Hunter Gatherer Research

Robustness assessment of the ‘cooperation under resource pressure’ (CURP) model

Insights on resource availability and sharing practices among hunter-gatherers

Hunter Gatherer Research (2019), 3, (3), 401–428.

Abstract

A well-known challenge in archaeological research is the exploration of the social mechanisms that hunter-gatherers may have implemented throughout history to deal with changes in resource availability. The agent-based model (ABM) ‘cooperation under resource pressure’ (CURP) was conceived to explore food stress episodes in societies lacking a food preservation technology. It was particularly aimed at understanding how cooperative behaviours in the form of food sharing practices emerge, increase and may become the prevailing strategy in relation to changes in resource availability and expectancy of reciprocity. CURP’s main outcome is the identification of three regimes of behaviour depending on the stress level. In this work, the model’s robustness to the original selection mechanism (random tournament) is assessed, as different dynamics can lead to different persistent regimes. For that purpose, three other selection mechanisms are implemented and evaluated, to identify the prevailing states of the system. Results show that the three regimes are robust irrespective of the analysed dynamics. We consequently examine in more detail the long-term archaeological implications that these results may have.

Access Token
£25.00

References

Aktipis, CA, Cronk, L & de Aguiar, R 2011. Risk-pooling and herd survival: an agent-based model of a Maasai gift-giving system. Human Ecology 39(2):131–140. Google Scholar

Alvard, MS 2001. Mutualistic hunting. In Stanford, C & Bunn, H (eds) The early human diet: the role of meat. Oxford: Oxford University Press:261–278. Google Scholar

Alvard, MS & Nolin, DA 2002. Rousseau’s whale hunt? Current Anthropology 43(4):533–559. Google Scholar

Ames, KM 1994. The northwest coast: complex hunter-gatherers, ecology, and social evolution. Annual Review of Anthropology 23:209–229. Google Scholar

Angourakis, A, Santos, JI, Galán, JM & Balbo, AL 2015. Food for all: an agent-based model to explore the emergence and implications of cooperation for food storage. Environmental Archaeology 20(4):349–363. Google Scholar

Axelrod, R 1986. An evolutionary approach to norms. American Political Science Review 80(4):1095–1111. Google Scholar

Axtell, R 2000. Why agents? On the varied motivations for agent computing in the social sciences. In Macal, CM & Sallach, D (eds) Proceedings of the workshop on agent simulation: applications, models, and tools. Argonne, IL: Centre on Social and Econmic Dynamics:3–24. Google Scholar

Bamforth, DB & Bleed, P 2008. Technology, flaked stone technology, and risk. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 7(1):109–139. Google Scholar

Barham, L & Mitchell, P 2008. The first Africans: African archaeology from the earliest toolmakers to most recent foragers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Bentley, RA, Hahn, MW & Shennan, SJ 2004. Random drift and culture change. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 271(1547):1443–1450. Google Scholar

Bhanu, BA 2014. Food sharing and distribution of resources among hunter-gatherers: a conceptual clarification. The Eastern Anthropologist 67(3–4):325–343. Google Scholar

Bicho, N & Haws, J 2008. At the land’s end: marine resources and the importance of fluctuations in the coastline in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer economy of Portugal. Quaternary Science Reviews 27(23–24):2166–2175. Google Scholar

Binford, LR 2001. Constructing frames of reference: an analytical method for archaeological theory building using ethnographic and environmental data sets. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Google Scholar

Bird, DW 1997. Delayed reciprocity and tolerated theft: the behavioral ecology of food-sharing strategies. Current Anthropology 38(1):49–78. Google Scholar

Bird, DW & O Connell, JF 2006. Behavioral ecology and archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Research 14(2):143–188. Google Scholar

Bliege Bird, R & Bird, DW 1997. Delayed reciprocity and tolerated theft: the behavioral ecology of food-sharing strategies Current Anthropology 38(1):49–78. Google Scholar

Blurton Jones, NG 1987. Tolerated theft, suggestions about the ecology and evolution of sharing, hoarding and scrounging. Social Science Information 26(1):31–54. Google Scholar

Borgerhoff Mulder, M & Schacht, R 2012. Human behavioural ecology. In Encyclopedia of life sciences. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Google Scholar

Bowles, S & Gintis, H 2004. The evolution of strong reciprocity: cooperation in heterogeneous populations. Theoretical Population Biology 65(1):17–28. Google Scholar

