Town Planning Review

Adapting the deliberative democracy ‘template’ for planning practice

Town Planning Review (2014), 85, (3), 319–340.

Abstract

Deliberative engagement is changing strategic planning processes. However, the political nature of plan-making, particularly as embedded in institutional structures and processes, can suppress deliberative processes. Drawing on two plan-making processes in Perth, this paper argues that deliberative engagement can be a step-change towards unifying stakeholders under a shared vision, but it remains an experimental and politicised practice. In light of these challenges, we suggest that strategic planning be reformed to provide opportunities for community deliberation and to help planners, who shoulder increasingly complex roles, to maintain a clear and transparent role in the changing practice of strategic planning.

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BALDUCCI, A., BOELENS, L., HILLIER, J., NYSETH, T. and WILKINSON, C. (2011), ‘Strategic spatial planning in uncertainty: theory and exploratory practice’, Town Planning Review, 82, 481-501. ‘Strategic spatial planning in uncertainty: theory and exploratory practice’ Town Planning Review 82 481 501 Google Scholar

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COAFFEE, J. and HEALEY, P. (2003), ‘"My voice: my place": tracking transformations in urban governance’, Urban Studies, 40, 1979-99. ‘"My voice: my place": tracking transformations in urban governance’ Urban Studies 40 1979 99 Google Scholar

CURTIS, C. (2001a), Future Perth: Transport Issues and Options, Perth, Western Australian Planning Commission. Future Perth: Transport Issues and Options Google Scholar

CURTIS, C. (2001b), ‘Local urban activity corridors: an effective approach towards the real integration of land use planning and transport planning?’ (paper presented to the 1st World Planning Schools Congress, Shanghai, 11-15 July). ‘Local urban activity corridors: an effective approach towards the real integration of land use planning and transport planning?’ Google Scholar

CURTIS, C. (2008), ‘Planning for sustainable accessibility: the implementation challenge’, Transport Policy, 15, 104-12. ‘Planning for sustainable accessibility: the implementation challenge’ Transport Policy 15 104 12 Google Scholar

CURTIS, C. and LOW, N. (2012), Institutional Barriers to Sustainable Transport, Surrey, Ashgate. Institutional Barriers to Sustainable Transport Google Scholar

DPI (DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING AND INFRASTRUCTURE) (2003), Dialogue with the City: Final Report of Proceedings, Perth, Department of Planning and Infrastructure. Google Scholar

DPUD (DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT) (1990), Metroplan: A Planning Strategy for the Perth Metropolitan Region, Perth, Department of Planning and Urban Development. Google Scholar

DRYZEK, J. (2010), Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance Google Scholar

ECKERSLEY, R. (2004), The Green State: Rethinking Democracy and Sovereignty, London, The MIT Press. The Green State: Rethinking Democracy and Sovereignty Google Scholar

FLYVBJERG, B. (1998), Rationality and Power: Democracy in Practice, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press. Rationality and Power: Democracy in Practice Google Scholar

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HARTZ-KARP, J. (2005), ‘A case study in deliberative democracy: dialogue with the city’, Journal of Public Deliberation, 1, 1-15. ‘A case study in deliberative democracy: dialogue with the city’ Journal of Public Deliberation 1 1 15 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2008), ‘Knowledge flows, spatial strategy making, and the roles of academics’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 26, 861-81. ‘Knowledge flows, spatial strategy making, and the roles of academics’ Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 26 861 81 Google Scholar

HELLING, A. (1998), ‘Collaborative visioning: proceed with caution! Results from evaluating Atlanta's vision 2020 project’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 64, 335-49. ‘Collaborative visioning: proceed with caution! Results from evaluating Atlanta's vision 2020 project’ Journal of the American Planning Association 64 335 49 Google Scholar

HENDRIKS, C. (2006), ‘When the forum meets interest politics: strategic uses of public deliberation’, Politics and Society, 34, 571-602. ‘When the forum meets interest politics: strategic uses of public deliberation’ Politics and Society 34 571 602 Google Scholar

HILLIER, J. (2003), ‘Agonizing over consensus: why Habermasian ideals cannot be "real"’, Planning Theory, 2, 37-55. ‘Agonizing over consensus: why Habermasian ideals cannot be "real"’ Planning Theory 2 37 55 Google Scholar

HOPKINS, D. (2010), ‘The emancipatory limits of participation in planning: equity and power in deliberative plan-making in Perth, Western Australia’, Town Planning Review, 81, 55-81. ‘The emancipatory limits of participation in planning: equity and power in deliberative plan-making in Perth, Western Australia’ Town Planning Review 81 55 81 Google Scholar

