society in southeastern Cameroon. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue 33:121–142. The impact of cash and commoditization on the Baka hunter-gatherer society in southeastern Cameroon African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue 33 121 142 Google Scholar

Knight, J 2003. Relocated to the roadside. Preliminary observations on the Forest People of Gabon. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue 28:81–121. Relocated to the roadside. Preliminary observations on the Forest People of Gabon African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue 28 81 121 Google Scholar

Köhler, A 2005. Money makes the world go round. Commodity sharing, gifting and exchange in the Baka (Pygmy) economy. In Widlok, T (ed.) Property and equality, Vol II. Encapsulation, commercialisation, discrimination. New York: Berghahn Books:32–55. Money makes the world go round. Commodity sharing, gifting and exchange in the Baka (Pygmy) economy Property and equality, Vol II. Encapsulation, commercialisation, discrimination 32 55 Google Scholar

Lahm, S 2002. L’Orpaillage au Nord-est du Gabon. Historique et analyse socioecologique. Libreville and Gabon: Multipress Gabon. L’Orpaillage au Nord-est du Gabon. Historique et analyse socioecologique Google Scholar

LeClerc, C 2001. En bordure de route. Espace social, dynamisme et relation à l’environnement chez les pygmées Baka du Sud-Est Cameroun. PhD thesis, Université de Paris X – Nanterre, Paris. Available online at http://www.theses.fr/2001PA100157 (accessed 15/05/2012). Google Scholar

Lee, RB, & Daly, RH 1999. The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers Google Scholar

Leonhardt, A 2006. Baka and the magic of the state: Between autochthony and citizenship. African Studies Review 49(2):69–94. Baka and the magic of the state: Between autochthony and citizenship African Studies Review 49 69 94 Google Scholar

Lewis, J and Köhler, A 2002. Putting hunter-gatherer and farmer relations in perspective. A commentary from Central Africa. In Kent, S (ed.) Ethnicity, hunter-gatherers, and the ‘other’: Association or assimilation in Africa. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press:276–305. Putting hunter-gatherer and farmer relations in perspective. A commentary from Central Africa Ethnicity, hunter-gatherers, and the ‘other’: Association or assimilation in Africa 276 305 Google Scholar

Nussbaum, MC 2003. Capabilities as fundamental entitlements. Sen and social justice. Feminist economics 9(2/3):33–59. Capabilities as fundamental entitlements. Sen and social justice Feminist economics 9 33 59 Google Scholar

Oetelaar, GA 2006. Mobility and territoriality on the Northwestern Plains of Alberta, Canada. A phenomenological approach. In Bressy (ed.) Notions de territoire et de mobilité. Exemples de l’Europe et des premières nations en Amérique du Nord avant le contact européen. Actes de sessions présentées au Xe congrès annuel de l’Association Européenne des Archéologues (EAA), Lyon, 8–11 September 2004 (ERAUL, 116). Mobility and territoriality on the Northwestern Plains of Alberta, Canada. A phenomenological approach Notions de territoire et de mobilité. Exemples de l’Europe et des premières nations en Amérique du Nord avant le contact européen Google Scholar

Ong, A 2006. Neoliberalism as exception: Mutations in citizenship and sovereignty. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Neoliberalism as exception: Mutations in citizenship and sovereignty Google Scholar

Panter-Brick, C, Layton, R, & Rowley-Conwy, P 2001. Hunter-gatherers. An interdisciplinary perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hunter-gatherers. An interdisciplinary perspective Google Scholar

Paulin, P 2007. The Baka of Gabon. The study of an endangered language and culture. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya. The Baka of Gabon. The study of an endangered language and culture Google Scholar

Paulin, P 2010. Les Baka du Gabon dans une dynamique de transformations culturelles: Perspectives linguistiques et anthropologiques. Doctoral thesis, University of Lyon. Google Scholar

Perreault, C, & Brantingham, PJ 2011. Mobility-driven cultural transmission along the forager–collector continuum. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 30(1):62–68. Mobility-driven cultural transmission along the forager–collector continuum Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 30 62 68 Google Scholar

Rapport, N 2010. Human nature as capacity. Transcending discourse and classification. New York: Berghahn Books. Human nature as capacity. Transcending discourse and classification Google Scholar

Rupp, S 2003. Interethnic relations in Southeastern Cameroon. Challenging the ‘Hunter-gatherer’–‘Farmer’ Dichotomy. African study monographs, Supplementary Issue 28:37–56. Interethnic relations in Southeastern Cameroon. Challenging the ‘Hunter-gatherer’–‘Farmer’ Dichotomy African study monographs, Supplementary Issue 28 37 56 Google Scholar

