Town Planning Review

The skills agenda and the competencies for managing diversity and space

Town Planning Review (2010), 81, (5), 563–583.

Abstract

This paper evaluates skills for managing ethno-religious diversity in the context of regeneration, spatial planning and the pursuit of sustainable communities. It draws on experiences in Northern Ireland to explore the type and range of skills required in a society emerging from prolonged conflict and residential segregation. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for a more direct political engagement with agnostic practice that challenges the technical reductionism implied in generic skills frameworks. Here, the implications for practice outside the region are identified.

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ALLMENDINGER, P. and HAUGHTON. G. (2009), 'Soft spaces, fuzzy boundaries, and metagovernance: the new spatial planning in the Thames Gateway', Environment and Planning A, 41, 617–33. Soft spaces, fuzzy boundaries, and metagovernance: the new spatial planning in the Thames Gateway Environment and Planning A 41 617 33 Google Scholar

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BOOTH, C., BATTY, E., GILROY, R., DARGAN, L., THOMAS, H., HARRIS, N. and IMRIE, R. (2004), Planning and Diversity: Research into Policies and Procedures, London, ODPM. Google Scholar

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CFNI (COMMUNITY FOUNDATION NORTHERN IRELAND) (2007), The Communities in Transition Model, Belfast, CFNI. Google Scholar

COMEDIA (2007), Bringing Communities and People Together, London, Commission on Integration and Cohesion. Google Scholar

CONSERVATIVE PARTY (2010), Conservative Party Manifesto, London, Conservative Party. Google Scholar

CRE/RTPI (COMMISSION FOR RACIAL EQUALITY)/(ROYAL TOWN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (1983), Planning for a Multi-racial Britain, London, Commission for Racial Equality. Google Scholar

EGAN, SIR JOHN (2004), Skills for Sustainable Communities (The Egan Review), London, ODPM. Google Scholar

ELLIS, G. and MCWHIRTER, C. (2008), 'Land-use planning and Traveller-Gypsies: towards non-prejudicial practice', Planning Practice and Research, 23, 77–99. Land-use planning and Traveller-Gypsies: towards non-prejudicial practice Planning Practice and Research 23 77 99 Google Scholar

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HILLIER, J. (2007), 'Multiethnicity and the negotiation of place', in W. Neill and H-U. Schwedler (eds), Migration and Cultural Inclusion in the European City, Basingstoke, Palgrave, 74–87. 'Multiethnicity and the negotiation of place' Migration and Cultural Inclusion in the European City 74 87 Google Scholar

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IRELAND, P. (2008), 'Comparing responses to ethnic segregation in urban Europe', Urban Studies, 45, 1333–58. Comparing responses to ethnic segregation in urban Europe Urban Studies 45 1333 58 Google Scholar

KRISHNARAYAN, V. and THOMAS, H. (1993), Ethnic Minorities and the Planning System, London, Royal Town Planning Institute. Ethnic Minorities and the Planning System Google Scholar

LOWNSBROUGH, H. and BEUNDERMAN, J. (2007), Equally Spaced? Public Space and Interaction Between Diverse Communities, London, Demos. Equally Spaced? Public Space and Interaction Between Diverse Communities Google Scholar

MUSTERD, S. and DEVOS, S. (2007), 'Residential dynamics in ethnic communities', Housing Studies, 22, 371–80. Residential dynamics in ethnic communities Housing Studies 22 371 80 Google Scholar

NYDEN, P., LUKEHART, J., MALY, M. and PETERMAN, W. (1998), 'Neighborhood racial and ethnic diversity in US cities', Cityscape, 4, 1–17. Neighborhood racial and ethnic diversity in US cities Cityscape 4 1 17 Google Scholar

PLØGER, J. (2004), 'Strife: urban planning and agonism', Planning Theory, 3, 71–92. Strife: urban planning and agonism Planning Theory 3 71 92 Google Scholar

PEEL, D. (2005), 'Training citizens for a management role in regeneration', Planning Practice and Research, 20, 443–57. Training citizens for a management role in regeneration Planning Practice and Research 20 443 57 Google Scholar

REEVES, D. (2005), Planning for Diversity: Policy and Planning in a World of Difference, London, Routledge. Planning for Diversity: Policy and Planning in a World of Difference Google Scholar

