International Development Planning Review

Economic transformation of mining cities in transition economies: lessons from Daqing, Northeast China

International Development Planning Review (2015), 37, (3), 311–328.

Abstract

All mining cities need to address the problems associated with resource depletion. However, there are crucial differences between mining cities in transition economies and those in market economies. Through a case study from Daqing, which is also known as the oil capital of China, this article sheds light on how mining cities in transition economies transform economically in anticipation of the eventual decline in mining prosperity. With rich empirical evidence gathered through extensive fieldwork, this article argues that mining cities in transition economies are faced not only with problems stemming from the boom-and-bust economic cycles of the dominant mining industry and the inevitable exhaustion of resources, but also with issues associated with the legacy of planned economies. Therefore, the transformation of mining cities in transition economies is often situated in a multi-level governance framework. In contrast, the transformation of mining cities in market economies is mainly a local process in the sense that the key actors are local governments and community-based organisations. This case study contributes to the theorisation of mining cities in transition economies and the practical knowledge of those engaged in similar economic transformation.

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ASLUND, A. (2013), How Capitalism was Built: The Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.How Capitalism was Built: The Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia Google Scholar

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PALLAGST, K., ABER, J., AUDIRAC, I., CUNNINGHAM-SABOT, E., FOL, S., MARTINEZ-FERNANDEZ, C., MORAES, S., MULLIGAN, H., VARGAS-HERNANDEZ, J., WIECHMANN, T., WU, T. and RICH, J. (2009), The Future of Shrinking Cities: Problems, Patterns and Strategies of Urban Transformation in a Global Context, available at: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7zz6s7bm#page-1 (accessed 15 August 2013). Google Scholar

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STEVENS, P. and DIETSCHE, E. (2008), ‘Resource curse: an analysis of causes, experiences and possible ways forward’, Energy Policy, 36, 56–65.Resource curse: an analysis of causes, experiences and possible ways forward Energy Policy 36 56 65 Google Scholar

TAPELA, T. N. (2002), ‘Planning for economic diversification and sustainable communities in mining towns: towards a development planning framework’ (paper delivered to the Planning Africa 2002 International Conference: Regenerating Africa through Planning, Icc, Durban, 18–20 September.Planning for economic diversification and sustainable communities in mining towns: towards a development planning framework Google Scholar

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YU, L. (2007), ‘A sustainable development form for metropolises in China: a case study of Beijing’, International Development Planning Review, 29, 451–73.A sustainable development form for metropolises in China: a case study of Beijing International Development Planning Review 29 451 73 Google Scholar

YU, L. and ZHU, L. (2009), ‘Chinese local state entrepreneurialism: a case study of Changchun’, International Development Planning Review, 31, 199–220.Chinese local state entrepreneurialism: a case study of Changchun International Development Planning Review 31 199 220 Google Scholar

ZHANG, L. (1993), Overall Planning of Land Development Regulation in Daqing City, Harbin, Heilongjiang Science and Technology Press.Overall Planning of Land Development Regulation in Daqing City Google Scholar

ZHANG, P. (2008), ‘Revitalizing old industrial base of Northeast China: process, policy and challenge’, Chinese Geographical Science, 18, 109–18.Revitalizing old industrial base of Northeast China: process, policy and challenge Chinese Geographical Science 18 109 18 Google Scholar

ZHANG, P., LI, H. and TONG, L. (2011), Vulnerability of Human-Land System of Mining Cities: Theory, Method and Case Studies, Beijing, Science Press.Vulnerability of Human-Land System of Mining Cities: Theory, Method and Case Studies Google Scholar

ZHANG, X. B., XING, L., FAN, S. G. and LUO, X. P. (2008), ‘Resource abundance and regional development in China’, Economics of Transition, 16, 7–29.Resource abundance and regional development in China Economics of Transition 16 7 29 Google Scholar

ZHAO, J. H. (2007), ‘The study of the urban spatial development of the resource-based city in China’ (unpublished PhD thesis), Changchun, Northeast Normal University.The study of the urban spatial development of the resource-based city in China Google Scholar

