Hunter Gatherer Research

Social-boundary defence, mountain people and obsidian in the Absaroka and Beartooth mountains of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA

Hunter Gatherer Research (2017), 3, (3), 429–458.

Abstract

The model of social-boundary defence predicts that forager groups that can assist each other during times of hardship will maintain close social relationships and permissive access to one another’s foraging range. On the other hand, amongst groups that are likely to experience disaster at the same time, social-boundary defence expects more rigid boundaries of land tenure and less social interaction. In other words, sharing of landscapes and resources between forager groups follows many of the same basic principles as reciprocity between individuals. Under this model, in the mountainous Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), we expect foragers to maintain their closest, most flexible social ties not amongst mountain groups, but between mountain groups and those living in the lower-elevation basins and valleys, who are more likely to be able to help during times of hardship. This paper tests this hypothesis using obsidian source data from the Beartooth and Absaroka Mountains of the GYE. We find that the expectations of social-boundary defence are upheld, and that the closest social connections of those in the Absarokas and the Beartooths may not have been with one another, but with those in surrounding valleys and basins. Specifically, we argue for two potential spatial boundaries of social-defence within the GYE, and for a possible narrowing and shifting of home ranges during the Late Prehistoric Period (1500–200 cal BP).

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References

Adams, JS & MacDonald, DH 2015. Differential selection of lithic raw materials by prehistoric hunter-gatherers in the Upper Yellowstone River Valley, Montana/Wyoming. Ozbun, TL & Adams, RL (eds) Toolstone geography of the Pacific Northwest. Simon Fraser University, Canada: Archaeology Press:208–217. Google Scholar

Adams, R 2010. Archaeology with altitude: late prehistoric settlement and subsistence in the Northern Wind River Range, Wyoming. Unpublished PhD thesis. Laramie: University of Wyoming. Google Scholar

Baugh, TG & Nelson, FW Jr 1988. Archaeological obsidian recovered from selected North Dakota Sites and its relationship to changing exchange systems in the plains. Journal of the North Dakota Archaeological Association 3:74–94. Google Scholar

Bender, SJ & Wright, GA 1988. High-altitude occupations, cultural process, and high plains prehistory: retrospect and prospect. American Anthropologist 90(3):619–639. Google Scholar

Benedict, JB 2007. Effects of climate on plant-food availability at high altitude in the Colorado Front Range, USA. Journal of Ethnobiology 27(2):143–173. Google Scholar

Black, KD 1991. Archaic continuity in the Colorado Rockies: the mountain tradition. Plains Anthropologist 36:1–29. Google Scholar

Bohn, AD 2007. Scattered glass: obsidian artifact provenance patterns in Northwestern Wyoming, The power to evoke wonder: Native Americans and the geysers of Yellowstone National Park. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Fort Collins: Colorado State University. Google Scholar

Cabana, GS, Hunley, K & Kaestle, FA 2008. Population continuity or replacement? A novel computer simulation approach and its application to the Numic expansion (Western Great Basin, USA). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 135(4):438–447. Google Scholar

Cannon, KP 1993. Paleoindian use of obsidian in the Greater Yellowstone Area: new evidence of the mobility of early Yellowstone people. Yellowstone Science Summer:6–9. Google Scholar

Carpenter, SL & Fisher, PR 2014. From cliff to cache: analysis of a middle archaic obsidian cache from southwestern Montana. In MacDonald, DH, Andrefsky, W Jr & Yu, P-L (eds) Lithics in the West. Missoula: University of Montana Press:171–191. Google Scholar

Cashdan, E 1983. Territoriality among human foragers: ecological models and an application to four Bushman groups. Current Anthropology 24:47–66. Google Scholar

Connor, M & Kunselman, R 1995. Obsidian utilization in prehistoric Jackson Hole. The Wyoming Archaeologist 39(3–4):39–52. Google Scholar

Cromley, CM 2000. Historical elk migrations around Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Bulletin 104:53–65. Google Scholar

Drucker, P 1951. The northern and central Nootkan tribes. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 144. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. Google Scholar

Dyson-Hudson, R & Smith, EA 1978. Human territoriality: an ecological reassessment. American Anthropologist 80:21–41. Google Scholar