HOPKINS, L. D. (2012), ‘Plan assessment: making and using plans well’, in R. Weber and R. Crane (eds), Oxford Handbook of Urban Planning, New York, Oxford University Press, 803-22. Oxford Handbook of Urban Planning 803 22 Google Scholar

INNES, J. E. and BOOHER, D. E. (2010), Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy, New York, Routledge. Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy Google Scholar

INNES, J., GRUBER, J., NEUMAN, M. and THOMPSON, R. (1994), Coordinating Growth and Environmental Management through Consensus Building: A Policy Research Program Report, Berkeley, University of California Press. Coordinating Growth and Environmental Management through Consensus Building: A Policy Research Program Report Google Scholar

JACOBS, J. (1961), The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York, Random House. The Death and Life of Great American Cities Google Scholar

KINGDON, J. (1995), Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies, 2nd edn, New York, HarperCollins. Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies Google Scholar

LAURIAN, L. (2009), ‘Trust in planning: theoretical and practical considerations for participatory and deliberative planning’, Planning Theory & Practice, 10, 369-91. ‘Trust in planning: theoretical and practical considerations for participatory and deliberative planning’ Planning Theory & Practice 10 369 91 Google Scholar

LEGACY, C. (2010), ‘Investigating the knowledge interface between stakeholder engagement and plan-making’, Environment and Planning A, 42, 2735-52. ‘Investigating the knowledge interface between stakeholder engagement and plan-making’ Environment and Planning A 42 2735 52 Google Scholar

LEGACY, C., CURTIS, C. and STURUP, S. (2012), ‘Is there a good governance model for the delivery of contemporary transport policy and practice? An examination of Melbourne and Perth’, Transport Policy, 19, 8-16. ‘Is there a good governance model for the delivery of contemporary transport policy and practice? An examination of Melbourne and Perth’ Transport Policy 19 8 16 Google Scholar

MAGINN, P. (2007), ‘Deliberative democracy or discursively biased? Perth's dialogue with the city initiative’, Space and Polity, 11, 331-52. ‘Deliberative democracy or discursively biased? Perth's dialogue with the city initiative’ Space and Polity 11 331 52 Google Scholar

MARCH, A. (2012), The Democratic Plan: Analysis and Diagnosis, Surrey, Ashgate. The Democratic Plan: Analysis and Diagnosis Google Scholar

MARINOVA, D., MCGRATH, N. and NEWMAN, P. (2005), ‘Dialogue with the city: an era of participatory planning for provision of more sustainable infrastructure in Perth?’ (paper presented to the International Summer Academy on Technology Studies - Urban Infrastructure in Transition, Perth, ISTP, Murdoch University, 11-17 July). ‘Dialogue with the city: an era of participatory planning for provision of more sustainable infrastructure in Perth?’ Google Scholar

MCGUIRK, P. (2001), ‘Situating communicative planning theory: context, power, and knowledge’, Environment and Planning A, 33, 195-217. ‘Situating communicative planning theory: context, power, and knowledge’ Environment and Planning A 33 195 217 Google Scholar

MEES, P. (2011), ‘Who killed Melbourne 2030?’ (paper presented at the State of Australian Cities Conference, Melbourne, 29 November-2 December). ‘Who killed Melbourne 2030?’ Google Scholar

MOUFFE, C. (2005), On the Political, London, Routledge. On the Political Google Scholar

NEUMAN, M. (2012), ‘The image of the institution’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 78, 1-19. ‘The image of the institution’ Journal of the American Planning Association 78 1 19 Google Scholar

NIEMEYER, S. (2004), ‘Deliberation in the wilderness: displacing symbolic politics’, Environmental Politics, 13, 347-72. ‘Deliberation in the wilderness: displacing symbolic politics’ Environmental Politics 13 347 72 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

OOSTERLYNCK, S., VAN DEN BROECK, J., ALBRECHTS, L., MOULAERT, F. and VERHETSEL, A. (eds) (2011), Strategic Spatial Projects: Catalysts for Change, Abingdon, Routledge. Strategic Spatial Projects: Catalysts for Change Google Scholar

RYDIN, Y. (2007), ‘Re-examining the role of knowledge within planning theory’, Planning Theory, 6, 52-68. ‘Re-examining the role of knowledge within planning theory’ Planning Theory 6 52 68 Google Scholar