ZHONG, Y. T. and HAYS, R. A. (1996), ‘The transformation of the urban housing system in China’, Urban Affairs Review, 31, 625–58.The transformation of the urban housing system in China Urban Affairs Review 31 625 58 Google Scholar

ASLUND, A. (2013), How Capitalism was Built: The Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.How Capitalism was Built: The Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia Google Scholar

BEGG, I. (1999), ‘Cities and competitiveness’, Urban Studies, 36, 795–809.Cities and competitiveness Urban Studies 36 795 809 Google Scholar

BRADURY, J. H. and ST-MARTIN, I. (1983), ‘Winding down in a Quebec town: a case study of Schefferville’, The Canadian Geographer, 27, 128–44.Winding down in a Quebec town: a case study of Schefferville The Canadian Geographer 27 128 44 Google Scholar

DALE, B. (2002), ‘An institutionalist approach to local restructuring: the case of four Norwegian mining towns’, European Urban and Regional Studies, 9, 5–20.An institutionalist approach to local restructuring: the case of four Norwegian mining towns European Urban and Regional Studies 9 5 20 Google Scholar

DAQING STATISTIcS BUREAU (various years), Daqing Statistical Yearbook, available at: http://tongji.cnki.net/overseas/brief/result.aspx (accessed 29 April 2015). Google Scholar

EDITORIAL BOARD FOR 50 YEARS OF HEILONGJIANG ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (1999), 50 Years of Heilongjiang Economic Development, Harbin, People’s Publishing House.50 Years of Heilongjiang Economic Development Google Scholar

HAMA, K. (1980), ‘The Daqing oil field: a model in China’s struggle for rapid industrialization’, The Developing Economies, 18, 180–205.The Daqing oil field: a model in China’s struggle for rapid industrialization The Developing Economies 18 180 205 Google Scholar

IMF (INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND) (2000), ‘Transition economies: an IMF perspective on progress and prospects’ (perspective), Washington, Dc, IMF, available at: http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/110300.htm (accessed 10 September 2013). Google Scholar

LI, H., LONG, R. and CHEN, H. (2013), ‘Economic transition policies in Chinese resource-based cities: an overview of government efforts’, Energy Policy, 55, 251–60.Economic transition policies in Chinese resource-based cities: an overview of government efforts Energy Policy 55 251 60 Google Scholar

LI, P. (2007), ‘Optimization of industrial structure: crux of the transition of mining cities’, Journal of Coal Science & Engineering, 13, 247–51.Optimization of industrial structure: crux of the transition of mining cities Journal of Coal Science & Engineering 13 247 51 Google Scholar

LIU, S., ZHANG, P., JIANG, X. and LO, K. (2013), ‘Measuring sustainable urbanization in China: a case study of the coastal Liaoning Area’, Sustainability Science, 8, 585–94.Measuring sustainable urbanization in China: a case study of the coastal Liaoning Area Sustainability Science 8 585 94 Google Scholar

LIU, Y., YIN, G. and MA, L. J. C. (2012), ‘Local state and administrative urbanization in postreform China: a case study of Hebi city, Henan Province’, Cities, 29, 107–17.Local state and administrative urbanization in postreform China: a case study of Hebi city, Henan Province Cities 29 107 17 Google Scholar

LO, K. (2014), ‘A critical review of China’s rapidly developing renewable energy and energy effciency policies’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 29, 508–16.A critical review of China’s rapidly developing renewable energy and energy effciency policies Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 29 508 16 Google Scholar

LO, K. and WANG, M. (2013), ‘Energy conservation in China’s twelfth Five-Year Plan period: continuation or paradigm shift?’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 18, 499–507.Energy conservation in China’s twelfth Five-Year Plan period: continuation or paradigm shift? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 18 499 507 Google Scholar

