Journal of Romance Studies

SafeCitySpace: women’s interventions in urban and virtual space

Journal of Romance Studies (2007), 7, (1), 21–38.

Abstract

In this article we argue that in cities imagery, metaphors and perceptions are intertwined with experiences, strategies, actions and materiality: the production of meaning and the production of materiality are interwoven. Consequently, an interdisciplinary perspective is required, combining social and cultural studies to analyse gender, art projects on the city and (digital) cities. The gender perspective calls attention to issues of exclusion, safety and the public-private distinction and to three strategies to deal with these issues. Both cities and representations of cities can exclude people, make people want to exclude themselves, or force people to adjust themselves, their clothes, their patterns of mobility or their personal wishes to fit dominant norms of the city and of what it means to be in it. Finally, we have found that some women can change (the meanings or the materiality of) the city.

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Augé, Marc (1995) Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthology of Supermodernity, trans. John Howe (London: Verso). Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthology of Supermodernity Google Scholar

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Borden, Iain et al. (2002) ‘Things, flows, filters, tactics’, in The Unknown City: Contesting Architecture and Social Space, ed. Iain Borden, Joe Kerr and Jane Rendell (Cambridge MA: MIT Press), 2–27. Things, flows, filters, tactics The Unknown City: Contesting Architecture and Social Space 2 27 Google Scholar

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Certeau, Michel de (1988) ‘Walking in the city’, in The Practice of Everyday Life (Berkeley: University of California Press), 91–110. Walking in the city The Practice of Everyday Life 91 110 Google Scholar

Cooper, Geoff et al. (2002) ‘Mobile society? Technology, distance, and presence’, in Virtual Society? Technology, Cyberbole, Reality, ed. Steve Woolgar (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 286–301. Mobile society? Technology, distance, and presence Virtual Society? Technology, Cyberbole, Reality 286 301 Google Scholar

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Friedberg, Anne (1993) Window Shopping: Cinema and the Postmodern (Berkeley: University of California Press). Window Shopping: Cinema and the Postmodern Google Scholar

Gelink, Annet (2002) ‘Alicia Framis: anti_dog’, exhibition in Annet Gelink Gallery, Amsterdam (19 October-23 November), http:/www.artnet.nu/mnexpo.asp?exponr=6906. Google Scholar

Greed, Clara H. (1995) ‘Public toilet provision for women in Britain: an investigation of discrimination against urination’, Women’s Studies International Forum 18.5, 573–84. Public toilet provision for women in Britain: an investigation of discrimination against urination Women’s Studies International Forum 18.5 573 84 Google Scholar

Harding, Sandra (1986) The Science Question in Feminism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press). The Science Question in Feminism Google Scholar

Hayden, Dolores (2002) Redesigning the American Dream: Gender, Housing and Family Life (London: Norton). Redesigning the American Dream: Gender, Housing and Family Life Google Scholar

Highmore, Ben (2005) Cityscapes: Cultural Readings in the Material and Symbolic City (London: Palgrave). Cityscapes: Cultural Readings in the Material and Symbolic City Google Scholar

Hommels, Anique (2005) Unbuilding Cities: Obduracy in Urban Socio-technical Change (Cambridge MA: MIT Press). Unbuilding Cities: Obduracy in Urban Socio-technical Change Google Scholar

Jansson, André (2006) ‘Textural analysis: materialising media space’, in Geographies of Communication: The Spatial Turn in Media Studies, ed. Jesper Falkheimer and André Jansson (Gothenburg: Nordicom), 87–104. Textural analysis: materialising media space Geographies of Communication: The Spatial Turn in Media Studies 87 104 Google Scholar

Kraut, Robert, et al. (1996) ‘The HomeNet field trial of residential internet services’, Communications of the ACM, 39.12, 55–63. The HomeNet field trial of residential internet services Communications of the ACM 39.12 55 63 Google Scholar

Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson (1980) Metaphors We Live By (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Metaphors We Live By Google Scholar

