International Development Planning Review

The emerging cultural economy in Chinese cities: early dynamics

International Development Planning Review (2011), 33, (3), 343–369.

Abstract

In recent years, Chinese national and municipal governments have emphasised growth of the urban cultural economy, aiming to achieve 15–20% economic output share in the largest metropolitan regions by 2020. There is wide variation in policy and physical approaches to growing the urban cultural economy, explored in Beijing, Shanghai and Foshan. Differing physical models of cultural economic development are explored: formal arts facilities, cultural preservation based redevelopment, high-tech creative zones and bottom-up clusters. Key drivers are discussed and tensions are explored – between production and consumption spaces, top-down and bottom-up approaches and between authenticity and gentrification. The authors conclude the sector is becoming a major shaper of physical form, affirm the key role the private sector has played and assert that bottom-up districts, driven by the producers themselves, have been among the most successful. Spatial dynamism is emphasised, particularly the emergence of new cultural production spaces on the urban periphery, and the evolution in the urban core of former production spaces into new cultural consumption environments.

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YATSKO, P. (2001), New Shanghai: The Rocky Rebirth of China's Legendary City, New York, John Wiley. Google Scholar

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YUSUF, S. and NABESHIMA, K. (2005), 'Creative industries in East Asia', Cities, 22, 109–22. Creative industries in East Asia Cities 22 109 22 Google Scholar

ZHANG, J. (2007), Development of Creative Industries in China, Beijing, China's Economy Publishing. Development of Creative Industries in China Google Scholar

ZHANG, X. (2006), 'From institution to industry: reforms in cultural institutions', International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9, 297–306. From institution to industry: reforms in cultural institutions International Journal of Cultural Studies 9 297 306 Google Scholar

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CAMPANELLA, T. (2008), The Concrete Dragon: China's Urban Revolution and What It Means for the World, New York, Princeton Architectural Press. The Concrete Dragon: China's Urban Revolution and What It Means for the World Google Scholar

CHENG, C. (2008), '798 Art District: a world of art', Beijing This Month, 15 October, http://www.btmbeijing.com/ Google Scholar

CHINA KNOWLEDGE PRESS (2005), China Domestic Tourism Market, Singapore, China Knowledge Press. Google Scholar

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FOSHAN MUNICIPALITY (2008), 'Tourism Bureau Statistics', report to Foshan Municipality, http://www.foshan.gov.cn/english/kmafs Google Scholar

HEMPEL, J. (2006), 'Designed in China: the best D-schools for creative talent', Businessweek, 9 October, http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_41/b4004412.htm Google Scholar

HODGSON, A. (2007), 'China's middle class reaches 80 million', Euromonitor, http://www.euromonitor.com/Chinas_middle_class_reaches_80_million Google Scholar

HUI, D. (2006), 'From cultural to creative industries: strategies for the Chaoyang District, Beijing', International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9, 317–31. From cultural to creative industries: strategies for the Chaoyang District, Beijing International Journal of Cultural Studies 9 317 31 Google Scholar

JACKSON, P. (2004), 'Local consumption cultures in a globalizing world', Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 29, 165–78. Local consumption cultures in a globalizing world Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 29 165 78 Google Scholar

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LAFRANIERE, S. (2009), 'All-nighter? For this test, some Chinese cram all year', New York Times, 12 June. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/13/world/asia/13exam.html?hpw Google Scholar

LARMER, B. (2010), 'Shop, China, Shop', New York Times Magazine, global edition, 28 November. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/28/magazine/28ChinaPortfolio-t.html Google Scholar

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MARKUSEN, A. and GADWA, A. (2010), 'Arts and culture in urban or regional planning: a review and research agenda', Journal of Planning Education and Research, 29, 379–91. Google Scholar

MATTHEWS, O. (2007), 'Spreading the wealth', Newsweek, 14–21 May, http://www.newsweek.com/id/34873 Google Scholar

MT. AUBURN ASSOCIATES (2005), 'Louisiana: Where Culture Means Business', report to New Orleans, Office of Cultural Development, State of Louisiana, www.crt.state.la.us/CulturalEconomy/mtauburn/culturaleconomyreport.htm Google Scholar

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O'CONNER, J. and XIN, G. (2006), 'A new modernity: the arrival of creative industries in China', International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9, 271–83. A new modernity: the arrival of creative industries in China International Journal of Cultural Studies 9 271 83 Google Scholar