Briz i Godino, I, Santos, JI, Galán, JM, Caro, J, Álvarez, M & Zurro, D 2014. Social cooperation and resource management dynamics among late hunter-fisher-gatherer societies in Tierra del Fuego (South America). Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 21(2):343–363. Google Scholar

Bukach, D 2004. The Mesolithic-Neolithic transition on the Channel Islands: adopting agriculture in an emerging island landscape. Environmental Archaeology 9(2):155–162. Google Scholar

Byers, DA & Ugan, A 2005. Should we expect large game specialization in the late Pleistocene? An optimal foraging perspective on early Paleoindian prey choice. Journal of Archaeological Science 32(11):1624–1640. Google Scholar

Chapman, J 2008. Approaches to trade and exchange in earlier prehistory (Late Mesolithic–Early Bronze Age). In Jones, A (ed) Prehistoric Europe: theory and practice. Chichester: John Wiley:333–355. Google Scholar

Collings, P, Wenzel, G & Condon, R 1998. Modern food sharing networks and community integration in the central Canadian Arctic. Artic 51(4):301–314. Google Scholar

Damas, D 1996. Culture summary: Copper Inuit. New Haven, CT: HRAF. Google Scholar

Doebeli, M, Blarer, A & Ackermann, M 1997. Population dynamics, demographic stochasticity, and the evolution of cooperation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94(10):5167–5171. Google Scholar

Dyke, RM Van 1999. The Chaco connection: evaluating Bonito-style architecture in outlier communities. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 18(4):471–506. Google Scholar

Edmonds, B & Hales, D 2005. Computational simulation as theoretical experiment. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 29:209–232. Google Scholar

Enloe, J 2003. Food sharing past and present. Before Farming 2003(1):1–23. Google Scholar

Epstein, JM 1999. Agent-based computational models and generative social science, Complexity 4(5):41–60. Google Scholar

Erlandson, J & Rick, T 2008. Archaeology, marine ecology, and human impacts on marine environments. In Erlandson, J & Rick, TC (eds) Human impacts on ancient marine ecosystems: a global perspective. London: University of California Press:1–20. Google Scholar

Faith, JT & Surovell, TA 2009. Synchronous extinction of North America’s Pleistocene mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(49):20641–20645. Google Scholar

Field, JS 2008. Explaining fortifications in Indo-Pacific prehistory. Archaeology in Oceania 43(1):1–10. Google Scholar

Fitzhugh, B 2003. The evolution of complex hunter-gatherers. In Fitzhugh, B (ed) The evolution of complex hunter-gatherers. Boston, MA: Springer: 1–10. Google Scholar

Fortier, J 2001. Sharing, hoarding, and theft: exchange and resistance in forager-farmer relations. Ethnology 40(3):193–211. Google Scholar

Freeman, J & Anderies, JM 2012. Intensification, tipping points, and social change in a coupled forager-resource system. Human Nature 23(4):419–446. Google Scholar

Galán, JM & Izquierdo, LR 2005. Appearances can be deceiving: lessons learned re-implementing Axelrod’s ‘evolutionary approach to norms’. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 8(3), http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/8/3/2.html. Google Scholar

Galán, JM, Izquierdo, LR, Izquierdo, SS, Santos, JI, del Olmo, R & López-Paredes, A 2013. Checking simulations: detecting and avoiding errors and artefacts. In Edmonds, B & Meyer, R (eds) Simulating social complexity. Berlin: Springer:95–116. Google Scholar

Galán, JM, Izquierdo, LR, Izquierdo, SS, Santos, JI, del Olmo, R, López-Paredes, A & Edmonds, B 2009. Errors and artefacts in agent-based modelling. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 12(1), http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/12/1/1.html. Google Scholar

Gurven, M 2004. To give and to give not: the behavioral ecology of human food transfers. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27(4):543–559. Google Scholar

Gurven, M, Allen-Arave, W, Hill, K & Hurtado, M 2000. ‘It’s a wonderful life’: signaling generosity among the Ache of Paraguay. Evolution and Human Behavior 21(4):263–282. Google Scholar

Gusinde, M 1937. Die Feuerlenad Indianer. Die Yamana. Vom Leben und Denken der Wassernomaden am Kap Hoorn. Mödling: Verlag der Internationalen Zeitschrift Anthropos. Google Scholar

