Town Planning Review

Re-connecting ‘people and planning’: parish plans and the English localism agenda

Town Planning Review (2013), 84, (3), 371–396.

Abstract

This article examines the influence that community groups are able to exert over planning policy, framing a local analysis of engagement between parish councils and local planning authorities in England within a broader view of collaborative rationality and communication through formal and informal networks. The article focuses on how the ‘neighbourhood’-based networks of community action reach out and connect to formal policy actors, arguing that the connectivity achieved by parish planning groups and local government prior to the enactment of the Localism Act 2011 gives a strong indication of how future neighbourhood planning in England will function.

Re-connecting ‘people and planning’: parish plans and the English localism agenda

Abstract

This article examines the influence that community groups are able to exert over planning policy, framing a local analysis of engagement between parish councils and local planning authorities in England within a broader view of collaborative rationality and communication through formal and informal networks. The article focuses on how the ‘neighbourhood’-based networks of community action reach out and connect to formal policy actors, arguing that the connectivity achieved by parish planning groups and local government prior to the enactment of the Localism Act 2011 gives a strong indication of how future neighbourhood planning in England will function.

BEEM, C. (1999) The Necessity of Politics: Reclaiming American Public Life, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. The Necessity of Politics: Reclaiming American Public Life Google Scholar

BIANCONI, M., HAMIDUDDIN, I. and GALLENT, N. (2012), Local Empowerment and Strategic Co-ordination: A Review of Changing Practices in Infrastructure Planning at the Sub-regional level in England (FiBRE - Findings in Built and Rural Environments), London, RICS Education Trust. Local Empowerment and Strategic Co-ordination: A Review of Changing Practices in Infrastructure Planning at the Sub-regional level in England Google Scholar

BOOHER, D. and INNES, J. (2002), ‘Network power in collaborative planning’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21, 221-36. ‘Network power in collaborative planning’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 21 221 36 Google Scholar

CABINET OFFICE (2010), The Coalition: Our Programme for Government, London, The Stationery Office. Google Scholar

CARLEY, M., CHAPMAN, M., HASTINGS, A., KIRK, K. and YOUNG, R. (2000), Urban Regeneration through Partnership: A Study in Nine Urban Regions in England, Scotland and Wales, Bristol, Policy Press. Urban Regeneration through Partnership: A Study in Nine Urban Regions in England, Scotland and Wales Google Scholar

CONSERVATIVE PARTY (2009), Control Shift: Returning Power to Local Communities, London, the Conservative Party. Google Scholar

DAVIES, J. S. (2008), ‘Double-devolution or double-dealing? The local government White Paper and the Lyons Review’, Local Government Studies, 34, 3-22. ‘Double-devolution or double-dealing? The local government White Paper and the Lyons Review’ Local Government Studies 34 3 22 Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2008), Communities in Control: Real People, Real Power, London, DCLG. Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2011), A Plain English Guide to the Localism Act, London, DCLG. Google Scholar

DOAK, J. and PARKER, G. (2005), ‘Meaningful space? The challenge and meaning of participation and new spatial planning in England’, Planning Practice & Research, 20, 23-40. ‘Meaningful space? The challenge and meaning of participation and new spatial planning in England’ Planning Practice & Research 20 23 40 Google Scholar

DTLR (DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND THE REGIONS) (1998), Modern Local Government: In Touch with the People, London, DTLR. Google Scholar

FALK, I. and KILPATRICK, S. (2000), ‘What is social capital? A study of interaction in a rural community’, Sociologia Ruralis, 40, 87-110. ‘What is social capital? A study of interaction in a rural community’ Sociologia Ruralis 40 87 110 Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1989), Planning in the Face of Power, Berkeley, University of California Press. Planning in the Face of Power Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1999), The Deliberative Practitioner: Encouraging Participatory Planning Processes, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press The Deliberative Practitioner: Encouraging Participatory Planning Processes Google Scholar

FOUCAULT, M. (1982), ‘The subject and power’, Critical Inquiry, 8, 777-95. ‘The subject and power’ Critical Inquiry 8 777 95 Google Scholar

GALLENT, N., HAMIDUDDIN, I. and MADEDDU, M. (2011), Selecting and Allocating Sites for Housing Development: Politics, Expedient Sites, Regional Planning and Localism (FiBRE - Findings in Built and Rural Environments), London, RICS Foundation. Selecting and Allocating Sites for Housing Development: Politics, Expedient Sites, Regional Planning and Localism Google Scholar