Lefebvre, Henri (1991) The Production of Space (Oxford: Blackwell). The Production of Space Google Scholar

Massey, Doreen (1994) Space, Place and Gender (Cambridge: Polity Press). Space, Place and Gender Google Scholar

Massey, Doreen, John Allen and Philip Sarre (eds) (1999) Human Geography Today (Cambridge: Polity Press). Human Geography Today Google Scholar

McDowell, Linda (1999) Gender, Identity and Place: Understanding Feminist Geographies (London: Polity Press). Gender, Identity and Place: Understanding Feminist Geographies Google Scholar

Mofokeng, Santu (1998) ‘Appropriated spaces’, in Blank: Architecture, Apartheid and After, ed. Hilton Judin and Ivan Vladislaviç (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers), n.p. Appropriated spaces Blank: Architecture, Apartheid and After Google Scholar

Morris, Meaghan (1988) ‘Things to do with shopping centers’, in The Cultural Studies Reader, ed. Simon During, 2nd edition (London: Routledge, 1999), 391–409. Things to do with shopping centers The Cultural Studies Reader 391 409 Google Scholar

Oost, Ellen van (2000) ‘Making the computer masculine’, in Women, Work and Computerization: Charting a Course to the Future, ed. Ellen Balka and Richard Smith (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers), 9–16. Making the computer masculine Women, Work and Computerization: Charting a Course to the Future 9 16 Google Scholar

Oosterling, Henk (2004) ‘Tussenruimte: voorbij het capsulaire bewustzijn’, in easyCity: interventies in een verscheurde stad (Amsterdam: de vrije ruimte), 70–80. Tussenruimte: voorbij het capsulaire bewustzijn easyCity: interventies in een verscheurde stad 70 80 Google Scholar

Pfaffenberger, Bryan (1992) ‘Technological dramas’, Science, Technology and Human Values 17.3, 282–312. Technological dramas Science, Technology and Human Values 17.3 282 312 Google Scholar

Pollock, Griselda (1988) ‘Modernity and the spaces of femininity,’ in Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism and Histories of Art (London: Routledge), 50–90. Modernity and the spaces of femininity, Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism and Histories of Art 50 90 Google Scholar

Raban, Jonathan (1974) Soft City (London: Hamish Hamilton). Soft City Google Scholar

Rommes, Els (2002a) Gender Scripts and the Internet: The Design and Use of Amsterdam’s Digital City (Enschede: Twente University Press). Gender Scripts and the Internet: The Design and Use of Amsterdam’s Digital City Google Scholar

Rommes, Els (2002b) ‘Worlds apart: exclusion-processes in DDS’, in Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches, ed. Makoto Tanabe, Peter van den Besselaar and Toru Ishida (Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer), 219–32. Worlds apart: exclusion-processes in DDS Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches 219 32 Google Scholar

Rose, Gillian (1993) Feminism and Geography (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press). Feminism and Geography Google Scholar

Schendelen, Marijke van (1995) ‘The influence of women’s studies on the environmental sciences of physical planning, housing and mobility in The Netherlands’, in Gender and the Built Environment: Emancipation in Planning, Housing and Mobility in Europe, ed. Liesbeth Ottes, Erica Poventud, Marijke van Schendelen, Gertje S. von Banchet (Assen: Van Gorcum), 185–99. The influence of women’s studies on the environmental sciences of physical planning, housing and mobility in The Netherlands Gender and the Built Environment: Emancipation in Planning, Housing and Mobility in Europe 185 99 Google Scholar

Schuler, Doug (2002) ‘Digital cities and digital citizens’, in Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches, ed. Makoto Tanabe, Peter van den Besselaar and Toru Ishida (Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer), 71–85. Digital cities and digital citizens Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches 71 85 Google Scholar

Szwajcer, Micheline (2002) ‘anti_dog collection by Alicia Framis’, Galerie Micheline Szwajcer, Antwerp, http://www.gms.be/framis_text_antidog.html. Google Scholar