Hamilton, MJ, Burger, O, DeLong, JP, Walker, RS, Moses, ME & Brown, JH 2009. Population stability, cooperation, and the invasibility of the human species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(30):12255–12260. Google Scholar

Handwerker, WP 1983. The first demographic transition: an analysis of subsistence choices and reproductive consequences. American Anthropologist 85(1):5–27. Google Scholar

Hawkes, K 1991. Showing off. Ethology and Sociobiology 12(1):29–54. Google Scholar

Hayden, B 1972. Population control among hunter/gatherers. World Archaeology 4(2):205–221. Google Scholar

Hayden, B 1986. Resources, rivalry, and reproduction: the influence of basic resource characteristics on reproductive behavior. Culture and Reproduction. Boulder, CO: Westview Press:176–195. Google Scholar

Henrich, J, Boyd, R, Bowles, S, Camerer, C, Fehr, E, Gintis, H & McElreat, R 2001. In search of homo economicus: behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies. American Economic Review 91(2):73–78. Google Scholar

Hill, K 2002. Altruistic cooperation during foraging by the Ache, and the evolved human predisposition to cooperate. Human Nature 13(1):105–128. Google Scholar

Hoffecker, JF 2005. A prehistory of the north: human settlement of the higher latitudes. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Google Scholar

Horne, C 2009. The rewards of punishment: a relational theory of norm enforcement. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. Google Scholar

Horne, C & Cutlip, A 2002. Sanctioning costs and norm enforcement. Rationality and Society 14(3):285–307. Google Scholar

Izquierdo, L, Izquierdo, S & Vega-Redondo, F 2012. Learning and evolutionary game theory. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning 36(1988):1782–1788. Google Scholar

Janssen, MA & Hill, K 2014. Benefits of grouping and cooperative hunting among Ache hunter-gatherers: insights from an agent-based foraging model. Human Ecology 42(6): 823–835. Google Scholar

Johnson, GA 1982. Organizational structure and scalar stress. In Renfrew, C (ed) Theory and explanation in archaeology: the Southampton conference. New York: Academic Press:389–421. Google Scholar

Kägi, W 2001. The tragedy of the commons revisited: sharing as a means to avoid environmental ruin. In IWOE Discussion Paper 91. St Gallen: Institut für Wirtschaft und Ökologie. Google Scholar

Kameda, T, Takezawa, M & Hastie, R 2005. Where do social norms come from? Current Directions in Psychological Science 14(6):331–334. Google Scholar

Kaplan, H, Hill, K, Cadeliña, RV, Hayden, B, Hyndman, DC, Preston, RJ, Smith, EA, Stuart, DE & Yesner, DR 1985. Food sharing among Ache foragers: tests of explanatory hypotheses [and comments and reply]. Current Anthropology 26(2):223–246. Google Scholar

Kishigami, N 2004. A new typology of food-sharing practices among hunter-gatherers, with a special focus on Inuit examples. Journal of Anthropological Research 60(3): 341–358. Google Scholar

Kramer, KL & Greaves, RD 2011. Postmarital residence and bilateral kin associations among hunter-gatherers. Human Nature 22(1–2):41–63. Google Scholar

Lake, MW 2014. Trends in archaeological simulation. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 21(2):258–287. Google Scholar

Lancelotti, C, Zurro, D, Whitehouse, NJ, Kramer, KL, Madella, M, García-Granero, JJ & Greaves, RD 2016. Resilience of small-scale societies livelihoods: a framework for studying the transition from food gathering to food production. Ecology and Society 21(4), https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol21/iss4/art8/. Google Scholar

Larson, DO, Neff, H, Graybill, DA, Michaelsen, J & Ambos, E 1996. Risk, climatic variability, and the study of southwestern prehistory: an evolutionary perspective. American Antiquity 61(02):217–241. Google Scholar

Lévesque, C, De Juriew, D, Lussier, C & Trudeau, N 2000. Between abundance and scarcity: food and the institution of sharing among the inuit of the circumpolar region during the recent historical period. In Duhaime, G (ed) Sustainable food security in the Arctic: state of knowledge. Canada: CCIPress:103–115. Google Scholar

Lourandos, H 1997. Continent of hunter-gatherers: new perspectives in Australian prehistory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Lyman, RL & Wolverton, S 2002. The Late Prehistoric-Early Historic game sink in the Northwestern United States. Conservation Biology 16(1):73–85. Google Scholar