Eakin, DH 2008. Wyoming cultural properties form, on file in Heritage and Research Center, Yellowstone National Park, Gardiner, Montana. Google Scholar

Finley, JB, Boyle, MP & Harvey, DC 2015. Obsidian conveyance in the mountain world of the Numa. Plains Anthropologist 60(236):87–103. Google Scholar

Hackett, PH & Rennie, D 1977. Acute mountain sickness. The Lancet 309(8009): 491–492. Google Scholar

Hackett, PH, Rennie, D, Grover, RF & Reeves, JT 1981. Acute mountain sickness and the edemas of high altitude: a common pathogenesis? Respiration Physiology 46(3): 383–390. Google Scholar

Hansen, AJ, Rotella, JJ, Kraska, MPV & Brown, D 2000. Spatial patterns of primary productivity in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Landscape Ecology 15(6):505–522. Google Scholar

Harvey, D 2012. A cost surface analysis of obsidian use in the Wyoming Basin, USA. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Memphis: University of Memphis. Google Scholar

Hatch, JW, Michels, JW, Stevenson, CM, Scheetz, B & Geidel, R 1990. Hopewellian obsidian studies: behavioral implications of recent sourcing and dating research. American Antiquity 55:461–479. Google Scholar

Hebblewhite, M & Merrill, EH 2007. Multiscale wolf predation risk for elk: does migration reduce risk? Oecologia 152(2):377–387. Google Scholar

Hughes, RE 2008. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of artifacts from various archaeological sites and localities on the Greybull River, Northwestern Wyoming. Geochemical research laboratory letter report 2007–91 submitted to Lawrence Todd, Colorado State University, 9 August 2008. Google Scholar

Hughes, RE 2009. Analysis of 235 artifacts from archaeological sites on the Greybull River, Northwestern Wyoming. Geochemical research laboratory letter report 2009–65 submitted to Lawrence Todd, Colorado State University, 12 August 2009. Google Scholar

Hughes, RE 2014. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites in the Washakie Wilderness, Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Geochemical research laboratory letter report 2014–99 submitted to Lawrence Todd, Colorado State University, 30 October 2014. Google Scholar

Hughes, RE 2015. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of obsidian artifacts and geological samples from the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Geochemical research laboratory letter report 2014–70 submitted to Lawrence Todd, Colorado State University, 2 February 2015. Google Scholar

Hughes, RE 2017. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of obsidian artifacts from greybull river archaeological sites, Northwestern Wyoming. Geochemical research laboratory letter report 2015–35 submitted to Lawrence Todd, Colorado State University, 24 April 2017. Google Scholar

Johnson, AM 2002. Archeology around Yellowstone Lake. In Anderson, RJ & Harmon, D (eds) Yellowstone Lake: hotbed of chaos or reservoir of resilience? Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem:80–88. Google Scholar

Keating, K 1982. Population ecology of Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep in the upper Yellowstone River drainage, Montana/Wyoming. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Bozeman: Montana State University. Google Scholar

Kelly, RL 2013. The lifeways of hunter-gatherers: the foraging spectrum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Kunselman, R & Husted, WM 1996. Prehistoric obsidian utilization in the Beartooth mountains of Montana and Wyoming. The Wyoming Archaeologist 40(1):27–34. Google Scholar

Loendorf, LL & Stone, NM 2006. Mountain spirit: the sheep eater Indians of Yellowstone. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. Google Scholar

Loendorf, LL & Stroupe, N 2003. Ethnographic Resources on the Mammoth Hot Springs to Norris Junction Road. Report prepared for Cultural Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Google Scholar

MacDonald, DH 2014. Deciphering point-of-origin for prehistoric hunter-gatherers at Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming: a case study in lithic technology and settlement pattern studies. In MacDonald, DH, Andrefsky, W Jr & Yu, P-L (eds) Lithics in the West. Missoula: University of Montana Press:140–158. Google Scholar

MacDonald, DH, Hughes, RE, & Gish, JW 2011. Late-Paleoindian versus early-Archaic occupation of Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming. Current Research in the Pleistocene 28:110–111. Google Scholar