Thüsen, Joachim von der (2005) ‘The city as metaphor, metonym and symbol’, in Babylon or New Jerusalem? Perceptions of the City in Literature, ed. Valeria Tinkler-Villani (Amsterdam and Atlanta GA: Rodopi), 1–11. The city as metaphor, metonym and symbol Babylon or New Jerusalem? Perceptions of the City in Literature 1 11 Google Scholar

Wajcman, Judy (1991) Feminism Confronts Technology (Cambridge: Polity Press). Feminism Confronts Technology Google Scholar

Weisman, Leslie Kanes (1992) Discrimination by Design: A Feminist Critique of the Man-Made Environment (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press). Discrimination by Design: A Feminist Critique of the Man-Made Environment Google Scholar

Wilson, Elizabeth (1991) The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women (London: Virago). The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women Google Scholar

Wilson, Elizabeth (1997) ‘Looking backward: nostalgia and the city’, in Imagining Cities: Scripts, Signs, Memory, ed. Sally Westwood and John Williams (London: Routledge), 127–39. Looking backward: nostalgia and the city Imagining Cities: Scripts, Signs, Memory 127 39 Google Scholar

Augé, Marc (1995) Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthology of Supermodernity, trans. John Howe (London: Verso). Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthology of Supermodernity Google Scholar

Borden, Iain (1995) ‘Gender and the city’, in Architecture and the Sites of History: Interpretations of Buildings and Cities, ed. Iain Borden and David Dunster (London: Butterworth Architecture), 317–30. Gender and the city Architecture and the Sites of History: Interpretations of Buildings and Cities 317 30 Google Scholar

Borden, Iain (2001) Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body (Oxford: Berg). Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body Google Scholar

Borden, Iain et al. (2002) ‘Things, flows, filters, tactics’, in The Unknown City: Contesting Architecture and Social Space, ed. Iain Borden, Joe Kerr and Jane Rendell (Cambridge MA: MIT Press), 2–27. Things, flows, filters, tactics The Unknown City: Contesting Architecture and Social Space 2 27 Google Scholar

Bostock, Lisa (2001) ‘Pathways of disadvantage? Walking as a mode of transport among low-income mothers’, Health and Social Care in the Community 9.1, 11–18. Pathways of disadvantage? Walking as a mode of transport among low-income mothers Health and Social Care in the Community 9.1 11 18 Google Scholar

Boys, Jos (1984) ‘Women and public space’, in Making Space: Women and the Man-Made Environment, ed. Matrix (London and Sydney: Pluto Press), 37–54. Women and public space Making Space: Women and the Man-Made Environment 37 54 Google Scholar

Certeau, Michel de (1988) ‘Walking in the city’, in The Practice of Everyday Life (Berkeley: University of California Press), 91–110. Walking in the city The Practice of Everyday Life 91 110 Google Scholar

Cooper, Geoff et al. (2002) ‘Mobile society? Technology, distance, and presence’, in Virtual Society? Technology, Cyberbole, Reality, ed. Steve Woolgar (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 286–301. Mobile society? Technology, distance, and presence Virtual Society? Technology, Cyberbole, Reality 286 301 Google Scholar

Donald, James (1999) Imagining the Modern City (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press). Imagining the Modern City Google Scholar

Friedberg, Anne (1993) Window Shopping: Cinema and the Postmodern (Berkeley: University of California Press). Window Shopping: Cinema and the Postmodern Google Scholar

Gelink, Annet (2002) ‘Alicia Framis: anti_dog’, exhibition in Annet Gelink Gallery, Amsterdam (19 October-23 November), http:/www.artnet.nu/mnexpo.asp?exponr=6906. Google Scholar

Greed, Clara H. (1995) ‘Public toilet provision for women in Britain: an investigation of discrimination against urination’, Women’s Studies International Forum 18.5, 573–84. Public toilet provision for women in Britain: an investigation of discrimination against urination Women’s Studies International Forum 18.5 573 84 Google Scholar