GOSE (GOVERNMENT OFFICE FOR THE SOUTH EAST) (2009), The South East Plan (South East Regional Spatial Strategy), Guildford, GOSE. Google Scholar

GRANOVETTER, M. (1973), ‘The strength of weak ties’, American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360-80. ‘The strength of weak ties’ American Journal of Sociology 78 1360 80 Google Scholar

HABERMAS, J. (1984), The Theory of Communicative Action: Part 1: Reason and the Rationalization of Society, Boston, MA, Beacon. The Theory of Communicative Action: Part 1: Reason and the Rationalization of Society Google Scholar

HAUGHTON, G. (2012), ‘Planning and growth’, in M. Ward and S. Hardy (eds), Changing Gear? Is Localism the New Regionalism, London, the Smith Institute and the Regional Studies Association, 96-107 Changing Gear? Is Localism the New Regionalism 96 107 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1997), Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies, Macmillan, Basingstoke. Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies Google Scholar

INNES, J. (1995), ‘Planning theory's emerging paradigm: communicative action and interactive practice’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 14, 183-89. ‘Planning theory's emerging paradigm: communicative action and interactive practice’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 14 183 89 Google Scholar

INNES, J. (2004), ‘Consensus building: clarifications for the critics’, Planning Theory, 3, 5-20. ‘Consensus building: clarifications for the critics’ Planning Theory 3 5 20 Google Scholar

INNES, J. and BOOHER, D. (2003), The Impact of Collaborative Planning on Governance Capacity, Berkeley, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California. The Impact of Collaborative Planning on Governance Capacity Google Scholar

INNES, J. and BOOHER, D. (2004), ‘Reframing public participation: strategies for the 21st century’, Planning Theory and Practice, 5, 419-36. ‘Reframing public participation: strategies for the 21st century’ Planning Theory and Practice 5 419 36 Google Scholar

MARSH, D. and RHODES, R. (1992), ‘Policy networks in British politics: a critique of existing approaches’, in D. Marsh and R. Rhodes (eds), Policy Networks in British Government, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1-26. Policy Networks in British Government 1 26 Google Scholar

MARSH, D., TOKE, D., BELFRAGE, C., TEPE, D. and MCGOUGH, S. (2009), ‘Policy networks and the distinction between insider and outsider groups: the case of the Countryside Alliance’, Public Administration, 87, 621-38. ‘Policy networks and the distinction between insider and outsider groups: the case of the Countryside Alliance’ Public Administration 87 621 38 Google Scholar

MISZTAL, B. A. (1996), Trust in Modern Societies: The Search for the Bases of Social Order, Cambridge, Polity Press. Trust in Modern Societies: The Search for the Bases of Social Order Google Scholar

MORPHET, J. (2004), ‘The new localism’, Town and Country Planning, 73, 291-93. ‘The new localism’ Town and Country Planning 73 291 93 Google Scholar

MOSELEY, M. (2000), ‘England's village services in the 1990s: entrepreneurialism, community involvement and the state’, Town Planning Review, 74, 415-33. ‘England's village services in the 1990s: entrepreneurialism, community involvement and the state’ Town Planning Review 74 415 33 Google Scholar

MOSELEY, M. (2002), ‘Bottom-up village action plans: some experience in rural England’, Planning Practice & Research, 17, 387-405. ‘Bottom-up village action plans: some experience in rural England’ Planning Practice & Research 17 387 405 Google Scholar

NADIN, V. (2007), ‘The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England’, Planning Practice & Research, 22, 43-62. ‘The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England’ Planning Practice & Research 22 43 62 Google Scholar

OWEN, S. (2002), ‘From village design statements to parish plans: some pointers towards community decision-making in the planning system in England’, Planning Practice & Research, 17, 81-89. ‘From village design statements to parish plans: some pointers towards community decision-making in the planning system in England’ Planning Practice & Research 17 81 89 Google Scholar

OWEN, S., MOSELEY, M. and COURTNEY, P. (2007), ‘Bridging the gap: an attempt to reconcile strategic planning and very local community-based planning in rural England’, Local Government Studies, 33, 49-76. ‘Bridging the gap: an attempt to reconcile strategic planning and very local community-based planning in rural England’ Local Government Studies 33 49 76 Google Scholar

