International Development Planning Review

Mainstreaming gender in European Union development cooperation with sub-Saharan Africa: promising numbers, narrow contents, telling silences

International Development Planning Review (2012), 34, (3), 319–338.

Abstract

This article examines gender mainstreaming in European Union development cooperation with sub-Saharan African countries through quantitative and qualitative analyses of policy programming documents to evaluate whether a shift has been made from a conservative Women in Development paradigm to a transformative Gender and Development paradigm. First, a quantitative analysis assesses language, format and budgets. Next, a qualitative analysis embarks on a deeper reading of how gender (in)equality is framed and who has been given voice. We conclude that gender mainstreaming is only partly applied in a transformative way. The limited space for African civil society voices as well as the European Union's concerns about its global role and its internal legitimacy are suggested as explanations.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

AREND, E. (2010), ‘Critique of the World Bank's Applying Gender Action Plan Lessons: A Three-Year Road Map for Gender Mainstreaming (2011-2013)’ http://www.genderaction.org/publications/2010/critique_road_map.pdf Google Scholar

ARTS, K. (2006), ‘Gender in ACP-EU Relations: the Cotonou Agreement’, in M. Lister and M. Carbone (eds), New Pathways in International Development: Gender and Civil Society in EU Policy, Aldershot, Ashgate. New Pathways in International Development: Gender and Civil Society in EU Policy Google Scholar

BARTON, C. (2005), ‘Where to for women's movements and the MDGs?’, Gender and Development, 1, 25-35. ‘Where to for women's movements and the MDGs?’ Gender and Development 1 25 35 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BEVERIDGE, F. and NOTT, S. (2002), ‘Mainstreaming: a case for optimism and cynicism’, Feminist Legal Studies, 3, 299-331. ‘Mainstreaming: a case for optimism and cynicism’ Feminist Legal Studies 3 299 331 Google Scholar

BUDLENDER, D. (2004), Why Should We Care about Unpaid Care Work?, New York, UNIFEM. Why Should We Care about Unpaid Care Work? Google Scholar

BUDLENDER, D. (2008), ‘The Statistical Evidence on Care and Non-Care Work Across Six Countries’ (Programme Paper No. 4), Geneva, UNRISD. ‘The Statistical Evidence on Care and Non-Care Work Across Six Countries’ Google Scholar

CHANT, S. (2007), ‘Gender, Cities, and the Millennium Development Goals in the Global South’ (New Series Working Paper, Issue 21), London, LSE Gender Institute. ‘Gender, Cities, and the Millennium Development Goals in the Global South’ Google Scholar

CHANT, S (2008), ‘The "Feminisation of Poverty" and the "Feminisation" of Anti-Poverty Programmes: Room for Revision?’, Journal of Development Studies, 2, 153-86. ‘The "Feminisation of Poverty" and the "Feminisation" of Anti-Poverty Programmes: Room for Revision?’ Journal of Development Studies 2 153 86 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

CHANT, S (ed.) (2010), The International Handbook of Gender and Poverty: Concepts, Research, Policy, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar. The International Handbook of Gender and Poverty: Concepts, Research, Policy Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

CORNWALL, A., HARRISON, E. and WHITEHEAD, A. (eds) (2007), Feminisms in Development: Contradictions, Contestations and Challenges, London, Zed Books. Feminisms in Development: Contradictions, Contestations and Challenges Google Scholar

COTONOU WORKING GROUP (2006), ‘EU-ACP relations: Will the EU deliver on its promises? Information on the Programming of EC Aid for African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries (Briefing by the Cotonou Working Group Aid)’, March http://www.eurostep.org/wcm/dmdocuments/Briefing_programming.pdf Google Scholar

COUNCIL OF EUROPE (1998), Gender mainstreaming: Conceptual framework, methodology and presentation of good practices (Final report of Activities of the Group of Specialists on Mainstreaming), Strasbourg, Council of Europe. Google Scholar

DEBUSSCHER, P. (2011), ‘Mainstreaming gender in European commission development policy: conservative Europeanness?’, ‘Women's Studies International Forum, 1, 39-49. ‘Mainstreaming gender in European commission development policy: conservative Europeanness?’ ‘Women's Studies International Forum 1 39 49 Google Scholar

DIEZ, T. (2005). ‘Constructing the self and changing others: reconsidering "normative power Europe"’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 33, 613-36. ‘Constructing the self and changing others: reconsidering "normative power Europe"’ Millennium: Journal of International Studies 33 613 36 Google Scholar