SANDERS, L. (1997), ‘Against deliberation’, Political Theory, 25, 1-17. ‘Against deliberation’ Political Theory 25 1 17 Google Scholar

SANDERCOCK, L. and FRIEDMANN, J. (2000), ‘Strategising the metropolis in a global era’, Urban Policy and Research, 18, 529-33. ‘Strategising the metropolis in a global era’ Urban Policy and Research 18 529 33 Google Scholar

SOLÉ-OLLÉ, A. and VILADECANS-MARSAL, E. (2012), ‘Lobbying, political competition, and local land supply: recent evidence from Spain’, Journal of Public Economics, 96, 10-19. ‘Lobbying, political competition, and local land supply: recent evidence from Spain’ Journal of Public Economics 96 10 19 Google Scholar

WAPC (WESTERN AUSTRALIAN PLANNING COMMISSION) (2001), Information Statement. Perth, Australia: Western Australian Planning Commission. Google Scholar

WAPC (WESTERN AUSTRALIAN PLANNING COMMISSION) (2004), Network City: Community Planning Strategy for Perth and Peel, Perth, Western Australian Planning Commission. Google Scholar

WAPC (WESTERN AUSTRALIAN PLANNING COMMISSION) (2005), Network City - A Milestone in Metropolitan Planning, Appendices, Perth, Western Australian Planning Commission. Google Scholar

WAPC (WESTERN AUSTRALIAN PLANNING COMMISSION) (2009), Directions 2031: A Draft Spatial Framework for Perth and Peel, Perth, Western Australian Planning Commission. Google Scholar

WAPC (WESTERN AUSTRALIAN PLANNING COMMISSION) (2010), Directions 2031 and Beyond: Metropolitan Planning Beyond the Horizon, Perth, Western Australian Planning Commission. Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L. (2013), ‘Reframing strategic spatial planning by using a coproduction perspective’, Planning Theory, 12, 46-63 ‘Reframing strategic spatial planning by using a coproduction perspective’ Planning Theory 12 46 63 Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L., ALDEN, J. and PIRES, A. DA ROSA (2001), ‘Conclusions: driving forces for institutional change’, in L. Albrechts, J. Alden and A. da Rosa Pires (eds), The Changing Institutional Landscape of Planning, Aldershot, Ashgate, 257-67. The Changing Institutional Landscape of Planning 257 67 Google Scholar

ALEXANDER, E. R. (2007), ‘Institutionalist perspectives on planning: why? where? how?’, in N. Verma (ed.), Institutions and Planning, Amsterdam, Elsevier Ltd., 37-60. Institutions and Planning 37 60 Google Scholar

BALDUCCI, A., BOELENS, L., HILLIER, J., NYSETH, T. and WILKINSON, C. (2011), ‘Strategic spatial planning in uncertainty: theory and exploratory practice’, Town Planning Review, 82, 481-501. ‘Strategic spatial planning in uncertainty: theory and exploratory practice’ Town Planning Review 82 481 501 Google Scholar

BENVENISTE, G. (1989), Mastering the Politics of Planning: Crafting Credible Plans and Policies that Make a Difference, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Publishers. Mastering the Politics of Planning: Crafting Credible Plans and Policies that Make a Difference Google Scholar

CARSON, L. and HARTZ-KARP, J. (2005), ‘Adapting and combining deliberative designs’, in J. Gastil and Peter Levine (eds), The Deliberative Democracy Handbook: Strategies for Effective Civic Engagement in the 21st Century, San Francisco, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 120-38. The Deliberative Democracy Handbook: Strategies for Effective Civic Engagement in the 21st Century 120 38 Google Scholar

COAFFEE, J. and HEALEY, P. (2003), ‘"My voice: my place": tracking transformations in urban governance’, Urban Studies, 40, 1979-99. ‘"My voice: my place": tracking transformations in urban governance’ Urban Studies 40 1979 99 Google Scholar

CURTIS, C. (2001a), Future Perth: Transport Issues and Options, Perth, Western Australian Planning Commission. Future Perth: Transport Issues and Options Google Scholar

CURTIS, C. (2001b), ‘Local urban activity corridors: an effective approach towards the real integration of land use planning and transport planning?’ (paper presented to the 1st World Planning Schools Congress, Shanghai, 11-15 July). ‘Local urban activity corridors: an effective approach towards the real integration of land use planning and transport planning?’ Google Scholar