PUTNAM, R. (2000), Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, New York, Simon & Schuster. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community Google Scholar

RACO, M. (2007), Building Sustainable Communities: Spatial Policy and Labour Mobility in Post-war Britain, Bristol, Policy Press. Building Sustainable Communities: Spatial Policy and Labour Mobility in Post-war Britain Google Scholar

SARKISSIAN, W., HURFORD, D. and WENMAN, C. (2010), Creative Community Planning: Transformative Engagement Methods for Working at the Edge, London, Earthscan. Creative Community Planning: Transformative Engagement Methods for Working at the Edge Google Scholar

SELMAN, P. (2001), ‘Social capital, sustainability and environmental planning’, Planning Theory & Practice, 2, 13-30. ‘Social capital, sustainability and environmental planning’ Planning Theory & Practice 2 13 30 Google Scholar

STURZAKER, J. (2011), ‘Can community empowerment reduce opposition to housing? Evidence from rural England’, Planning Practice & Research, 26, 555-70. ‘Can community empowerment reduce opposition to housing? Evidence from rural England’ Planning Practice & Research 26 555 70 Google Scholar

WILSON, P. (1997), ‘Building social capital: a learning agenda for the twenty-first century’, Urban Studies, 34, 745-60. ‘Building social capital: a learning agenda for the twenty-first century’ Urban Studies 34 745 60 Google Scholar

BEEM, C. (1999) The Necessity of Politics: Reclaiming American Public Life, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. The Necessity of Politics: Reclaiming American Public Life Google Scholar

BIANCONI, M., HAMIDUDDIN, I. and GALLENT, N. (2012), Local Empowerment and Strategic Co-ordination: A Review of Changing Practices in Infrastructure Planning at the Sub-regional level in England (FiBRE - Findings in Built and Rural Environments), London, RICS Education Trust. Local Empowerment and Strategic Co-ordination: A Review of Changing Practices in Infrastructure Planning at the Sub-regional level in England Google Scholar

BOOHER, D. and INNES, J. (2002), ‘Network power in collaborative planning’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21, 221-36. ‘Network power in collaborative planning’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 21 221 36 Google Scholar

CABINET OFFICE (2010), The Coalition: Our Programme for Government, London, The Stationery Office. Google Scholar

CARLEY, M., CHAPMAN, M., HASTINGS, A., KIRK, K. and YOUNG, R. (2000), Urban Regeneration through Partnership: A Study in Nine Urban Regions in England, Scotland and Wales, Bristol, Policy Press. Urban Regeneration through Partnership: A Study in Nine Urban Regions in England, Scotland and Wales Google Scholar

CONSERVATIVE PARTY (2009), Control Shift: Returning Power to Local Communities, London, the Conservative Party. Google Scholar

DAVIES, J. S. (2008), ‘Double-devolution or double-dealing? The local government White Paper and the Lyons Review’, Local Government Studies, 34, 3-22. ‘Double-devolution or double-dealing? The local government White Paper and the Lyons Review’ Local Government Studies 34 3 22 Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2008), Communities in Control: Real People, Real Power, London, DCLG. Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2011), A Plain English Guide to the Localism Act, London, DCLG. Google Scholar

DOAK, J. and PARKER, G. (2005), ‘Meaningful space? The challenge and meaning of participation and new spatial planning in England’, Planning Practice & Research, 20, 23-40. ‘Meaningful space? The challenge and meaning of participation and new spatial planning in England’ Planning Practice & Research 20 23 40 Google Scholar

DTLR (DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND THE REGIONS) (1998), Modern Local Government: In Touch with the People, London, DTLR. Google Scholar

FALK, I. and KILPATRICK, S. (2000), ‘What is social capital? A study of interaction in a rural community’, Sociologia Ruralis, 40, 87-110. ‘What is social capital? A study of interaction in a rural community’ Sociologia Ruralis 40 87 110 Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1989), Planning in the Face of Power, Berkeley, University of California Press. Planning in the Face of Power Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1999), The Deliberative Practitioner: Encouraging Participatory Planning Processes, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press The Deliberative Practitioner: Encouraging Participatory Planning Processes Google Scholar