EC (EUROPEAN COMMISSION) (2002), ‘Ethiopia - European Community. Country Strategy Paper and National Indicative Programme for the period 2002-2007’, available at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/cafrad/unpan002976.pdf Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

EC (EUROPEAN COMMISSION) (2007), ‘Ghana - European Community. Country Strategy Paper and National Indicative Programme for the period 2008-2013’, available at http://ec.europa.eu/development/icenter/repository/scanned_gh_csp10_en.pdf Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

GAMMAGE, S. (2010), ‘Time Pressed and Time Poor: Unpaid Household Work in Guatemala’, Feminist Economics, 16, 79-112. ‘Time Pressed and Time Poor: Unpaid Household Work in Guatemala’ Feminist Economics 16 79 112 Google Scholar

GBVPN (GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE PREVENTION NETWORK) (2008), Newsletter, ‘Perspectives on Prevention’, No. 7, April, Kampala, available at http://www.preventgbvafrica.org/sites/default/files/newsletter7.pdf Google Scholar

JAHAN, R. (1995), The Elusive Agenda: Mainstreaming Women in Development, London, Zed Books. The Elusive Agenda: Mainstreaming Women in Development Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

KABEER, N. (2005), ‘Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment: A Critical Analysis of the Third Millennium Development Goal’, Gender and Development, 1, 13-24. ‘Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment: A Critical Analysis of the Third Millennium Development Goal’ Gender and Development 1 13 24 Google Scholar

LOMBARDO, E. and MEIER, P. (2008), ‘Framing Gender Equality in the European Union Political Discourse’, Social Politics, 1, 101-29. ‘Framing Gender Equality in the European Union Political Discourse’ Social Politics 1 101 29 Google Scholar

MOLYNEUX, M. (2006), ‘Mothers at the Service of the New Poverty Agenda: Progresa/Oportunidades, Mexico's Conditional Transfer Programme’, Social Policy & Administration, 4, 425-49. ‘Mothers at the Service of the New Poverty Agenda: Progresa/Oportunidades, Mexico's Conditional Transfer Programme’ Social Policy & Administration 4 425 49 Google Scholar

MOSER, C. (1993), Gender Planning and Development: Theory, Practice and Training, London, Routledge. Gender Planning and Development: Theory, Practice and Training Google Scholar

MOSER, C. and MOSER, A. (2005), ‘Gender mainstreaming since Beijing: A review of success and limitations in international institutions’, Gender & Development, 2, 11-22. ‘Gender mainstreaming since Beijing: A review of success and limitations in international institutions’ Gender & Development 2 11 22 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

OECD (ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT) (2005), The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/11/41/34428351.pdf Google Scholar

OECD (ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT) (2011), Aid in Support of Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/9/34/47335126.pdf Google Scholar

RAZAVI, S. (2007), The Political and Social Economy of Care in a Development Context: Conceptual Issues, Research Questions and Policy Options, Geneva, UNRISD. The Political and Social Economy of Care in a Development Context: Conceptual Issues, Research Questions and Policy Options Google Scholar

ROGGEBAND, C. (2009), ‘No instant success Assessing gender mainstreaming evaluations’, paper prepared for the On Track with Gender Report Expert Meeting, ‘Taking Stock’, The Hague, 28-29 May, 59-72. ‘No instant success Assessing gender mainstreaming evaluations’ 59 72 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

SAITH, A. (2006), ‘From Universal Values to MDGs: Lost in Translation’, Development and Change, 37, 1167-99. ‘From Universal Values to MDGs: Lost in Translation’ Development and Change 37 1167 99 Google Scholar

SOAWR (SOLIDARITY FOR AFRICAN WOMEN'S RIGHTS COALITION) (2005), ‘The protocol to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights on Women's Rights in Africa: from Ratification to the Realisation of African Women's Human Rights’, Special Issue of Pambazuka News No. 222, Oxford, Fahamu. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

VERLOO, M. (2005a), ‘Displacement and Empowerment: Reflections on the Concept and Practice of the Council of Europe Approach to Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Equality’, Social Politics, 3, 344-65. ‘Displacement and Empowerment: Reflections on the Concept and Practice of the Council of Europe Approach to Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Equality’ Social Politics 3 344 65 Google Scholar

VERLOO, M. (2005b), ‘Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Europe: A Critical Frame Analysis’, The Greek Review of Social Research, 117, 11-34. ‘Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Europe: A Critical Frame Analysis’ The Greek Review of Social Research 117 11 34 Google Scholar