LOCKIE, S., FRANETTOVIcH, M., TIMMER, V. P., ROLFE, J. and IVANOVA, G. (2009), ‘Coal mining and the resource community cycle: a longitudinal assessment of the social impacts of the Coppabella coal mine’, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 29, 330–39.Coal mining and the resource community cycle: a longitudinal assessment of the social impacts of the Coppabella coal mine Environmental Impact Assessment Review 29 330 39 Google Scholar

MARTINEZ-FERNANDEZ, C., WU, C., ScHATZ, L., TAIRA, N. and VARGAS-HERNANDEZ, J. G. (2012a), ‘The shrinking mining city: urban dynamics and contested territory’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 36, 245–60.The shrinking mining city: urban dynamics and contested territory International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 36 245 60 Google Scholar

MARTINEZ-FERNANDEZ, C., AUDIRAC, I., FOL, S. and CUNNINGHAM-SABOT, E. (2012b), ‘Shrinking cities: urban challenges of globalization’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 36, 213–25.Shrinking cities: urban challenges of globalization International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 36 213 25 Google Scholar

PALLAGST, K., ABER, J., AUDIRAC, I., CUNNINGHAM-SABOT, E., FOL, S., MARTINEZ-FERNANDEZ, C., MORAES, S., MULLIGAN, H., VARGAS-HERNANDEZ, J., WIECHMANN, T., WU, T. and RICH, J. (2009), The Future of Shrinking Cities: Problems, Patterns and Strategies of Urban Transformation in a Global Context, available at: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7zz6s7bm#page-1 (accessed 15 August 2013). Google Scholar

POLESE, M. and SHEARMUR, R. (2006), ‘Why some regions will decline: a Canadian case study with thoughts on local development strategies’, Papers in Regional Science, 85, 23–46.Why some regions will decline: a Canadian case study with thoughts on local development strategies Papers in Regional Science 85 23 46 Google Scholar

POLICY RESEARCH CENTER OF CCP DAQING MUNICIPAL PARTY COMMITTEE (2007), Exploration and Practice of Sustainable Development of Daqing: Selected Outstanding Researches from 2000 to 2006, Harbin, Heilongjiang Science and Technology Press.Exploration and Practice of Sustainable Development of Daqing: Selected Outstanding Researches from 2000 to 2006 Google Scholar

SACHS, J. D. and WARNER, A. M. (2001), ‘Natural resources and economic development: the curse of natural resources’, European Economic Review, 45, 827–38.Natural resources and economic development: the curse of natural resources European Economic Review 45 827 38 Google Scholar

SONG, Y. and ZHENG, H. (2002), ‘Study on the optimum pattern of Daqing urban spatial structure’, Chinese Geographical Science, 12, 206–11.Study on the optimum pattern of Daqing urban spatial structure Chinese Geographical Science 12 206 11 Google Scholar

STEVENS, P. and DIETSCHE, E. (2008), ‘Resource curse: an analysis of causes, experiences and possible ways forward’, Energy Policy, 36, 56–65.Resource curse: an analysis of causes, experiences and possible ways forward Energy Policy 36 56 65 Google Scholar

TAPELA, T. N. (2002), ‘Planning for economic diversification and sustainable communities in mining towns: towards a development planning framework’ (paper delivered to the Planning Africa 2002 International Conference: Regenerating Africa through Planning, Icc, Durban, 18–20 September.Planning for economic diversification and sustainable communities in mining towns: towards a development planning framework Google Scholar

TSUTSUMI, K. (2000), ‘Modernization, industrialization and regional change in Japan – a case of a coal mining region: panopticonization towards space and society in modern Japan’ (paper delivered to the 2nd International Critical Geography Conference, Taegu, 9–13 August), available at: http://econgeog.misc.hit-u.ac.jp/icgg/intl_mtgs/KTsutsumi.pdf (accessed 7 April 2014). Google Scholar

