Town Planning Review

Traffic calming policy and performance: The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany

Town Planning Review (1991), 62, (1), 79


TPR, 62 (I) 1991 TIM M. PHARAOH AND JOHN R. E. RUSSELL Traffic calming policy and performance The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany Traffic calming objectives are defined and the development of practice outlined, concentrating on the evolution of methods and types of scheme in three countries which have perhaps contributed most to that development: The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. Results from evaluations are discussed in relation to a range of objective and subjective criteria which have been used as performance indicators. Traffic calming is concluded to be a technical and popular success in widely varying applications, with its methods applicable throughout urban networks on rural roads and national highways, and in the presence or absence of traffic restraint. A more broadly based and integrated approach to objectives, design and evaluation than has usually been obtained in Britain is needed to realise the full potential of traffic calming. Since the early 1970sattempts have been made to redesign roads in built-up areas ~o reduce danger, to improve conditions for pedestrians and cyclists, and to bmprovethe local environment. This new style of traffic and speed management has ecome known as traffic calming. The best known and earliest examples were the Dutch woonerf schemes. In the intervening years, traffic calming techniques have been developed to apply not just to individual residential streets. but to whole areas of towns, to main traffic arteries, to villages, shopping streets and town centres. DEFINITION AND OBJECTIVES OF TRAFFIC CALMING Traffic calming schemes are associated with a wide variety of planning, transport and enVironmental policy objectives. Accordingly, traffic calming can be defined in various ways as commentators focus on particular types of scheme or policies which most concern them. The definition we employ can serve as a common denominator and apply to most schemes, if not all. Central to traffic calming is concern with the achievement of calm and safe conditions on streets. Given the strong association with environmental improvements, it also seems appropriate 79 Copyright © 2010 ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. Copyright © Liverpool University Press.

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Author details

Pharoah, Tim M.

Russell, John R. E.