FOUCAULT, M. (1982), ‘The subject and power’, Critical Inquiry, 8, 777-95. ‘The subject and power’ Critical Inquiry 8 777 95 Google Scholar

GALLENT, N., HAMIDUDDIN, I. and MADEDDU, M. (2011), Selecting and Allocating Sites for Housing Development: Politics, Expedient Sites, Regional Planning and Localism (FiBRE - Findings in Built and Rural Environments), London, RICS Foundation. Selecting and Allocating Sites for Housing Development: Politics, Expedient Sites, Regional Planning and Localism Google Scholar

GOSE (GOVERNMENT OFFICE FOR THE SOUTH EAST) (2009), The South East Plan (South East Regional Spatial Strategy), Guildford, GOSE. Google Scholar

GRANOVETTER, M. (1973), ‘The strength of weak ties’, American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360-80. ‘The strength of weak ties’ American Journal of Sociology 78 1360 80 Google Scholar

HABERMAS, J. (1984), The Theory of Communicative Action: Part 1: Reason and the Rationalization of Society, Boston, MA, Beacon. The Theory of Communicative Action: Part 1: Reason and the Rationalization of Society Google Scholar

HAUGHTON, G. (2012), ‘Planning and growth’, in M. Ward and S. Hardy (eds), Changing Gear? Is Localism the New Regionalism, London, the Smith Institute and the Regional Studies Association, 96-107 Changing Gear? Is Localism the New Regionalism 96 107 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1997), Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies, Macmillan, Basingstoke. Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies Google Scholar

INNES, J. (1995), ‘Planning theory's emerging paradigm: communicative action and interactive practice’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 14, 183-89. ‘Planning theory's emerging paradigm: communicative action and interactive practice’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 14 183 89 Google Scholar

INNES, J. (2004), ‘Consensus building: clarifications for the critics’, Planning Theory, 3, 5-20. ‘Consensus building: clarifications for the critics’ Planning Theory 3 5 20 Google Scholar

INNES, J. and BOOHER, D. (2003), The Impact of Collaborative Planning on Governance Capacity, Berkeley, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California. The Impact of Collaborative Planning on Governance Capacity Google Scholar

INNES, J. and BOOHER, D. (2004), ‘Reframing public participation: strategies for the 21st century’, Planning Theory and Practice, 5, 419-36. ‘Reframing public participation: strategies for the 21st century’ Planning Theory and Practice 5 419 36 Google Scholar

MARSH, D. and RHODES, R. (1992), ‘Policy networks in British politics: a critique of existing approaches’, in D. Marsh and R. Rhodes (eds), Policy Networks in British Government, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1-26. Policy Networks in British Government 1 26 Google Scholar

MARSH, D., TOKE, D., BELFRAGE, C., TEPE, D. and MCGOUGH, S. (2009), ‘Policy networks and the distinction between insider and outsider groups: the case of the Countryside Alliance’, Public Administration, 87, 621-38. ‘Policy networks and the distinction between insider and outsider groups: the case of the Countryside Alliance’ Public Administration 87 621 38 Google Scholar

MISZTAL, B. A. (1996), Trust in Modern Societies: The Search for the Bases of Social Order, Cambridge, Polity Press. Trust in Modern Societies: The Search for the Bases of Social Order Google Scholar

MORPHET, J. (2004), ‘The new localism’, Town and Country Planning, 73, 291-93. ‘The new localism’ Town and Country Planning 73 291 93 Google Scholar

MOSELEY, M. (2000), ‘England's village services in the 1990s: entrepreneurialism, community involvement and the state’, Town Planning Review, 74, 415-33. ‘England's village services in the 1990s: entrepreneurialism, community involvement and the state’ Town Planning Review 74 415 33 Google Scholar

MOSELEY, M. (2002), ‘Bottom-up village action plans: some experience in rural England’, Planning Practice & Research, 17, 387-405. ‘Bottom-up village action plans: some experience in rural England’ Planning Practice & Research 17 387 405 Google Scholar

NADIN, V. (2007), ‘The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England’, Planning Practice & Research, 22, 43-62. ‘The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England’ Planning Practice & Research 22 43 62 Google Scholar

OWEN, S. (2002), ‘From village design statements to parish plans: some pointers towards community decision-making in the planning system in England’, Planning Practice & Research, 17, 81-89. ‘From village design statements to parish plans: some pointers towards community decision-making in the planning system in England’ Planning Practice & Research 17 81 89 Google Scholar