WALBY, S. (2005a), ‘Gender Mainstreaming: Productive Tensions in Theory and Practice’, Social Politics, 3, 321-43. ‘Gender Mainstreaming: Productive Tensions in Theory and Practice’ Social Politics 3 321 43 Google Scholar

WALBY, S. (2005b), ‘Measuring Women's Progress in a Global Era’, International Social Science Journal, 2, 371-87. ‘Measuring Women's Progress in a Global Era’ International Social Science Journal 2 371 87 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

AREND, E. (2010), ‘Critique of the World Bank's Applying Gender Action Plan Lessons: A Three-Year Road Map for Gender Mainstreaming (2011-2013)’ http://www.genderaction.org/publications/2010/critique_road_map.pdf Google Scholar

ARTS, K. (2006), ‘Gender in ACP-EU Relations: the Cotonou Agreement’, in M. Lister and M. Carbone (eds), New Pathways in International Development: Gender and Civil Society in EU Policy, Aldershot, Ashgate. New Pathways in International Development: Gender and Civil Society in EU Policy Google Scholar

BARTON, C. (2005), ‘Where to for women's movements and the MDGs?’, Gender and Development, 1, 25-35. ‘Where to for women's movements and the MDGs?’ Gender and Development 1 25 35 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BEVERIDGE, F. and NOTT, S. (2002), ‘Mainstreaming: a case for optimism and cynicism’, Feminist Legal Studies, 3, 299-331. ‘Mainstreaming: a case for optimism and cynicism’ Feminist Legal Studies 3 299 331 Google Scholar

BUDLENDER, D. (2004), Why Should We Care about Unpaid Care Work?, New York, UNIFEM. Why Should We Care about Unpaid Care Work? Google Scholar

BUDLENDER, D. (2008), ‘The Statistical Evidence on Care and Non-Care Work Across Six Countries’ (Programme Paper No. 4), Geneva, UNRISD. ‘The Statistical Evidence on Care and Non-Care Work Across Six Countries’ Google Scholar

CHANT, S. (2007), ‘Gender, Cities, and the Millennium Development Goals in the Global South’ (New Series Working Paper, Issue 21), London, LSE Gender Institute. ‘Gender, Cities, and the Millennium Development Goals in the Global South’ Google Scholar

CHANT, S (2008), ‘The "Feminisation of Poverty" and the "Feminisation" of Anti-Poverty Programmes: Room for Revision?’, Journal of Development Studies, 2, 153-86. ‘The "Feminisation of Poverty" and the "Feminisation" of Anti-Poverty Programmes: Room for Revision?’ Journal of Development Studies 2 153 86 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

CHANT, S (ed.) (2010), The International Handbook of Gender and Poverty: Concepts, Research, Policy, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar. The International Handbook of Gender and Poverty: Concepts, Research, Policy Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

CORNWALL, A., HARRISON, E. and WHITEHEAD, A. (eds) (2007), Feminisms in Development: Contradictions, Contestations and Challenges, London, Zed Books. Feminisms in Development: Contradictions, Contestations and Challenges Google Scholar

COTONOU WORKING GROUP (2006), ‘EU-ACP relations: Will the EU deliver on its promises? Information on the Programming of EC Aid for African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries (Briefing by the Cotonou Working Group Aid)’, March http://www.eurostep.org/wcm/dmdocuments/Briefing_programming.pdf Google Scholar

COUNCIL OF EUROPE (1998), Gender mainstreaming: Conceptual framework, methodology and presentation of good practices (Final report of Activities of the Group of Specialists on Mainstreaming), Strasbourg, Council of Europe. Google Scholar

DEBUSSCHER, P. (2011), ‘Mainstreaming gender in European commission development policy: conservative Europeanness?’, ‘Women's Studies International Forum, 1, 39-49. ‘Mainstreaming gender in European commission development policy: conservative Europeanness?’ ‘Women's Studies International Forum 1 39 49 Google Scholar

DIEZ, T. (2005). ‘Constructing the self and changing others: reconsidering "normative power Europe"’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 33, 613-36. ‘Constructing the self and changing others: reconsidering "normative power Europe"’ Millennium: Journal of International Studies 33 613 36 Google Scholar

EC (EUROPEAN COMMISSION) (2002), ‘Ethiopia - European Community. Country Strategy Paper and National Indicative Programme for the period 2002-2007’, available at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/cafrad/unpan002976.pdf Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

EC (EUROPEAN COMMISSION) (2007), ‘Ghana - European Community. Country Strategy Paper and National Indicative Programme for the period 2008-2013’, available at http://ec.europa.eu/development/icenter/repository/scanned_gh_csp10_en.pdf Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