MacDonald, DH, McIntyre, JC & Livers, MC 2013. Understanding the role of Yellowstone Lake in the prehistory of interior Northwestern North America. North American Archaeologist 33(3):251–289. Google Scholar

McCoy, MD, Ladefoged, TN, Blanshard, A & Jorgensen, A 2010. Reconstructing lithic supply zones and procurement areas: an example from the Bay of Islands, Northland, New Zealand. Journal of Pacific Archaeology 1(2):174–183. Google Scholar

McIntyre, JC, Livers, MC, MacDonald, DH, Hughes, RE & Hare, K 2013. Park Point obsidian: geologic description and prehistoric human use of a primary obsidian source at Yellowstone Lake. In MacDonald, DH & Hale, E (eds) Yellowstone archaeology: Southern Yellowstone. University of Montana contributions to anthropology 13(2):42–58. Google Scholar

Merkle, JA, Monteith, KL, Aikens, EO, Hayes, MM, Hersey, KR, Middleton, AD, Oates, BA, Sawyer, H, Scurlock, BM & Kauffman, MJ 2016. Large herbivores surf waves of green-up during spring. Proceedings of the Royal Society 283(1833), https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.0456. Google Scholar

Morgan, C, Adams, R & Losey, A 2012. High-altitude hunter-gatherer residential occupations in Wyoming’s Wind River range. North American Archaeologist 33(1):35–79. Google Scholar

Morgan, C, Harvey, DC & Trout, L 2016. Obsidian conveyance and late prehistoric hunter-gatherer mobility as seen from the high Wind River Range, Western Wyoming. Plains Anthropologist 61(239):225–249. Google Scholar

Myers, F 1982. Always ask: resource use and land ownership among Pintupi aborigines of the Australian Western Desert. In Hunn, E & Williams, N (eds) Resource managers: North American and Australian hunter-gatherers. Boulder, Colorado:173–196. Google Scholar

Nabokov, P & Loendorf, LL 2004. Restoring a presence: American Indians and Yellowstone National Park. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Google Scholar

Park, R 2010. A culture of convenience? Obsidian source selection in Yellowstone National Park. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan. Google Scholar

Pinto, N & Keitt, TH 2009. Beyond the least-cost path: evaluating corridor redundancy using a graph-theoretic approach. Landscape Ecology 24(2):253–266. Google Scholar

Reid, P 1986. Models for prehistoric exchange in the Middle Great Lakes’ Basin. Ontario Archaeology 46:33–44. Google Scholar

Renfrew, C 1972. The emergence of civilisation: the Cyclades and the Aegean in the third millennium BC. London: Methuen Publishing. Google Scholar

Renfrew, C, Dixon, JE & Cann, JR 1968. Further analysis of Near East obsidian. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 34:319–331. Google Scholar

Sanders, PH 2002. Prehistoric land-use patterns within the Yellowstone Lake Basin and Hayden Valley region, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. In Anderson, RJ & Harmon, D (eds) Yellowstone Lake: hotbed of chaos or reservoir of resilience? Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem:213–231. Google Scholar

Scheiber, LL & Finley, JB 2011. Obsidian source use in the Greater Yellowstone Area, Wyoming Basin, and Central Rocky Mountains. American Antiquity 76(2):372–394. Google Scholar

Schoen, JR 1997. As clear as opaque obsidian: source locations in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Tebiwa 26(2):216–224. Google Scholar

Stirn, M 2014. Modeling site location patterns amongst late-prehistoric villages in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Journal of Archaeological Science 41:523–532. Google Scholar

Smith, CS 1999. Obsidian use in Wyoming and the concept of curation. Plains Anthropologist 44(169):271–291. Google Scholar

Thompson, KW, Pastor, JV & Creasman, SD 1997. Wyoming Basin-Yellowstone plateau interaction: a study of obsidian artifacts from Southwest Wyoming. Tebiwa 26:241–254. Google Scholar

Todd, LC 2015. A record of overwhelming complexity: high elevation archaeology in Northwestern Wyoming. Plains Anthropologist 60(236):355–374. Google Scholar