OWEN, S., MOSELEY, M. and COURTNEY, P. (2007), ‘Bridging the gap: an attempt to reconcile strategic planning and very local community-based planning in rural England’, Local Government Studies, 33, 49-76. ‘Bridging the gap: an attempt to reconcile strategic planning and very local community-based planning in rural England’ Local Government Studies 33 49 76 Google Scholar

PUTNAM, R. (2000), Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, New York, Simon & Schuster. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community Google Scholar

RACO, M. (2007), Building Sustainable Communities: Spatial Policy and Labour Mobility in Post-war Britain, Bristol, Policy Press. Building Sustainable Communities: Spatial Policy and Labour Mobility in Post-war Britain Google Scholar

SARKISSIAN, W., HURFORD, D. and WENMAN, C. (2010), Creative Community Planning: Transformative Engagement Methods for Working at the Edge, London, Earthscan. Creative Community Planning: Transformative Engagement Methods for Working at the Edge Google Scholar

SELMAN, P. (2001), ‘Social capital, sustainability and environmental planning’, Planning Theory & Practice, 2, 13-30. ‘Social capital, sustainability and environmental planning’ Planning Theory & Practice 2 13 30 Google Scholar

STURZAKER, J. (2011), ‘Can community empowerment reduce opposition to housing? Evidence from rural England’, Planning Practice & Research, 26, 555-70. ‘Can community empowerment reduce opposition to housing? Evidence from rural England’ Planning Practice & Research 26 555 70 Google Scholar

WILSON, P. (1997), ‘Building social capital: a learning agenda for the twenty-first century’, Urban Studies, 34, 745-60. ‘Building social capital: a learning agenda for the twenty-first century’ Urban Studies 34 745 60 Google Scholar

BEEM, C. (1999) The Necessity of Politics: Reclaiming American Public Life, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. The Necessity of Politics: Reclaiming American Public Life Google Scholar

BIANCONI, M., HAMIDUDDIN, I. and GALLENT, N. (2012), Local Empowerment and Strategic Co-ordination: A Review of Changing Practices in Infrastructure Planning at the Sub-regional level in England (FiBRE - Findings in Built and Rural Environments), London, RICS Education Trust. Local Empowerment and Strategic Co-ordination: A Review of Changing Practices in Infrastructure Planning at the Sub-regional level in England Google Scholar

BOOHER, D. and INNES, J. (2002), ‘Network power in collaborative planning’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21, 221-36. ‘Network power in collaborative planning’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 21 221 36 Google Scholar

CABINET OFFICE (2010), The Coalition: Our Programme for Government, London, The Stationery Office. Google Scholar

CARLEY, M., CHAPMAN, M., HASTINGS, A., KIRK, K. and YOUNG, R. (2000), Urban Regeneration through Partnership: A Study in Nine Urban Regions in England, Scotland and Wales, Bristol, Policy Press. Urban Regeneration through Partnership: A Study in Nine Urban Regions in England, Scotland and Wales Google Scholar

CONSERVATIVE PARTY (2009), Control Shift: Returning Power to Local Communities, London, the Conservative Party. Google Scholar

DAVIES, J. S. (2008), ‘Double-devolution or double-dealing? The local government White Paper and the Lyons Review’, Local Government Studies, 34, 3-22. ‘Double-devolution or double-dealing? The local government White Paper and the Lyons Review’ Local Government Studies 34 3 22 Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2008), Communities in Control: Real People, Real Power, London, DCLG. Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2011), A Plain English Guide to the Localism Act, London, DCLG. Google Scholar

DOAK, J. and PARKER, G. (2005), ‘Meaningful space? The challenge and meaning of participation and new spatial planning in England’, Planning Practice & Research, 20, 23-40. ‘Meaningful space? The challenge and meaning of participation and new spatial planning in England’ Planning Practice & Research 20 23 40 Google Scholar

DTLR (DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND THE REGIONS) (1998), Modern Local Government: In Touch with the People, London, DTLR. Google Scholar