Harding, Sandra (1986) The Science Question in Feminism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press). The Science Question in Feminism Google Scholar

Hayden, Dolores (2002) Redesigning the American Dream: Gender, Housing and Family Life (London: Norton). Redesigning the American Dream: Gender, Housing and Family Life Google Scholar

Highmore, Ben (2005) Cityscapes: Cultural Readings in the Material and Symbolic City (London: Palgrave). Cityscapes: Cultural Readings in the Material and Symbolic City Google Scholar

Hommels, Anique (2005) Unbuilding Cities: Obduracy in Urban Socio-technical Change (Cambridge MA: MIT Press). Unbuilding Cities: Obduracy in Urban Socio-technical Change Google Scholar

Jansson, André (2006) ‘Textural analysis: materialising media space’, in Geographies of Communication: The Spatial Turn in Media Studies, ed. Jesper Falkheimer and André Jansson (Gothenburg: Nordicom), 87–104. Textural analysis: materialising media space Geographies of Communication: The Spatial Turn in Media Studies 87 104 Google Scholar

Kraut, Robert, et al. (1996) ‘The HomeNet field trial of residential internet services’, Communications of the ACM, 39.12, 55–63. The HomeNet field trial of residential internet services Communications of the ACM 39.12 55 63 Google Scholar

Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson (1980) Metaphors We Live By (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Metaphors We Live By Google Scholar

Lefebvre, Henri (1991) The Production of Space (Oxford: Blackwell). The Production of Space Google Scholar

Massey, Doreen (1994) Space, Place and Gender (Cambridge: Polity Press). Space, Place and Gender Google Scholar

Massey, Doreen, John Allen and Philip Sarre (eds) (1999) Human Geography Today (Cambridge: Polity Press). Human Geography Today Google Scholar

McDowell, Linda (1999) Gender, Identity and Place: Understanding Feminist Geographies (London: Polity Press). Gender, Identity and Place: Understanding Feminist Geographies Google Scholar

Mofokeng, Santu (1998) ‘Appropriated spaces’, in Blank: Architecture, Apartheid and After, ed. Hilton Judin and Ivan Vladislaviç (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers), n.p. Appropriated spaces Blank: Architecture, Apartheid and After Google Scholar

Morris, Meaghan (1988) ‘Things to do with shopping centers’, in The Cultural Studies Reader, ed. Simon During, 2nd edition (London: Routledge, 1999), 391–409. Things to do with shopping centers The Cultural Studies Reader 391 409 Google Scholar

Oost, Ellen van (2000) ‘Making the computer masculine’, in Women, Work and Computerization: Charting a Course to the Future, ed. Ellen Balka and Richard Smith (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers), 9–16. Making the computer masculine Women, Work and Computerization: Charting a Course to the Future 9 16 Google Scholar

Oosterling, Henk (2004) ‘Tussenruimte: voorbij het capsulaire bewustzijn’, in easyCity: interventies in een verscheurde stad (Amsterdam: de vrije ruimte), 70–80. Tussenruimte: voorbij het capsulaire bewustzijn easyCity: interventies in een verscheurde stad 70 80 Google Scholar

Pfaffenberger, Bryan (1992) ‘Technological dramas’, Science, Technology and Human Values 17.3, 282–312. Technological dramas Science, Technology and Human Values 17.3 282 312 Google Scholar

Pollock, Griselda (1988) ‘Modernity and the spaces of femininity,’ in Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism and Histories of Art (London: Routledge), 50–90. Modernity and the spaces of femininity, Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism and Histories of Art 50 90 Google Scholar

Raban, Jonathan (1974) Soft City (London: Hamish Hamilton). Soft City Google Scholar

Rommes, Els (2002a) Gender Scripts and the Internet: The Design and Use of Amsterdam’s Digital City (Enschede: Twente University Press). Gender Scripts and the Internet: The Design and Use of Amsterdam’s Digital City Google Scholar