Weixelman, J 1992. The power to evoke wonder: Native Americans and the geysers of Yellowstone National Park. National Park Service, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Submitted to Wyoming Council for the Humanities, Laramie. Google Scholar

Whitman, SJ 2013. Near or far: an analysis of prehistoric obsidian procurement behavior in the Greater Yellowstone Area. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University. Google Scholar

Winterhalder, B 1996. Social foraging and the behavioral ecology of intragroup resource transfers. Evolutionary Anthropology 20:46–57. Google Scholar

Wright, GA 1978. The Shoshonean migration problem. Plains Anthropologist 23(80):113–137. Google Scholar

Adams, JS & MacDonald, DH 2015. Differential selection of lithic raw materials by prehistoric hunter-gatherers in the Upper Yellowstone River Valley, Montana/Wyoming. Ozbun, TL & Adams, RL (eds) Toolstone geography of the Pacific Northwest. Simon Fraser University, Canada: Archaeology Press:208–217. Google Scholar

Adams, R 2010. Archaeology with altitude: late prehistoric settlement and subsistence in the Northern Wind River Range, Wyoming. Unpublished PhD thesis. Laramie: University of Wyoming. Google Scholar

Baugh, TG & Nelson, FW Jr 1988. Archaeological obsidian recovered from selected North Dakota Sites and its relationship to changing exchange systems in the plains. Journal of the North Dakota Archaeological Association 3:74–94. Google Scholar

Bender, SJ & Wright, GA 1988. High-altitude occupations, cultural process, and high plains prehistory: retrospect and prospect. American Anthropologist 90(3):619–639. Google Scholar

Benedict, JB 2007. Effects of climate on plant-food availability at high altitude in the Colorado Front Range, USA. Journal of Ethnobiology 27(2):143–173. Google Scholar

Black, KD 1991. Archaic continuity in the Colorado Rockies: the mountain tradition. Plains Anthropologist 36:1–29. Google Scholar

Bohn, AD 2007. Scattered glass: obsidian artifact provenance patterns in Northwestern Wyoming, The power to evoke wonder: Native Americans and the geysers of Yellowstone National Park. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Fort Collins: Colorado State University. Google Scholar

Cabana, GS, Hunley, K & Kaestle, FA 2008. Population continuity or replacement? A novel computer simulation approach and its application to the Numic expansion (Western Great Basin, USA). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 135(4):438–447. Google Scholar

Cannon, KP 1993. Paleoindian use of obsidian in the Greater Yellowstone Area: new evidence of the mobility of early Yellowstone people. Yellowstone Science Summer:6–9. Google Scholar

Carpenter, SL & Fisher, PR 2014. From cliff to cache: analysis of a middle archaic obsidian cache from southwestern Montana. In MacDonald, DH, Andrefsky, W Jr & Yu, P-L (eds) Lithics in the West. Missoula: University of Montana Press:171–191. Google Scholar

Cashdan, E 1983. Territoriality among human foragers: ecological models and an application to four Bushman groups. Current Anthropology 24:47–66. Google Scholar

Connor, M & Kunselman, R 1995. Obsidian utilization in prehistoric Jackson Hole. The Wyoming Archaeologist 39(3–4):39–52. Google Scholar

Cromley, CM 2000. Historical elk migrations around Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Bulletin 104:53–65. Google Scholar

Drucker, P 1951. The northern and central Nootkan tribes. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 144. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. Google Scholar

Dyson-Hudson, R & Smith, EA 1978. Human territoriality: an ecological reassessment. American Anthropologist 80:21–41. Google Scholar

Eakin, DH 2008. Wyoming cultural properties form, on file in Heritage and Research Center, Yellowstone National Park, Gardiner, Montana. Google Scholar

Finley, JB, Boyle, MP & Harvey, DC 2015. Obsidian conveyance in the mountain world of the Numa. Plains Anthropologist 60(236):87–103. Google Scholar

Hackett, PH & Rennie, D 1977. Acute mountain sickness. The Lancet 309(8009): 491–492. Google Scholar