Lynch, M & Walsh, B 1998. Genetics and analysis of quantitative traits. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. Google Scholar

Marquet, PA, Santoro, CM, Latorre, C, Standen, VG, Abades, SR, Rivadeneira, MM, Arriaza, B & Hochberg, ME 2012. Emergence of social complexity among coastal hunter-gatherers in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(37):14754–14760. Google Scholar

Martin, PS & Szuter, CR 1999. War zones and game sinks in Lewis and Clark’s West. Conservation Biology 13(1):36–45. Google Scholar

Melis, AP & Semmann, D 2010. How is human cooperation different? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365(1553):2663–2674. Google Scholar

Meltzer, DJ 2015. Pleistocene overkill and North American mammalian extinctions. Annual Review of Anthropology 44:33–53. Google Scholar

Millstein, RL 2002. Are random drift and natural selection conceptually distinct? Biology & Philosophy 17(1):33–53. Google Scholar

Minc, LD & Smith, KP 1989. The spirit of survival: cultural responses to resource variability in North Alaska. In Halstead, P & O Shea, J (eds) Bad year economics: cultural responses to risk and uncertainty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:8–39. Google Scholar

Mitchell, M 1996. An introduction to genetic algorithms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Google Scholar

Morrison, AE & Addison, DJ 2008. Assessing the role of climate change and human predation on marine resources at the Fatu-ma-Futi site, Tutuila Island, American Samoa: an agent based model. Archaeology in Oceania 43(1):22–34. Google Scholar

Morrison, KD 1994. The intensification of production: archaeological approaches. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 1(2):111–159. Google Scholar

Munro, ND 2004. Zooarchaeological measures of hunting pressure and occupation intensity in the Natufian. Current Anthropology 45(S4):S5–S34. Google Scholar

Nelson, MC, Hegmon, M, Kulow, S & Schollmeyer, KG 2006. Archaeological and ecological perspectives on reorganization: a case study from the Mimbres Region of the US Southwest. American Antiquity 71(3):403–432. Google Scholar

Nettle, D, Gibson, MA, Lawson, DW & Sear, R 2013. Human behavioral ecology: current research and future prospects. Behavioral Ecology 24(5):1031–1040. Google Scholar

Nowak, MA, Sasaki, A, Taylor, C & Fudenberg, D 2004. Emergence of cooperation and evolutionary stability in finite populations. Nature 428(6983):646–650. Google Scholar

Patton, JQ 2005. Meat sharing for coalitional support. Evolution and Human Behavior 26(2):137–157. Google Scholar

Pereda, M, Santos, JI & Galán, JM 2017. A brief introduction to the use of machine learning techniques in the analysis of agent-based models. In Hernández, C (ed) Advances in Management Engineering. Cham: Springer:179–186. Google Scholar

Pereda, M, Zurro, D, Santos, JI, Briz i Godino, I, Álvarez, M, Caro, J & Galán, JM 2017. Emergence and evolution of cooperation under resource pressure. Scientific Reports 7:45574, https://www.nature.com/articles/srep45574. Google Scholar

Pérez-Losada, J & Fort, J 2011. Spatial dimensions increase the effect of cultural drift. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(6):1294–1299. Google Scholar

Rautman, AE 1993. Resource variability, risk, and the structure of social networks: an example from the Prehistoric Southwest, American Antiquity 58(3):403–424. Google Scholar

Ryan, P & Rosen, A 2016. Managing risk through diversification in plant exploitation during the seventh millennium BC, the phytolith record at Çatalhöyük. In Biehl, PF & Nieuwenhuyse, OP (eds) Climate and cultural change in Prehistoric Europe and the Near East, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press:117–134. Google Scholar

Sandholm, WH 2010. Population games and evolutionary dynamics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Google Scholar

Schurr, MR & Schoeninger, MJ 1995. Associations between agricultural intensification and social complexity: an example from the prehistoric Ohio Valley. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14(3):315–339. Google Scholar

Smaldino, PE, Newson, L, Schank, JC & Richerson, PJ 2013. Simulating the evolution of the human family: cooperative breeding increases in harsh environments. PLoS ONE 8(11): e80753, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080753. Google Scholar

Smith, CS 2003. Hunter-gatherer mobility, storage, and houses in a marginal environment: an example from the mid-Holocene of Wyoming. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 22(2):162–189. Google Scholar