GAMMAGE, S. (2010), ‘Time Pressed and Time Poor: Unpaid Household Work in Guatemala’, Feminist Economics, 16, 79-112. ‘Time Pressed and Time Poor: Unpaid Household Work in Guatemala’ Feminist Economics 16 79 112 Google Scholar

GBVPN (GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE PREVENTION NETWORK) (2008), Newsletter, ‘Perspectives on Prevention’, No. 7, April, Kampala, available at http://www.preventgbvafrica.org/sites/default/files/newsletter7.pdf Google Scholar

JAHAN, R. (1995), The Elusive Agenda: Mainstreaming Women in Development, London, Zed Books. The Elusive Agenda: Mainstreaming Women in Development Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

KABEER, N. (2005), ‘Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment: A Critical Analysis of the Third Millennium Development Goal’, Gender and Development, 1, 13-24. ‘Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment: A Critical Analysis of the Third Millennium Development Goal’ Gender and Development 1 13 24 Google Scholar

LOMBARDO, E. and MEIER, P. (2008), ‘Framing Gender Equality in the European Union Political Discourse’, Social Politics, 1, 101-29. ‘Framing Gender Equality in the European Union Political Discourse’ Social Politics 1 101 29 Google Scholar

MOLYNEUX, M. (2006), ‘Mothers at the Service of the New Poverty Agenda: Progresa/Oportunidades, Mexico's Conditional Transfer Programme’, Social Policy & Administration, 4, 425-49. ‘Mothers at the Service of the New Poverty Agenda: Progresa/Oportunidades, Mexico's Conditional Transfer Programme’ Social Policy & Administration 4 425 49 Google Scholar

MOSER, C. (1993), Gender Planning and Development: Theory, Practice and Training, London, Routledge. Gender Planning and Development: Theory, Practice and Training Google Scholar

MOSER, C. and MOSER, A. (2005), ‘Gender mainstreaming since Beijing: A review of success and limitations in international institutions’, Gender & Development, 2, 11-22. ‘Gender mainstreaming since Beijing: A review of success and limitations in international institutions’ Gender & Development 2 11 22 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

OECD (ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT) (2005), The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/11/41/34428351.pdf Google Scholar

OECD (ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT) (2011), Aid in Support of Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/9/34/47335126.pdf Google Scholar

RAZAVI, S. (2007), The Political and Social Economy of Care in a Development Context: Conceptual Issues, Research Questions and Policy Options, Geneva, UNRISD. The Political and Social Economy of Care in a Development Context: Conceptual Issues, Research Questions and Policy Options Google Scholar

ROGGEBAND, C. (2009), ‘No instant success Assessing gender mainstreaming evaluations’, paper prepared for the On Track with Gender Report Expert Meeting, ‘Taking Stock’, The Hague, 28-29 May, 59-72. ‘No instant success Assessing gender mainstreaming evaluations’ 59 72 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

SAITH, A. (2006), ‘From Universal Values to MDGs: Lost in Translation’, Development and Change, 37, 1167-99. ‘From Universal Values to MDGs: Lost in Translation’ Development and Change 37 1167 99 Google Scholar

SOAWR (SOLIDARITY FOR AFRICAN WOMEN'S RIGHTS COALITION) (2005), ‘The protocol to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights on Women's Rights in Africa: from Ratification to the Realisation of African Women's Human Rights’, Special Issue of Pambazuka News No. 222, Oxford, Fahamu. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

VERLOO, M. (2005a), ‘Displacement and Empowerment: Reflections on the Concept and Practice of the Council of Europe Approach to Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Equality’, Social Politics, 3, 344-65. ‘Displacement and Empowerment: Reflections on the Concept and Practice of the Council of Europe Approach to Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Equality’ Social Politics 3 344 65 Google Scholar

VERLOO, M. (2005b), ‘Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Europe: A Critical Frame Analysis’, The Greek Review of Social Research, 117, 11-34. ‘Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Europe: A Critical Frame Analysis’ The Greek Review of Social Research 117 11 34 Google Scholar

WALBY, S. (2005a), ‘Gender Mainstreaming: Productive Tensions in Theory and Practice’, Social Politics, 3, 321-43. ‘Gender Mainstreaming: Productive Tensions in Theory and Practice’ Social Politics 3 321 43 Google Scholar

WALBY, S. (2005b), ‘Measuring Women's Progress in a Global Era’, International Social Science Journal, 2, 371-87. ‘Measuring Women's Progress in a Global Era’ International Social Science Journal 2 371 87 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Debusscher, Petra

van der Vleuten, Anna