XIA, L. (2012), ‘2012 Daqing Municipal Government Work Report’ (government report), Daqing, Daqing Municipal Government, available at: http://www.daqing.gov.cn/zfgz/zfgzbg/232354_2.shtml (accessed 7 April 2014). Google Scholar

YU, L. (2007), ‘A sustainable development form for metropolises in China: a case study of Beijing’, International Development Planning Review, 29, 451–73.A sustainable development form for metropolises in China: a case study of Beijing International Development Planning Review 29 451 73 Google Scholar

YU, L. and ZHU, L. (2009), ‘Chinese local state entrepreneurialism: a case study of Changchun’, International Development Planning Review, 31, 199–220.Chinese local state entrepreneurialism: a case study of Changchun International Development Planning Review 31 199 220 Google Scholar

ZHANG, L. (1993), Overall Planning of Land Development Regulation in Daqing City, Harbin, Heilongjiang Science and Technology Press.Overall Planning of Land Development Regulation in Daqing City Google Scholar

ZHANG, P. (2008), ‘Revitalizing old industrial base of Northeast China: process, policy and challenge’, Chinese Geographical Science, 18, 109–18.Revitalizing old industrial base of Northeast China: process, policy and challenge Chinese Geographical Science 18 109 18 Google Scholar

ZHANG, P., LI, H. and TONG, L. (2011), Vulnerability of Human-Land System of Mining Cities: Theory, Method and Case Studies, Beijing, Science Press.Vulnerability of Human-Land System of Mining Cities: Theory, Method and Case Studies Google Scholar

ZHANG, X. B., XING, L., FAN, S. G. and LUO, X. P. (2008), ‘Resource abundance and regional development in China’, Economics of Transition, 16, 7–29.Resource abundance and regional development in China Economics of Transition 16 7 29 Google Scholar

ZHAO, J. H. (2007), ‘The study of the urban spatial development of the resource-based city in China’ (unpublished PhD thesis), Changchun, Northeast Normal University.The study of the urban spatial development of the resource-based city in China Google Scholar

ZHONG, Y. T. and HAYS, R. A. (1996), ‘The transformation of the urban housing system in China’, Urban Affairs Review, 31, 625–58.The transformation of the urban housing system in China Urban Affairs Review 31 625 58 Google Scholar

ASLUND, A. (2013), How Capitalism was Built: The Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.How Capitalism was Built: The Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia Google Scholar

BEGG, I. (1999), ‘Cities and competitiveness’, Urban Studies, 36, 795–809.Cities and competitiveness Urban Studies 36 795 809 Google Scholar

BRADURY, J. H. and ST-MARTIN, I. (1983), ‘Winding down in a Quebec town: a case study of Schefferville’, The Canadian Geographer, 27, 128–44.Winding down in a Quebec town: a case study of Schefferville The Canadian Geographer 27 128 44 Google Scholar

DALE, B. (2002), ‘An institutionalist approach to local restructuring: the case of four Norwegian mining towns’, European Urban and Regional Studies, 9, 5–20.An institutionalist approach to local restructuring: the case of four Norwegian mining towns European Urban and Regional Studies 9 5 20 Google Scholar

DAQING STATISTIcS BUREAU (various years), Daqing Statistical Yearbook, available at: http://tongji.cnki.net/overseas/brief/result.aspx (accessed 29 April 2015). Google Scholar

EDITORIAL BOARD FOR 50 YEARS OF HEILONGJIANG ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (1999), 50 Years of Heilongjiang Economic Development, Harbin, People’s Publishing House.50 Years of Heilongjiang Economic Development Google Scholar

HAMA, K. (1980), ‘The Daqing oil field: a model in China’s struggle for rapid industrialization’, The Developing Economies, 18, 180–205.The Daqing oil field: a model in China’s struggle for rapid industrialization The Developing Economies 18 180 205 Google Scholar

IMF (INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND) (2000), ‘Transition economies: an IMF perspective on progress and prospects’ (perspective), Washington, Dc, IMF, available at: http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/110300.htm (accessed 10 September 2013). Google Scholar