CURTIS, C. (2008), ‘Planning for sustainable accessibility: the implementation challenge’, Transport Policy, 15, 104-12. ‘Planning for sustainable accessibility: the implementation challenge’ Transport Policy 15 104 12 Google Scholar

CURTIS, C. and LOW, N. (2012), Institutional Barriers to Sustainable Transport, Surrey, Ashgate. Institutional Barriers to Sustainable Transport Google Scholar

DPI (DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING AND INFRASTRUCTURE) (2003), Dialogue with the City: Final Report of Proceedings, Perth, Department of Planning and Infrastructure. Google Scholar

DPUD (DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT) (1990), Metroplan: A Planning Strategy for the Perth Metropolitan Region, Perth, Department of Planning and Urban Development. Google Scholar

DRYZEK, J. (2010), Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance Google Scholar

ECKERSLEY, R. (2004), The Green State: Rethinking Democracy and Sovereignty, London, The MIT Press. The Green State: Rethinking Democracy and Sovereignty Google Scholar

FLYVBJERG, B. (1998), Rationality and Power: Democracy in Practice, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press. Rationality and Power: Democracy in Practice Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

HARTZ-KARP, J. (2005), ‘A case study in deliberative democracy: dialogue with the city’, Journal of Public Deliberation, 1, 1-15. ‘A case study in deliberative democracy: dialogue with the city’ Journal of Public Deliberation 1 1 15 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2008), ‘Knowledge flows, spatial strategy making, and the roles of academics’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 26, 861-81. ‘Knowledge flows, spatial strategy making, and the roles of academics’ Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 26 861 81 Google Scholar

HELLING, A. (1998), ‘Collaborative visioning: proceed with caution! Results from evaluating Atlanta's vision 2020 project’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 64, 335-49. ‘Collaborative visioning: proceed with caution! Results from evaluating Atlanta's vision 2020 project’ Journal of the American Planning Association 64 335 49 Google Scholar

HENDRIKS, C. (2006), ‘When the forum meets interest politics: strategic uses of public deliberation’, Politics and Society, 34, 571-602. ‘When the forum meets interest politics: strategic uses of public deliberation’ Politics and Society 34 571 602 Google Scholar

HILLIER, J. (2003), ‘Agonizing over consensus: why Habermasian ideals cannot be "real"’, Planning Theory, 2, 37-55. ‘Agonizing over consensus: why Habermasian ideals cannot be "real"’ Planning Theory 2 37 55 Google Scholar

HOPKINS, D. (2010), ‘The emancipatory limits of participation in planning: equity and power in deliberative plan-making in Perth, Western Australia’, Town Planning Review, 81, 55-81. ‘The emancipatory limits of participation in planning: equity and power in deliberative plan-making in Perth, Western Australia’ Town Planning Review 81 55 81 Google Scholar

HOPKINS, L. D. (2012), ‘Plan assessment: making and using plans well’, in R. Weber and R. Crane (eds), Oxford Handbook of Urban Planning, New York, Oxford University Press, 803-22. Oxford Handbook of Urban Planning 803 22 Google Scholar

INNES, J. E. and BOOHER, D. E. (2010), Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy, New York, Routledge. Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy Google Scholar

INNES, J., GRUBER, J., NEUMAN, M. and THOMPSON, R. (1994), Coordinating Growth and Environmental Management through Consensus Building: A Policy Research Program Report, Berkeley, University of California Press. Coordinating Growth and Environmental Management through Consensus Building: A Policy Research Program Report Google Scholar

JACOBS, J. (1961), The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York, Random House. The Death and Life of Great American Cities Google Scholar

KINGDON, J. (1995), Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies, 2nd edn, New York, HarperCollins. Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies Google Scholar

LAURIAN, L. (2009), ‘Trust in planning: theoretical and practical considerations for participatory and deliberative planning’, Planning Theory & Practice, 10, 369-91. ‘Trust in planning: theoretical and practical considerations for participatory and deliberative planning’ Planning Theory & Practice 10 369 91 Google Scholar

LEGACY, C. (2010), ‘Investigating the knowledge interface between stakeholder engagement and plan-making’, Environment and Planning A, 42, 2735-52. ‘Investigating the knowledge interface between stakeholder engagement and plan-making’ Environment and Planning A 42 2735 52 Google Scholar

LEGACY, C., CURTIS, C. and STURUP, S. (2012), ‘Is there a good governance model for the delivery of contemporary transport policy and practice? An examination of Melbourne and Perth’, Transport Policy, 19, 8-16. ‘Is there a good governance model for the delivery of contemporary transport policy and practice? An examination of Melbourne and Perth’ Transport Policy 19 8 16 Google Scholar