FALK, I. and KILPATRICK, S. (2000), ‘What is social capital? A study of interaction in a rural community’, Sociologia Ruralis, 40, 87-110. ‘What is social capital? A study of interaction in a rural community’ Sociologia Ruralis 40 87 110 Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1989), Planning in the Face of Power, Berkeley, University of California Press. Planning in the Face of Power Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1999), The Deliberative Practitioner: Encouraging Participatory Planning Processes, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press The Deliberative Practitioner: Encouraging Participatory Planning Processes Google Scholar

FOUCAULT, M. (1982), ‘The subject and power’, Critical Inquiry, 8, 777-95. ‘The subject and power’ Critical Inquiry 8 777 95 Google Scholar

GALLENT, N., HAMIDUDDIN, I. and MADEDDU, M. (2011), Selecting and Allocating Sites for Housing Development: Politics, Expedient Sites, Regional Planning and Localism (FiBRE - Findings in Built and Rural Environments), London, RICS Foundation. Selecting and Allocating Sites for Housing Development: Politics, Expedient Sites, Regional Planning and Localism Google Scholar

GOSE (GOVERNMENT OFFICE FOR THE SOUTH EAST) (2009), The South East Plan (South East Regional Spatial Strategy), Guildford, GOSE. Google Scholar

GRANOVETTER, M. (1973), ‘The strength of weak ties’, American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360-80. ‘The strength of weak ties’ American Journal of Sociology 78 1360 80 Google Scholar

HABERMAS, J. (1984), The Theory of Communicative Action: Part 1: Reason and the Rationalization of Society, Boston, MA, Beacon. The Theory of Communicative Action: Part 1: Reason and the Rationalization of Society Google Scholar

HAUGHTON, G. (2012), ‘Planning and growth’, in M. Ward and S. Hardy (eds), Changing Gear? Is Localism the New Regionalism, London, the Smith Institute and the Regional Studies Association, 96-107 Changing Gear? Is Localism the New Regionalism 96 107 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1997), Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies, Macmillan, Basingstoke. Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies Google Scholar

INNES, J. (1995), ‘Planning theory's emerging paradigm: communicative action and interactive practice’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 14, 183-89. ‘Planning theory's emerging paradigm: communicative action and interactive practice’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 14 183 89 Google Scholar

INNES, J. (2004), ‘Consensus building: clarifications for the critics’, Planning Theory, 3, 5-20. ‘Consensus building: clarifications for the critics’ Planning Theory 3 5 20 Google Scholar

INNES, J. and BOOHER, D. (2003), The Impact of Collaborative Planning on Governance Capacity, Berkeley, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California. The Impact of Collaborative Planning on Governance Capacity Google Scholar

INNES, J. and BOOHER, D. (2004), ‘Reframing public participation: strategies for the 21st century’, Planning Theory and Practice, 5, 419-36. ‘Reframing public participation: strategies for the 21st century’ Planning Theory and Practice 5 419 36 Google Scholar

MARSH, D. and RHODES, R. (1992), ‘Policy networks in British politics: a critique of existing approaches’, in D. Marsh and R. Rhodes (eds), Policy Networks in British Government, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1-26. Policy Networks in British Government 1 26 Google Scholar

MARSH, D., TOKE, D., BELFRAGE, C., TEPE, D. and MCGOUGH, S. (2009), ‘Policy networks and the distinction between insider and outsider groups: the case of the Countryside Alliance’, Public Administration, 87, 621-38. ‘Policy networks and the distinction between insider and outsider groups: the case of the Countryside Alliance’ Public Administration 87 621 38 Google Scholar

MISZTAL, B. A. (1996), Trust in Modern Societies: The Search for the Bases of Social Order, Cambridge, Polity Press. Trust in Modern Societies: The Search for the Bases of Social Order Google Scholar

MORPHET, J. (2004), ‘The new localism’, Town and Country Planning, 73, 291-93. ‘The new localism’ Town and Country Planning 73 291 93 Google Scholar

MOSELEY, M. (2000), ‘England's village services in the 1990s: entrepreneurialism, community involvement and the state’, Town Planning Review, 74, 415-33. ‘England's village services in the 1990s: entrepreneurialism, community involvement and the state’ Town Planning Review 74 415 33 Google Scholar

MOSELEY, M. (2002), ‘Bottom-up village action plans: some experience in rural England’, Planning Practice & Research, 17, 387-405. ‘Bottom-up village action plans: some experience in rural England’ Planning Practice & Research 17 387 405 Google Scholar