Rommes, Els (2002b) ‘Worlds apart: exclusion-processes in DDS’, in Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches, ed. Makoto Tanabe, Peter van den Besselaar and Toru Ishida (Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer), 219–32. Worlds apart: exclusion-processes in DDS Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches 219 32 Google Scholar

Rose, Gillian (1993) Feminism and Geography (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press). Feminism and Geography Google Scholar

Schendelen, Marijke van (1995) ‘The influence of women’s studies on the environmental sciences of physical planning, housing and mobility in The Netherlands’, in Gender and the Built Environment: Emancipation in Planning, Housing and Mobility in Europe, ed. Liesbeth Ottes, Erica Poventud, Marijke van Schendelen, Gertje S. von Banchet (Assen: Van Gorcum), 185–99. The influence of women’s studies on the environmental sciences of physical planning, housing and mobility in The Netherlands Gender and the Built Environment: Emancipation in Planning, Housing and Mobility in Europe 185 99 Google Scholar

Schuler, Doug (2002) ‘Digital cities and digital citizens’, in Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches, ed. Makoto Tanabe, Peter van den Besselaar and Toru Ishida (Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer), 71–85. Digital cities and digital citizens Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches 71 85 Google Scholar

Szwajcer, Micheline (2002) ‘anti_dog collection by Alicia Framis’, Galerie Micheline Szwajcer, Antwerp, http://www.gms.be/framis_text_antidog.html. Google Scholar

Thüsen, Joachim von der (2005) ‘The city as metaphor, metonym and symbol’, in Babylon or New Jerusalem? Perceptions of the City in Literature, ed. Valeria Tinkler-Villani (Amsterdam and Atlanta GA: Rodopi), 1–11. The city as metaphor, metonym and symbol Babylon or New Jerusalem? Perceptions of the City in Literature 1 11 Google Scholar

Wajcman, Judy (1991) Feminism Confronts Technology (Cambridge: Polity Press). Feminism Confronts Technology Google Scholar

Weisman, Leslie Kanes (1992) Discrimination by Design: A Feminist Critique of the Man-Made Environment (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press). Discrimination by Design: A Feminist Critique of the Man-Made Environment Google Scholar

Wilson, Elizabeth (1991) The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women (London: Virago). The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women Google Scholar

Wilson, Elizabeth (1997) ‘Looking backward: nostalgia and the city’, in Imagining Cities: Scripts, Signs, Memory, ed. Sally Westwood and John Williams (London: Routledge), 127–39. Looking backward: nostalgia and the city Imagining Cities: Scripts, Signs, Memory 127 39 Google Scholar

Augé, Marc (1995) Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthology of Supermodernity, trans. John Howe (London: Verso). Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthology of Supermodernity Google Scholar

Borden, Iain (1995) ‘Gender and the city’, in Architecture and the Sites of History: Interpretations of Buildings and Cities, ed. Iain Borden and David Dunster (London: Butterworth Architecture), 317–30. Gender and the city Architecture and the Sites of History: Interpretations of Buildings and Cities 317 30 Google Scholar

Borden, Iain (2001) Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body (Oxford: Berg). Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body Google Scholar

Borden, Iain et al. (2002) ‘Things, flows, filters, tactics’, in The Unknown City: Contesting Architecture and Social Space, ed. Iain Borden, Joe Kerr and Jane Rendell (Cambridge MA: MIT Press), 2–27. Things, flows, filters, tactics The Unknown City: Contesting Architecture and Social Space 2 27 Google Scholar

Bostock, Lisa (2001) ‘Pathways of disadvantage? Walking as a mode of transport among low-income mothers’, Health and Social Care in the Community 9.1, 11–18. Pathways of disadvantage? Walking as a mode of transport among low-income mothers Health and Social Care in the Community 9.1 11 18 Google Scholar

Boys, Jos (1984) ‘Women and public space’, in Making Space: Women and the Man-Made Environment, ed. Matrix (London and Sydney: Pluto Press), 37–54. Women and public space Making Space: Women and the Man-Made Environment 37 54 Google Scholar