RITCHIE, M., MLA (2010), 'Major new initiative to support shared housing', Northern Ireland Housing Executive, at http://www.nihe.gov.uk/index/about-us-home/media_centre/news-2.htm?newsid=13072 Google Scholar

ROBINSON, D. (2005), 'The search for Community Cohesion: key themes and dominant concepts of the public policy agenda', Urban Studies, 42, 1411–27. The search for Community Cohesion: key themes and dominant concepts of the public policy agenda Urban Studies 42 1411 27 Google Scholar

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SANDERCOCK, L. (2000), 'When strangers become neighbours: managing cities of difference', Planning Theory and Practice, 1, 13–30. When strangers become neighbours: managing cities of difference Planning Theory and Practice 1 13 30 Google Scholar

SCR (SCOTTISH CENTRE FOR REGENERATION) (2004), Creating a Learning Landscape: A Skills Framework for Community Regeneration, Edinburgh, Scottish Executive. Google Scholar

SIVANANDAN, A. (2006), 'Race, terror and civil society', Race and Class, 47, 1–8. Race, terror and civil society Race and Class 47 1 8 Google Scholar

SOJA, E. (2000), Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions, London, Blackwell. Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions Google Scholar

SQUIRES, G. and KURBIN, C. (2006), Privileged Spaces: Races, Residence and the Structure of Opportunity, Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers. Privileged Spaces: Races, Residence and the Structure of Opportunity Google Scholar

THOMAS, H. (2008), 'Race equality and planning: a changing agenda', Planning Practice and Research, 23, 1–17. Race equality and planning: a changing agenda Planning Practice and Research 23 1 17 Google Scholar

UCL and DELOITTE (2007), Shaping and Delivering Tomorrows Places: Effective Practice in Spatial Planning, London, RTPI. Google Scholar

VARADY, D. and WALKER, C. (2000), Case Study of Section 8 Rental Vouchers and Rental Certificates in Alameda County, California, Washington, DC, HUD. Case Study of Section 8 Rental Vouchers and Rental Certificates in Alameda County, California Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. (2009), 'Towards an Integrated Spatial Planning?', European Planning Studies, 17, 1571–90. Towards an Integrated Spatial Planning? European Planning Studies 17 1571 90 Google Scholar

WENGER, E. (1998), Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity, New York, NY, Cambridge University Press. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity Google Scholar

YIFTACHEL, O. (2009), 'Theoretical notes on "Gray Cities": the coming of urban Apartheid?', Planning Theory, 8, 88–100. Theoretical notes on "Gray Cities": the coming of urban Apartheid? Planning Theory 8 88 100 Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. and HAUGHTON. G. (2009), 'Soft spaces, fuzzy boundaries, and metagovernance: the new spatial planning in the Thames Gateway', Environment and Planning A, 41, 617–33. Soft spaces, fuzzy boundaries, and metagovernance: the new spatial planning in the Thames Gateway Environment and Planning A 41 617 33 Google Scholar

ANDERSSON, R. (2006), 'Breaking segregation – rhetorical construct or effective policy? The case of the Metropolitan Development Initiative in Sweden', Urban Studies, 43, 787–99. Breaking segregation – rhetorical construct or effective policy? The case of the Metropolitan Development Initiative in Sweden Urban Studies 43 787 99 Google Scholar

ASC (COMEDIA and ACADEMY FOR SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES) (2006), Planning and Engaging with Intercultural Communities: Building the Skills and Knowledge Base, Leeds, ASC. Google Scholar

BAILEY, N. (2005), 'The great skills debate: defining and delivering the skills required for community regeneration in England', Planning Practice and Research, 20, 341–52. The great skills debate: defining and delivering the skills required for community regeneration in England Planning Practice and Research 20 341 52 Google Scholar

BEEBEEJAUN, Y. (2004), 'What's in a nation? Constructing ethnicity in the British planning system', Planning Theory and Practice, 5, 437–51. What's in a nation? Constructing ethnicity in the British planning system Planning Theory and Practice 5 437 51 Google Scholar

BOLLENS, S. (2008), 'Urbanism, political uncertainty and democratization', Urban Studies, 45, 1255–89. Urbanism, political uncertainty and democratization Urban Studies 45 1255 89 Google Scholar

BOOTH, C. (2006), 'Managing diversity and main steaming equality. Reflections on initiatives in the Planning Inspectorate', Planning Theory and Practice, 7, 47–62. Managing diversity and main steaming equality. Reflections on initiatives in the Planning Inspectorate Planning Theory and Practice 7 47 62 Google Scholar