Rupp, S 2011. Forests of belonging: Identities, ethnicities, and stereotypes in the Congo River basin. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Forests of belonging: Identities, ethnicities, and stereotypes in the Congo River basin Google Scholar

Schmidt-Kallert, E 2009. Beyond the urban rural divide: Tracing the livelihood strategies of multi-locational households. In Hill, A & Weiß, K (eds) Festschrift für Volker Kreibich und Günter Kroes, Dortmunder Beiträge zur Raumplanung (48). University Dortmund:15–29. Beyond the urban rural divide: Tracing the livelihood strategies of multi-locational households Festschrift für Volker Kreibich und Günter Kroes, Dortmunder Beiträge zur Raumplanung (48) 15 29 Google Scholar

Schuler, M, et al 1997. Eine integrative Sicht der Mobilität. Im Hinblick auf ein neues Paradigma der Mobilitätsforschung. Ed. Schweizerischer Wissenschaftsrat. Bern: Schweizerischer Wissenschaftsrat. Eine integrative Sicht der Mobilität. Im Hinblick auf ein neues Paradigma der Mobilitätsforschung Google Scholar

Sen, A 2005. Human rights and capabilities. Journal of Human Development 6(2):151–166. Human rights and capabilities Journal of Human Development 6 151 166 Google Scholar

Sheller, M, & Urry, J 2006. The new mobilities paradigm. Environmental Planning A 38(2):207–226. The new mobilities paradigm Environmental Planning A 38 207 226 Google Scholar

Terashima, H, Ichikawa, M, & Sawada, M 1988. Wild plant utilization of the Balese and the Efe of the Ituri forest, the Republic of Zaire. African Study Monographs. Supplementary Issue 8:1–78. Wild plant utilization of the Balese and the Efe of the Ituri forest, the Republic of Zaire African Study Monographs. Supplementary Issue 8 1 78 Google Scholar

Tilly, C 2001. Relational origins of inequality. Anthropological Theory 1(3):355–372. Relational origins of inequality Anthropological Theory 1 355 372 Google Scholar

Urry, J 2007. Mobilities. Cambridge, UK and Malden, MA: Polity. Mobilities Google Scholar

Vallois, H, & Marquer, P 1976. Les Pygmées Baká du Cameroun. Anthropologie et ethnographie avec une annexe démographique. Paris: Éd. du Muséum (Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle Série A, 100). Les Pygmées Baká du Cameroun. Anthropologie et ethnographie avec une annexe démographique Google Scholar

Weichhart, P 2009. Multilokalität – Konzepte, Theoriebezüge und Forschungsfragen. Informationen zur Raumentwicklung 1/2:1–14. Multilokalität – Konzepte, Theoriebezüge und Forschungsfragen Informationen zur Raumentwicklung 1/2 1 14 Google Scholar

Weig, D 2013. Motility and relational mobility of the Baka in North-Eastern Gabon. PhD thesis, University of Cologne, Germany. Available online at http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/5238 (accessed 16/08/2013). Google Scholar

Weig, D 2015. Social change mirrored in Baka dance and movement. Hunter Gatherer Research 1(1):61–83. Social change mirrored in Baka dance and movement Hunter Gatherer Research 1 61 83 Google Scholar

Widlok, T et al 2012. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing integrated socioenvironmental systems. Quaternary International 259–272. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing integrated socioenvironmental systems Quaternary International 259 272 Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 1982. Egalitarian societies. Man 17(3):431–451. Egalitarian societies Man 17 431 451 Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 2001. The political status of hunter-gatherers in present-day and future Africa. In Barnard, A & Kenrick, J (eds) Africa’s indigenous peoples: ‘First peoples’ or ‘marginalized minorities’? Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh. The political status of hunter-gatherers in present-day and future Africa Africa’s indigenous peoples: ‘First peoples’ or ‘marginalized minorities’? Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 2005. Egalitarian societies revisited. In Widlok, T (ed.) Property and equality, Vol I. Ritualization, sharing, egalitarianism. New York: Berghahn Books. Egalitarian societies revisited Property and equality, Vol I. Ritualization, sharing, egalitarianism Google Scholar

WWF France 2012. Raconte-moi les forêts. Le premier webdocumentaire produit par le WWF France. Available online at http://webdoc.wwf.fr (accessed on 10/12/2012). Google Scholar

Young, I 1980. Throwing like a girl: A phenomenology of feminine body comportment motility and spatiality. Human Studies 3(1):137–156. Throwing like a girl: A phenomenology of feminine body comportment motility and spatiality Human Studies 3 137 156 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details