Certeau, Michel de (1988) ‘Walking in the city’, in The Practice of Everyday Life (Berkeley: University of California Press), 91–110. Walking in the city The Practice of Everyday Life 91 110 Google Scholar

Cooper, Geoff et al. (2002) ‘Mobile society? Technology, distance, and presence’, in Virtual Society? Technology, Cyberbole, Reality, ed. Steve Woolgar (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 286–301. Mobile society? Technology, distance, and presence Virtual Society? Technology, Cyberbole, Reality 286 301 Google Scholar

Donald, James (1999) Imagining the Modern City (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press). Imagining the Modern City Google Scholar

Friedberg, Anne (1993) Window Shopping: Cinema and the Postmodern (Berkeley: University of California Press). Window Shopping: Cinema and the Postmodern Google Scholar

Gelink, Annet (2002) ‘Alicia Framis: anti_dog’, exhibition in Annet Gelink Gallery, Amsterdam (19 October-23 November), http:/www.artnet.nu/mnexpo.asp?exponr=6906. Google Scholar

Greed, Clara H. (1995) ‘Public toilet provision for women in Britain: an investigation of discrimination against urination’, Women’s Studies International Forum 18.5, 573–84. Public toilet provision for women in Britain: an investigation of discrimination against urination Women’s Studies International Forum 18.5 573 84 Google Scholar

Harding, Sandra (1986) The Science Question in Feminism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press). The Science Question in Feminism Google Scholar

Hayden, Dolores (2002) Redesigning the American Dream: Gender, Housing and Family Life (London: Norton). Redesigning the American Dream: Gender, Housing and Family Life Google Scholar

Highmore, Ben (2005) Cityscapes: Cultural Readings in the Material and Symbolic City (London: Palgrave). Cityscapes: Cultural Readings in the Material and Symbolic City Google Scholar

Hommels, Anique (2005) Unbuilding Cities: Obduracy in Urban Socio-technical Change (Cambridge MA: MIT Press). Unbuilding Cities: Obduracy in Urban Socio-technical Change Google Scholar

Jansson, André (2006) ‘Textural analysis: materialising media space’, in Geographies of Communication: The Spatial Turn in Media Studies, ed. Jesper Falkheimer and André Jansson (Gothenburg: Nordicom), 87–104. Textural analysis: materialising media space Geographies of Communication: The Spatial Turn in Media Studies 87 104 Google Scholar

Kraut, Robert, et al. (1996) ‘The HomeNet field trial of residential internet services’, Communications of the ACM, 39.12, 55–63. The HomeNet field trial of residential internet services Communications of the ACM 39.12 55 63 Google Scholar

Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson (1980) Metaphors We Live By (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Metaphors We Live By Google Scholar

Lefebvre, Henri (1991) The Production of Space (Oxford: Blackwell). The Production of Space Google Scholar

Massey, Doreen (1994) Space, Place and Gender (Cambridge: Polity Press). Space, Place and Gender Google Scholar

Massey, Doreen, John Allen and Philip Sarre (eds) (1999) Human Geography Today (Cambridge: Polity Press). Human Geography Today Google Scholar

McDowell, Linda (1999) Gender, Identity and Place: Understanding Feminist Geographies (London: Polity Press). Gender, Identity and Place: Understanding Feminist Geographies Google Scholar

Mofokeng, Santu (1998) ‘Appropriated spaces’, in Blank: Architecture, Apartheid and After, ed. Hilton Judin and Ivan Vladislaviç (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers), n.p. Appropriated spaces Blank: Architecture, Apartheid and After Google Scholar

Morris, Meaghan (1988) ‘Things to do with shopping centers’, in The Cultural Studies Reader, ed. Simon During, 2nd edition (London: Routledge, 1999), 391–409. Things to do with shopping centers The Cultural Studies Reader 391 409 Google Scholar