BOOTH, C., BATTY, E., GILROY, R., DARGAN, L., THOMAS, H., HARRIS, N. and IMRIE, R. (2004), Planning and Diversity: Research into Policies and Procedures, London, ODPM. Google Scholar

CARLING, A. (2008), 'The curious case of the mis-claimed myth claims: ethnic segregation, polarization and the future of Bradford', Urban Studies, 45, 553–89. The curious case of the mis-claimed myth claims: ethnic segregation, polarization and the future of Bradford Urban Studies 45 553 89 Google Scholar

CFNI (COMMUNITY FOUNDATION NORTHERN IRELAND) (2007), The Communities in Transition Model, Belfast, CFNI. Google Scholar

COMEDIA (2007), Bringing Communities and People Together, London, Commission on Integration and Cohesion. Google Scholar

CONSERVATIVE PARTY (2010), Conservative Party Manifesto, London, Conservative Party. Google Scholar

CRE/RTPI (COMMISSION FOR RACIAL EQUALITY)/(ROYAL TOWN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (1983), Planning for a Multi-racial Britain, London, Commission for Racial Equality. Google Scholar

EGAN, SIR JOHN (2004), Skills for Sustainable Communities (The Egan Review), London, ODPM. Google Scholar

ELLIS, G. and MCWHIRTER, C. (2008), 'Land-use planning and Traveller-Gypsies: towards non-prejudicial practice', Planning Practice and Research, 23, 77–99. Land-use planning and Traveller-Gypsies: towards non-prejudicial practice Planning Practice and Research 23 77 99 Google Scholar

FARRELL, C. (2008), 'Bifurcation, fragmentation or integration? The racial and geographical structure of US metropolitan segregation, 1990–2000', Urban Studies, 45, 467–99. Bifurcation, fragmentation or integration? The racial and geographical structure of US metropolitan segregation, 1990–2000 Urban Studies 45 467 99 Google Scholar

FENSTER, T. and YACOBI, H. (2005), 'Whose city is it? On urban planning and local knowledge in globalizing Tel Aviv-Jaffa', Planning Theory and Practice, 6, 191–211. Whose city is it? On urban planning and local knowledge in globalizing Tel Aviv-Jaffa Planning Theory and Practice 6 191 211 Google Scholar

FLYVBJERG, B. (2004), 'Phronetic planning research: theoretical and methodological reflections', Planning Theory and Practice, 5, 283–306. Phronetic planning research: theoretical and methodological reflections Planning Theory and Practice 5 283 306 Google Scholar

FLYVBJERG, B. (2006), 'Five misunderstandings about case study research', Qualitative Inquiry, 12, 219–45. Five misunderstandings about case study research Qualitative Inquiry 12 219 45 Google Scholar

GIJSBERTS, M. and DAGEVOS, J. (2007), 'The socio-cultural integration of ethnic minorities in the Netherlands. Identifying neighbourhood effects on multiple integration outcomes', Housing Studies, 22, 805–31. The socio-cultural integration of ethnic minorities in the Netherlands. Identifying neighbourhood effects on multiple integration outcomes Housing Studies 22 805 31 Google Scholar

HALL, M. (2007), Building Bridges at the Grassroots: The Experience of Suffolk–Lenadoon Interface Group, Island Pamphlets 18, Belfast, Island Publications. Google Scholar

HILLIER, J. (2007), 'Multiethnicity and the negotiation of place', in W. Neill and H-U. Schwedler (eds), Migration and Cultural Inclusion in the European City, Basingstoke, Palgrave, 74–87. 'Multiethnicity and the negotiation of place' Migration and Cultural Inclusion in the European City 74 87 Google Scholar

HOME OFFICE (2001), Building Cohesive Communities: A Report of the Ministerial Group on Public Order and Community Cohesion, London, The Home Office. Google Scholar

IRELAND, P. (2008), 'Comparing responses to ethnic segregation in urban Europe', Urban Studies, 45, 1333–58. Comparing responses to ethnic segregation in urban Europe Urban Studies 45 1333 58 Google Scholar

KRISHNARAYAN, V. and THOMAS, H. (1993), Ethnic Minorities and the Planning System, London, Royal Town Planning Institute. Ethnic Minorities and the Planning System Google Scholar