Hackett, PH, Rennie, D, Grover, RF & Reeves, JT 1981. Acute mountain sickness and the edemas of high altitude: a common pathogenesis? Respiration Physiology 46(3): 383–390. Google Scholar

Hansen, AJ, Rotella, JJ, Kraska, MPV & Brown, D 2000. Spatial patterns of primary productivity in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Landscape Ecology 15(6):505–522. Google Scholar

Harvey, D 2012. A cost surface analysis of obsidian use in the Wyoming Basin, USA. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Memphis: University of Memphis. Google Scholar

Hatch, JW, Michels, JW, Stevenson, CM, Scheetz, B & Geidel, R 1990. Hopewellian obsidian studies: behavioral implications of recent sourcing and dating research. American Antiquity 55:461–479. Google Scholar

Hebblewhite, M & Merrill, EH 2007. Multiscale wolf predation risk for elk: does migration reduce risk? Oecologia 152(2):377–387. Google Scholar

Hughes, RE 2008. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of artifacts from various archaeological sites and localities on the Greybull River, Northwestern Wyoming. Geochemical research laboratory letter report 2007–91 submitted to Lawrence Todd, Colorado State University, 9 August 2008. Google Scholar

Hughes, RE 2009. Analysis of 235 artifacts from archaeological sites on the Greybull River, Northwestern Wyoming. Geochemical research laboratory letter report 2009–65 submitted to Lawrence Todd, Colorado State University, 12 August 2009. Google Scholar

Hughes, RE 2014. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites in the Washakie Wilderness, Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Geochemical research laboratory letter report 2014–99 submitted to Lawrence Todd, Colorado State University, 30 October 2014. Google Scholar

Hughes, RE 2015. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of obsidian artifacts and geological samples from the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Geochemical research laboratory letter report 2014–70 submitted to Lawrence Todd, Colorado State University, 2 February 2015. Google Scholar

Hughes, RE 2017. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of obsidian artifacts from greybull river archaeological sites, Northwestern Wyoming. Geochemical research laboratory letter report 2015–35 submitted to Lawrence Todd, Colorado State University, 24 April 2017. Google Scholar

Johnson, AM 2002. Archeology around Yellowstone Lake. In Anderson, RJ & Harmon, D (eds) Yellowstone Lake: hotbed of chaos or reservoir of resilience? Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem:80–88. Google Scholar

Keating, K 1982. Population ecology of Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep in the upper Yellowstone River drainage, Montana/Wyoming. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Bozeman: Montana State University. Google Scholar

Kelly, RL 2013. The lifeways of hunter-gatherers: the foraging spectrum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Kunselman, R & Husted, WM 1996. Prehistoric obsidian utilization in the Beartooth mountains of Montana and Wyoming. The Wyoming Archaeologist 40(1):27–34. Google Scholar

Loendorf, LL & Stone, NM 2006. Mountain spirit: the sheep eater Indians of Yellowstone. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. Google Scholar

Loendorf, LL & Stroupe, N 2003. Ethnographic Resources on the Mammoth Hot Springs to Norris Junction Road. Report prepared for Cultural Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Google Scholar

MacDonald, DH 2014. Deciphering point-of-origin for prehistoric hunter-gatherers at Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming: a case study in lithic technology and settlement pattern studies. In MacDonald, DH, Andrefsky, W Jr & Yu, P-L (eds) Lithics in the West. Missoula: University of Montana Press:140–158. Google Scholar

MacDonald, DH, Hughes, RE, & Gish, JW 2011. Late-Paleoindian versus early-Archaic occupation of Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming. Current Research in the Pleistocene 28:110–111. Google Scholar

MacDonald, DH, McIntyre, JC & Livers, MC 2013. Understanding the role of Yellowstone Lake in the prehistory of interior Northwestern North America. North American Archaeologist 33(3):251–289. Google Scholar

McCoy, MD, Ladefoged, TN, Blanshard, A & Jorgensen, A 2010. Reconstructing lithic supply zones and procurement areas: an example from the Bay of Islands, Northland, New Zealand. Journal of Pacific Archaeology 1(2):174–183. Google Scholar