MAGINN, P. (2007), ‘Deliberative democracy or discursively biased? Perth's dialogue with the city initiative’, Space and Polity, 11, 331-52. ‘Deliberative democracy or discursively biased? Perth's dialogue with the city initiative’ Space and Polity 11 331 52 Google Scholar

MARCH, A. (2012), The Democratic Plan: Analysis and Diagnosis, Surrey, Ashgate. The Democratic Plan: Analysis and Diagnosis Google Scholar

MARINOVA, D., MCGRATH, N. and NEWMAN, P. (2005), ‘Dialogue with the city: an era of participatory planning for provision of more sustainable infrastructure in Perth?’ (paper presented to the International Summer Academy on Technology Studies - Urban Infrastructure in Transition, Perth, ISTP, Murdoch University, 11-17 July). ‘Dialogue with the city: an era of participatory planning for provision of more sustainable infrastructure in Perth?’ Google Scholar

MCGUIRK, P. (2001), ‘Situating communicative planning theory: context, power, and knowledge’, Environment and Planning A, 33, 195-217. ‘Situating communicative planning theory: context, power, and knowledge’ Environment and Planning A 33 195 217 Google Scholar

MEES, P. (2011), ‘Who killed Melbourne 2030?’ (paper presented at the State of Australian Cities Conference, Melbourne, 29 November-2 December). ‘Who killed Melbourne 2030?’ Google Scholar

MOUFFE, C. (2005), On the Political, London, Routledge. On the Political Google Scholar

NEUMAN, M. (2012), ‘The image of the institution’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 78, 1-19. ‘The image of the institution’ Journal of the American Planning Association 78 1 19 Google Scholar

NIEMEYER, S. (2004), ‘Deliberation in the wilderness: displacing symbolic politics’, Environmental Politics, 13, 347-72. ‘Deliberation in the wilderness: displacing symbolic politics’ Environmental Politics 13 347 72 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

OOSTERLYNCK, S., VAN DEN BROECK, J., ALBRECHTS, L., MOULAERT, F. and VERHETSEL, A. (eds) (2011), Strategic Spatial Projects: Catalysts for Change, Abingdon, Routledge. Strategic Spatial Projects: Catalysts for Change Google Scholar

RYDIN, Y. (2007), ‘Re-examining the role of knowledge within planning theory’, Planning Theory, 6, 52-68. ‘Re-examining the role of knowledge within planning theory’ Planning Theory 6 52 68 Google Scholar

SANDERS, L. (1997), ‘Against deliberation’, Political Theory, 25, 1-17. ‘Against deliberation’ Political Theory 25 1 17 Google Scholar

SANDERCOCK, L. and FRIEDMANN, J. (2000), ‘Strategising the metropolis in a global era’, Urban Policy and Research, 18, 529-33. ‘Strategising the metropolis in a global era’ Urban Policy and Research 18 529 33 Google Scholar

SOLÉ-OLLÉ, A. and VILADECANS-MARSAL, E. (2012), ‘Lobbying, political competition, and local land supply: recent evidence from Spain’, Journal of Public Economics, 96, 10-19. ‘Lobbying, political competition, and local land supply: recent evidence from Spain’ Journal of Public Economics 96 10 19 Google Scholar

WAPC (WESTERN AUSTRALIAN PLANNING COMMISSION) (2001), Information Statement. Perth, Australia: Western Australian Planning Commission. Google Scholar

WAPC (WESTERN AUSTRALIAN PLANNING COMMISSION) (2004), Network City: Community Planning Strategy for Perth and Peel, Perth, Western Australian Planning Commission. Google Scholar

WAPC (WESTERN AUSTRALIAN PLANNING COMMISSION) (2005), Network City - A Milestone in Metropolitan Planning, Appendices, Perth, Western Australian Planning Commission. Google Scholar

WAPC (WESTERN AUSTRALIAN PLANNING COMMISSION) (2009), Directions 2031: A Draft Spatial Framework for Perth and Peel, Perth, Western Australian Planning Commission. Google Scholar

WAPC (WESTERN AUSTRALIAN PLANNING COMMISSION) (2010), Directions 2031 and Beyond: Metropolitan Planning Beyond the Horizon, Perth, Western Australian Planning Commission. Google Scholar

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Author details

Legacy, Crystal

Curtis, Carey

Neuman, Michael