LOWNSBROUGH, H. and BEUNDERMAN, J. (2007), Equally Spaced? Public Space and Interaction Between Diverse Communities, London, Demos. Equally Spaced? Public Space and Interaction Between Diverse Communities Google Scholar

MUSTERD, S. and DEVOS, S. (2007), 'Residential dynamics in ethnic communities', Housing Studies, 22, 371–80. Residential dynamics in ethnic communities Housing Studies 22 371 80 Google Scholar

NYDEN, P., LUKEHART, J., MALY, M. and PETERMAN, W. (1998), 'Neighborhood racial and ethnic diversity in US cities', Cityscape, 4, 1–17. Neighborhood racial and ethnic diversity in US cities Cityscape 4 1 17 Google Scholar

PLØGER, J. (2004), 'Strife: urban planning and agonism', Planning Theory, 3, 71–92. Strife: urban planning and agonism Planning Theory 3 71 92 Google Scholar

PEEL, D. (2005), 'Training citizens for a management role in regeneration', Planning Practice and Research, 20, 443–57. Training citizens for a management role in regeneration Planning Practice and Research 20 443 57 Google Scholar

REEVES, D. (2005), Planning for Diversity: Policy and Planning in a World of Difference, London, Routledge. Planning for Diversity: Policy and Planning in a World of Difference Google Scholar

RITCHIE, M., MLA (2010), 'Major new initiative to support shared housing', Northern Ireland Housing Executive, at http://www.nihe.gov.uk/index/about-us-home/media_centre/news-2.htm?newsid=13072 Google Scholar

ROBINSON, D. (2005), 'The search for Community Cohesion: key themes and dominant concepts of the public policy agenda', Urban Studies, 42, 1411–27. The search for Community Cohesion: key themes and dominant concepts of the public policy agenda Urban Studies 42 1411 27 Google Scholar

RYDIN, Y., AMJAD, U. and WHITAKER, M. (2007), 'Environmentally sustainable construction: knowledge and learning in London planning departments', Planning Theory and Practice, 8, 363–80. Environmentally sustainable construction: knowledge and learning in London planning departments Planning Theory and Practice 8 363 80 Google Scholar

SANDERCOCK, L. (2000), 'When strangers become neighbours: managing cities of difference', Planning Theory and Practice, 1, 13–30. When strangers become neighbours: managing cities of difference Planning Theory and Practice 1 13 30 Google Scholar

SCR (SCOTTISH CENTRE FOR REGENERATION) (2004), Creating a Learning Landscape: A Skills Framework for Community Regeneration, Edinburgh, Scottish Executive. Google Scholar

SIVANANDAN, A. (2006), 'Race, terror and civil society', Race and Class, 47, 1–8. Race, terror and civil society Race and Class 47 1 8 Google Scholar

SOJA, E. (2000), Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions, London, Blackwell. Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions Google Scholar

SQUIRES, G. and KURBIN, C. (2006), Privileged Spaces: Races, Residence and the Structure of Opportunity, Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers. Privileged Spaces: Races, Residence and the Structure of Opportunity Google Scholar

THOMAS, H. (2008), 'Race equality and planning: a changing agenda', Planning Practice and Research, 23, 1–17. Race equality and planning: a changing agenda Planning Practice and Research 23 1 17 Google Scholar

UCL and DELOITTE (2007), Shaping and Delivering Tomorrows Places: Effective Practice in Spatial Planning, London, RTPI. Google Scholar

VARADY, D. and WALKER, C. (2000), Case Study of Section 8 Rental Vouchers and Rental Certificates in Alameda County, California, Washington, DC, HUD. Case Study of Section 8 Rental Vouchers and Rental Certificates in Alameda County, California Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. (2009), 'Towards an Integrated Spatial Planning?', European Planning Studies, 17, 1571–90. Towards an Integrated Spatial Planning? European Planning Studies 17 1571 90 Google Scholar

WENGER, E. (1998), Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity, New York, NY, Cambridge University Press. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity Google Scholar

YIFTACHEL, O. (2009), 'Theoretical notes on "Gray Cities": the coming of urban Apartheid?', Planning Theory, 8, 88–100. Theoretical notes on "Gray Cities": the coming of urban Apartheid? Planning Theory 8 88 100 Google Scholar

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Author details

Murtagh, Brendan

Ellis, Geraint

Murtagh, Brendan

Ellis, Geraint