NADIN, V. (2007), ‘The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England’, Planning Practice & Research, 22, 43-62. ‘The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England’ Planning Practice & Research 22 43 62 Google Scholar

OWEN, S. (2002), ‘From village design statements to parish plans: some pointers towards community decision-making in the planning system in England’, Planning Practice & Research, 17, 81-89. ‘From village design statements to parish plans: some pointers towards community decision-making in the planning system in England’ Planning Practice & Research 17 81 89 Google Scholar

OWEN, S., MOSELEY, M. and COURTNEY, P. (2007), ‘Bridging the gap: an attempt to reconcile strategic planning and very local community-based planning in rural England’, Local Government Studies, 33, 49-76. ‘Bridging the gap: an attempt to reconcile strategic planning and very local community-based planning in rural England’ Local Government Studies 33 49 76 Google Scholar

PUTNAM, R. (2000), Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, New York, Simon & Schuster. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community Google Scholar

RACO, M. (2007), Building Sustainable Communities: Spatial Policy and Labour Mobility in Post-war Britain, Bristol, Policy Press. Building Sustainable Communities: Spatial Policy and Labour Mobility in Post-war Britain Google Scholar

SARKISSIAN, W., HURFORD, D. and WENMAN, C. (2010), Creative Community Planning: Transformative Engagement Methods for Working at the Edge, London, Earthscan. Creative Community Planning: Transformative Engagement Methods for Working at the Edge Google Scholar

SELMAN, P. (2001), ‘Social capital, sustainability and environmental planning’, Planning Theory & Practice, 2, 13-30. ‘Social capital, sustainability and environmental planning’ Planning Theory & Practice 2 13 30 Google Scholar

STURZAKER, J. (2011), ‘Can community empowerment reduce opposition to housing? Evidence from rural England’, Planning Practice & Research, 26, 555-70. ‘Can community empowerment reduce opposition to housing? Evidence from rural England’ Planning Practice & Research 26 555 70 Google Scholar

WILSON, P. (1997), ‘Building social capital: a learning agenda for the twenty-first century’, Urban Studies, 34, 745-60. ‘Building social capital: a learning agenda for the twenty-first century’ Urban Studies 34 745 60 Google Scholar

BEEM, C. (1999) The Necessity of Politics: Reclaiming American Public Life, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. The Necessity of Politics: Reclaiming American Public Life Google Scholar

BIANCONI, M., HAMIDUDDIN, I. and GALLENT, N. (2012), Local Empowerment and Strategic Co-ordination: A Review of Changing Practices in Infrastructure Planning at the Sub-regional level in England (FiBRE - Findings in Built and Rural Environments), London, RICS Education Trust. Local Empowerment and Strategic Co-ordination: A Review of Changing Practices in Infrastructure Planning at the Sub-regional level in England Google Scholar

BOOHER, D. and INNES, J. (2002), ‘Network power in collaborative planning’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21, 221-36. ‘Network power in collaborative planning’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 21 221 36 Google Scholar

CABINET OFFICE (2010), The Coalition: Our Programme for Government, London, The Stationery Office. Google Scholar

CARLEY, M., CHAPMAN, M., HASTINGS, A., KIRK, K. and YOUNG, R. (2000), Urban Regeneration through Partnership: A Study in Nine Urban Regions in England, Scotland and Wales, Bristol, Policy Press. Urban Regeneration through Partnership: A Study in Nine Urban Regions in England, Scotland and Wales Google Scholar

CONSERVATIVE PARTY (2009), Control Shift: Returning Power to Local Communities, London, the Conservative Party. Google Scholar

DAVIES, J. S. (2008), ‘Double-devolution or double-dealing? The local government White Paper and the Lyons Review’, Local Government Studies, 34, 3-22. ‘Double-devolution or double-dealing? The local government White Paper and the Lyons Review’ Local Government Studies 34 3 22 Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2008), Communities in Control: Real People, Real Power, London, DCLG. Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2011), A Plain English Guide to the Localism Act, London, DCLG. Google Scholar

DOAK, J. and PARKER, G. (2005), ‘Meaningful space? The challenge and meaning of participation and new spatial planning in England’, Planning Practice & Research, 20, 23-40. ‘Meaningful space? The challenge and meaning of participation and new spatial planning in England’ Planning Practice & Research 20 23 40 Google Scholar

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Gallent, Nick