LI, H., LONG, R. and CHEN, H. (2013), ‘Economic transition policies in Chinese resource-based cities: an overview of government efforts’, Energy Policy, 55, 251–60.Economic transition policies in Chinese resource-based cities: an overview of government efforts Energy Policy 55 251 60 Google Scholar

LI, P. (2007), ‘Optimization of industrial structure: crux of the transition of mining cities’, Journal of Coal Science & Engineering, 13, 247–51.Optimization of industrial structure: crux of the transition of mining cities Journal of Coal Science & Engineering 13 247 51 Google Scholar

LIU, S., ZHANG, P., JIANG, X. and LO, K. (2013), ‘Measuring sustainable urbanization in China: a case study of the coastal Liaoning Area’, Sustainability Science, 8, 585–94.Measuring sustainable urbanization in China: a case study of the coastal Liaoning Area Sustainability Science 8 585 94 Google Scholar

LIU, Y., YIN, G. and MA, L. J. C. (2012), ‘Local state and administrative urbanization in postreform China: a case study of Hebi city, Henan Province’, Cities, 29, 107–17.Local state and administrative urbanization in postreform China: a case study of Hebi city, Henan Province Cities 29 107 17 Google Scholar

LO, K. (2014), ‘A critical review of China’s rapidly developing renewable energy and energy effciency policies’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 29, 508–16.A critical review of China’s rapidly developing renewable energy and energy effciency policies Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 29 508 16 Google Scholar

LO, K. and WANG, M. (2013), ‘Energy conservation in China’s twelfth Five-Year Plan period: continuation or paradigm shift?’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 18, 499–507.Energy conservation in China’s twelfth Five-Year Plan period: continuation or paradigm shift? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 18 499 507 Google Scholar

LOCKIE, S., FRANETTOVIcH, M., TIMMER, V. P., ROLFE, J. and IVANOVA, G. (2009), ‘Coal mining and the resource community cycle: a longitudinal assessment of the social impacts of the Coppabella coal mine’, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 29, 330–39.Coal mining and the resource community cycle: a longitudinal assessment of the social impacts of the Coppabella coal mine Environmental Impact Assessment Review 29 330 39 Google Scholar

MARTINEZ-FERNANDEZ, C., WU, C., ScHATZ, L., TAIRA, N. and VARGAS-HERNANDEZ, J. G. (2012a), ‘The shrinking mining city: urban dynamics and contested territory’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 36, 245–60.The shrinking mining city: urban dynamics and contested territory International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 36 245 60 Google Scholar

MARTINEZ-FERNANDEZ, C., AUDIRAC, I., FOL, S. and CUNNINGHAM-SABOT, E. (2012b), ‘Shrinking cities: urban challenges of globalization’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 36, 213–25.Shrinking cities: urban challenges of globalization International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 36 213 25 Google Scholar

PALLAGST, K., ABER, J., AUDIRAC, I., CUNNINGHAM-SABOT, E., FOL, S., MARTINEZ-FERNANDEZ, C., MORAES, S., MULLIGAN, H., VARGAS-HERNANDEZ, J., WIECHMANN, T., WU, T. and RICH, J. (2009), The Future of Shrinking Cities: Problems, Patterns and Strategies of Urban Transformation in a Global Context, available at: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7zz6s7bm#page-1 (accessed 15 August 2013). Google Scholar

POLESE, M. and SHEARMUR, R. (2006), ‘Why some regions will decline: a Canadian case study with thoughts on local development strategies’, Papers in Regional Science, 85, 23–46.Why some regions will decline: a Canadian case study with thoughts on local development strategies Papers in Regional Science 85 23 46 Google Scholar

POLICY RESEARCH CENTER OF CCP DAQING MUNICIPAL PARTY COMMITTEE (2007), Exploration and Practice of Sustainable Development of Daqing: Selected Outstanding Researches from 2000 to 2006, Harbin, Heilongjiang Science and Technology Press.Exploration and Practice of Sustainable Development of Daqing: Selected Outstanding Researches from 2000 to 2006 Google Scholar