Oost, Ellen van (2000) ‘Making the computer masculine’, in Women, Work and Computerization: Charting a Course to the Future, ed. Ellen Balka and Richard Smith (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers), 9–16. Making the computer masculine Women, Work and Computerization: Charting a Course to the Future 9 16 Google Scholar

Oosterling, Henk (2004) ‘Tussenruimte: voorbij het capsulaire bewustzijn’, in easyCity: interventies in een verscheurde stad (Amsterdam: de vrije ruimte), 70–80. Tussenruimte: voorbij het capsulaire bewustzijn easyCity: interventies in een verscheurde stad 70 80 Google Scholar

Pfaffenberger, Bryan (1992) ‘Technological dramas’, Science, Technology and Human Values 17.3, 282–312. Technological dramas Science, Technology and Human Values 17.3 282 312 Google Scholar

Pollock, Griselda (1988) ‘Modernity and the spaces of femininity,’ in Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism and Histories of Art (London: Routledge), 50–90. Modernity and the spaces of femininity, Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism and Histories of Art 50 90 Google Scholar

Raban, Jonathan (1974) Soft City (London: Hamish Hamilton). Soft City Google Scholar

Rommes, Els (2002a) Gender Scripts and the Internet: The Design and Use of Amsterdam’s Digital City (Enschede: Twente University Press). Gender Scripts and the Internet: The Design and Use of Amsterdam’s Digital City Google Scholar

Rommes, Els (2002b) ‘Worlds apart: exclusion-processes in DDS’, in Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches, ed. Makoto Tanabe, Peter van den Besselaar and Toru Ishida (Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer), 219–32. Worlds apart: exclusion-processes in DDS Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches 219 32 Google Scholar

Rose, Gillian (1993) Feminism and Geography (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press). Feminism and Geography Google Scholar

Schendelen, Marijke van (1995) ‘The influence of women’s studies on the environmental sciences of physical planning, housing and mobility in The Netherlands’, in Gender and the Built Environment: Emancipation in Planning, Housing and Mobility in Europe, ed. Liesbeth Ottes, Erica Poventud, Marijke van Schendelen, Gertje S. von Banchet (Assen: Van Gorcum), 185–99. The influence of women’s studies on the environmental sciences of physical planning, housing and mobility in The Netherlands Gender and the Built Environment: Emancipation in Planning, Housing and Mobility in Europe 185 99 Google Scholar

Schuler, Doug (2002) ‘Digital cities and digital citizens’, in Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches, ed. Makoto Tanabe, Peter van den Besselaar and Toru Ishida (Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer), 71–85. Digital cities and digital citizens Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches 71 85 Google Scholar

Szwajcer, Micheline (2002) ‘anti_dog collection by Alicia Framis’, Galerie Micheline Szwajcer, Antwerp, http://www.gms.be/framis_text_antidog.html. Google Scholar

Thüsen, Joachim von der (2005) ‘The city as metaphor, metonym and symbol’, in Babylon or New Jerusalem? Perceptions of the City in Literature, ed. Valeria Tinkler-Villani (Amsterdam and Atlanta GA: Rodopi), 1–11. The city as metaphor, metonym and symbol Babylon or New Jerusalem? Perceptions of the City in Literature 1 11 Google Scholar

Wajcman, Judy (1991) Feminism Confronts Technology (Cambridge: Polity Press). Feminism Confronts Technology Google Scholar

Weisman, Leslie Kanes (1992) Discrimination by Design: A Feminist Critique of the Man-Made Environment (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press). Discrimination by Design: A Feminist Critique of the Man-Made Environment Google Scholar

Wilson, Elizabeth (1991) The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women (London: Virago). The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women Google Scholar

Wilson, Elizabeth (1997) ‘Looking backward: nostalgia and the city’, in Imagining Cities: Scripts, Signs, Memory, ed. Sally Westwood and John Williams (London: Routledge), 127–39. Looking backward: nostalgia and the city Imagining Cities: Scripts, Signs, Memory 127 39 Google Scholar

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