McIntyre, JC, Livers, MC, MacDonald, DH, Hughes, RE & Hare, K 2013. Park Point obsidian: geologic description and prehistoric human use of a primary obsidian source at Yellowstone Lake. In MacDonald, DH & Hale, E (eds) Yellowstone archaeology: Southern Yellowstone. University of Montana contributions to anthropology 13(2):42–58. Google Scholar

Merkle, JA, Monteith, KL, Aikens, EO, Hayes, MM, Hersey, KR, Middleton, AD, Oates, BA, Sawyer, H, Scurlock, BM & Kauffman, MJ 2016. Large herbivores surf waves of green-up during spring. Proceedings of the Royal Society 283(1833), https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.0456. Google Scholar

Morgan, C, Adams, R & Losey, A 2012. High-altitude hunter-gatherer residential occupations in Wyoming’s Wind River range. North American Archaeologist 33(1):35–79. Google Scholar

Morgan, C, Harvey, DC & Trout, L 2016. Obsidian conveyance and late prehistoric hunter-gatherer mobility as seen from the high Wind River Range, Western Wyoming. Plains Anthropologist 61(239):225–249. Google Scholar

Myers, F 1982. Always ask: resource use and land ownership among Pintupi aborigines of the Australian Western Desert. In Hunn, E & Williams, N (eds) Resource managers: North American and Australian hunter-gatherers. Boulder, Colorado:173–196. Google Scholar

Nabokov, P & Loendorf, LL 2004. Restoring a presence: American Indians and Yellowstone National Park. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Google Scholar

Park, R 2010. A culture of convenience? Obsidian source selection in Yellowstone National Park. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan. Google Scholar

Pinto, N & Keitt, TH 2009. Beyond the least-cost path: evaluating corridor redundancy using a graph-theoretic approach. Landscape Ecology 24(2):253–266. Google Scholar

Reid, P 1986. Models for prehistoric exchange in the Middle Great Lakes’ Basin. Ontario Archaeology 46:33–44. Google Scholar

Renfrew, C 1972. The emergence of civilisation: the Cyclades and the Aegean in the third millennium BC. London: Methuen Publishing. Google Scholar

Renfrew, C, Dixon, JE & Cann, JR 1968. Further analysis of Near East obsidian. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 34:319–331. Google Scholar

Sanders, PH 2002. Prehistoric land-use patterns within the Yellowstone Lake Basin and Hayden Valley region, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. In Anderson, RJ & Harmon, D (eds) Yellowstone Lake: hotbed of chaos or reservoir of resilience? Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem:213–231. Google Scholar

Scheiber, LL & Finley, JB 2011. Obsidian source use in the Greater Yellowstone Area, Wyoming Basin, and Central Rocky Mountains. American Antiquity 76(2):372–394. Google Scholar

Schoen, JR 1997. As clear as opaque obsidian: source locations in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Tebiwa 26(2):216–224. Google Scholar

Stirn, M 2014. Modeling site location patterns amongst late-prehistoric villages in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Journal of Archaeological Science 41:523–532. Google Scholar

Smith, CS 1999. Obsidian use in Wyoming and the concept of curation. Plains Anthropologist 44(169):271–291. Google Scholar

Thompson, KW, Pastor, JV & Creasman, SD 1997. Wyoming Basin-Yellowstone plateau interaction: a study of obsidian artifacts from Southwest Wyoming. Tebiwa 26:241–254. Google Scholar

Todd, LC 2015. A record of overwhelming complexity: high elevation archaeology in Northwestern Wyoming. Plains Anthropologist 60(236):355–374. Google Scholar

Weixelman, J 1992. The power to evoke wonder: Native Americans and the geysers of Yellowstone National Park. National Park Service, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Submitted to Wyoming Council for the Humanities, Laramie. Google Scholar

Whitman, SJ 2013. Near or far: an analysis of prehistoric obsidian procurement behavior in the Greater Yellowstone Area. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University. Google Scholar

Winterhalder, B 1996. Social foraging and the behavioral ecology of intragroup resource transfers. Evolutionary Anthropology 20:46–57. Google Scholar

Wright, GA 1978. The Shoshonean migration problem. Plains Anthropologist 23(80):113–137. Google Scholar

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