Smith, PEL 1972. Changes in population pressure in archaeological explanation. World Archaeology 4(1):5–18. Google Scholar

Speth, JD 2004. Hunting pressure, subsistence intensification, and demographic change in the Levantine Late Middle Paleolithic. In Goren-Inbar, N & Speth, JD (eds) Human Paleoecology in the Levantine Corridor. Oxford: Oxbow Books:149–166. Google Scholar

Stiner, MC, Barkai, R & Gopher, A 2009. Cooperative hunting and meat sharing 400–200 kya at Qesem Cave, Israel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(32):13207–13212. Google Scholar

Takahashi, N 2000. The emergence of generalized exchange. American Journal of Sociology 105(4):1105–1134. Google Scholar

Testart, A, Forbis, RG, Hayden, B, Ingold, T, Perlman, SM, Pokotylo, DL, Rowley-Conwy, P & Stuart, DE 1982. The significance of food storage among hunter-gatherers: residence patterns, population densities, and social inequalities. Current Anthropology [University of Chicago Press, Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research] 23(5):523–537. Google Scholar

Theler, JL & Boszhardt, RF 2006. Collapse of crucial resources and culture change: a model for the woodland to Oneota transformation in the Upper Midwest. American Antiquity 71(3):433–472. Google Scholar

Verhagen, P & Whitley, TG 2012. Integrating archaeological theory and predictive modeling: a live report from the scene. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 19(1):49–100. Google Scholar

Villotte, S, Churchill, SE, Dutour, OJ & Henry-Gambier, D 2010. Subsistence activities and the sexual division of labor in the European Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic: evidence from upper limb enthesopathies. Journal of Human Evolution 59(1):35–43. Google Scholar

Weiss, E, Wetterstrom, W, Nadel, D & Bar-Yosef, O 2004. The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(26):9551–9555. Google Scholar

Whallon, R 1989. Elements of cultural change in the Later Paleolithic. In Mellars, P & Stringer, C (eds) The human revolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press:433–454. Google Scholar

Whelan, CS, Whitaker, AR, Rosenthal, SJ & Wohlgemuth, E 2013. Hunter-gatherer storage, settlement, and the opportunity costs of women’s foraging. American Antiquity 78(4):662–678. Google Scholar

White, P, Bowdler, S, Kuhn, S, McNiven, I, Shott, M, Veth, P & White, P 2011. Forum: backed artefacts: useful socially and operationally. Australian Archaeology 72(1):67–75. Google Scholar

Whitley, TG 2016. Archaeological simulation and the testing paradigm. In Burg, MB, Peeters, H & Lovis, WA (eds) Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in archaeological computational modeling. Cham: Springer:131–156. Google Scholar

Wilensky, U 1999. NetLogo. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University, http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/. Google Scholar

Williams, AN, Ulm, S, Turney, CSM, Rohde, D & White, G 2015. Holocene demographic changes and the emergence of complex societies in Prehistoric Australia. PLOS ONE 10(6):e0128661, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128661. Google Scholar

Winterhalder, B 1986. Diet choice, risk, and food sharing in a stochastic environment. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 5(4):369–392. Google Scholar

Winterhalder, B 1990. Open field, common pot: harvest variability and risk avoidance in agricultural and foraging societies. In Cashdan, EA (ed) Risk and uncertainty in tribal and peasant economies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press:67–87. Google Scholar

Winterhalder, B 1996. A marginal model of tolerated theft. Ethology and Sociobiology 17(1):37–53. Google Scholar

Witherspoon, G 1975. Navajo kinship and marriage. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar

Wohlgemuth, E 1996. Resource intensification in prehistoric Central California: evidence from archaeobotanical data. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 18(1):81–103. Google Scholar

Wurzer, G, Kowarik, K & Reschreiter, H 2015. Agent-based modeling and simulation in archaeology. Vienna: Springer. Google Scholar

Zeder, MA 2008. Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: origins, diffusion, and impact. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(33):11597–11604. Google Scholar

Zeder, MA 2012. The broad spectrum revolution at 40: resource diversity, intensification, and an alternative to optimal foraging explanations. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 31(3):241–264. Google Scholar

Ziker, JP 2014. Sharing, subsistence, and social norms in Northern Siberia. In Ensminger, J & Henrich, J (eds) Experimenting with social norms: fairness and punishment in cross-cultural perspective. New York: Russel Sage Foundation:337–356. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here