SACHS, J. D. and WARNER, A. M. (2001), ‘Natural resources and economic development: the curse of natural resources’, European Economic Review, 45, 827–38.Natural resources and economic development: the curse of natural resources European Economic Review 45 827 38 Google Scholar

SONG, Y. and ZHENG, H. (2002), ‘Study on the optimum pattern of Daqing urban spatial structure’, Chinese Geographical Science, 12, 206–11.Study on the optimum pattern of Daqing urban spatial structure Chinese Geographical Science 12 206 11 Google Scholar

STEVENS, P. and DIETSCHE, E. (2008), ‘Resource curse: an analysis of causes, experiences and possible ways forward’, Energy Policy, 36, 56–65.Resource curse: an analysis of causes, experiences and possible ways forward Energy Policy 36 56 65 Google Scholar

TAPELA, T. N. (2002), ‘Planning for economic diversification and sustainable communities in mining towns: towards a development planning framework’ (paper delivered to the Planning Africa 2002 International Conference: Regenerating Africa through Planning, Icc, Durban, 18–20 September.Planning for economic diversification and sustainable communities in mining towns: towards a development planning framework Google Scholar

TSUTSUMI, K. (2000), ‘Modernization, industrialization and regional change in Japan – a case of a coal mining region: panopticonization towards space and society in modern Japan’ (paper delivered to the 2nd International Critical Geography Conference, Taegu, 9–13 August), available at: http://econgeog.misc.hit-u.ac.jp/icgg/intl_mtgs/KTsutsumi.pdf (accessed 7 April 2014). Google Scholar

XIA, L. (2012), ‘2012 Daqing Municipal Government Work Report’ (government report), Daqing, Daqing Municipal Government, available at: http://www.daqing.gov.cn/zfgz/zfgzbg/232354_2.shtml (accessed 7 April 2014). Google Scholar

YU, L. (2007), ‘A sustainable development form for metropolises in China: a case study of Beijing’, International Development Planning Review, 29, 451–73.A sustainable development form for metropolises in China: a case study of Beijing International Development Planning Review 29 451 73 Google Scholar

YU, L. and ZHU, L. (2009), ‘Chinese local state entrepreneurialism: a case study of Changchun’, International Development Planning Review, 31, 199–220.Chinese local state entrepreneurialism: a case study of Changchun International Development Planning Review 31 199 220 Google Scholar

ZHANG, L. (1993), Overall Planning of Land Development Regulation in Daqing City, Harbin, Heilongjiang Science and Technology Press.Overall Planning of Land Development Regulation in Daqing City Google Scholar

ZHANG, P. (2008), ‘Revitalizing old industrial base of Northeast China: process, policy and challenge’, Chinese Geographical Science, 18, 109–18.Revitalizing old industrial base of Northeast China: process, policy and challenge Chinese Geographical Science 18 109 18 Google Scholar

ZHANG, P., LI, H. and TONG, L. (2011), Vulnerability of Human-Land System of Mining Cities: Theory, Method and Case Studies, Beijing, Science Press.Vulnerability of Human-Land System of Mining Cities: Theory, Method and Case Studies Google Scholar

ZHANG, X. B., XING, L., FAN, S. G. and LUO, X. P. (2008), ‘Resource abundance and regional development in China’, Economics of Transition, 16, 7–29.Resource abundance and regional development in China Economics of Transition 16 7 29 Google Scholar

ZHAO, J. H. (2007), ‘The study of the urban spatial development of the resource-based city in China’ (unpublished PhD thesis), Changchun, Northeast Normal University.The study of the urban spatial development of the resource-based city in China Google Scholar

ZHONG, Y. T. and HAYS, R. A. (1996), ‘The transformation of the urban housing system in China’, Urban Affairs Review, 31, 625–58.The transformation of the urban housing system in China Urban Affairs Review 31 625 58 Google Scholar

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