PEOPLE'S DAILY ONLINE (2008), 'Cultural industry reports over two-digit growth', 17 October, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/6517087.html Google Scholar

PORTER, M. (1998), On Competition, Boston, Harvard Business School Publishing. On Competition Google Scholar

PRATT, A. (2008), 'Cultural commodity chains, cultural clusters, or cultural production chains?', Journal of Growth and Change, 39, 95–103. Cultural commodity chains, cultural clusters, or cultural production chains? Journal of Growth and Change 39 95 103 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ROSSITER, N. (2006), 'Creative industries in Beijing: initial thoughts', Leonardo, 39, 367–70. Creative industries in Beijing: initial thoughts Leonardo 39 367 70 Google Scholar

SCOTT, A. (1997), 'The cultural economy of cities', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 21, 323–39. The cultural economy of cities International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 21 323 39 Google Scholar

TONG, S. (2006), 'Cultural resources, creative industries and the long economy', International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9, 307–16. Cultural resources, creative industries and the long economy International Journal of Cultural Studies 9 307 16 Google Scholar

UNESCO (UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION) (2006), 'Backgrounder on Cultural Industries', report to UNESCO, 12 November, http://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/culture/Cultural_Industries/HK_Open_Forum/Backgrounder-FINAL.pdf Google Scholar

WANG, J. (2000), Foreign Advertising in China: Becoming Global, Becoming Local, Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University Press. Foreign Advertising in China: Becoming Global, Becoming Local Google Scholar

WEBSTER, D. (2011), 'City building in China: implications for urban land and form efficiency', in Birch, E. and Wachter, S. (eds), Global Urbanization in the 21st Century, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 212–33. City building in China: implications for urban land and form efficiency Global Urbanization in the 21st Century 212 33 Google Scholar

WTO (WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION) (2007), Tourism Market Trends: Asia and the Pacific, 2006 edition, WTO, Madrid. Google Scholar

XIN, Z. (2004), 'Dissecting China's middle class', China Daily, 27 October, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-10/27/content_386060.htm Google Scholar

YATSKO, P. (2001), New Shanghai: The Rocky Rebirth of China's Legendary City, New York, John Wiley. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

YUSUF, S. and NABESHIMA, K. (2005), 'Creative industries in East Asia', Cities, 22, 109–22. Creative industries in East Asia Cities 22 109 22 Google Scholar

ZHANG, J. (2007), Development of Creative Industries in China, Beijing, China's Economy Publishing. Development of Creative Industries in China Google Scholar

ZHANG, X. (2006), 'From institution to industry: reforms in cultural institutions', International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9, 297–306. From institution to industry: reforms in cultural institutions International Journal of Cultural Studies 9 297 306 Google Scholar

AKAMATUS, K. (1962), 'A historical pattern of economic growth in developing countries', Journal of Developing Economies, 1, 3–25. A historical pattern of economic growth in developing countries Journal of Developing Economies 1 3 25 Google Scholar

BELL, D. (1973), The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting, New York, Basic Books. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting Google Scholar

BELLAICHE, J.-M., MEI-POCHTLER, A. and HANISCH, D. (2010), 'The New World of Luxury: Caught between Growing Momentum and Lasting Change', report to the Boston Consulting Group. http://www.bcg.com/documents/file67444 Google Scholar

BROWN-SARACINO, J. (2004), 'Social preservationists and the quest for authentic community', City & Community, 3, 135–56. Social preservationists and the quest for authentic community City & Community 3 135 56 Google Scholar

CAMPANELLA, T. (2008), The Concrete Dragon: China's Urban Revolution and What It Means for the World, New York, Princeton Architectural Press. The Concrete Dragon: China's Urban Revolution and What It Means for the World Google Scholar

CHENG, C. (2008), '798 Art District: a world of art', Beijing This Month, 15 October, http://www.btmbeijing.com/ Google Scholar

CHINA KNOWLEDGE PRESS (2005), China Domestic Tourism Market, Singapore, China Knowledge Press. Google Scholar

DENATALE, D. and WASSALL, G. (2007), 'The Creative Economy: A New Definition', Boston, report to the New England Foundation for the Arts, http://www.nefa.org/pubs/documents/CEReport2007_000.pdf Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

FLORIDA, R. (2002), 'Bohemia and economic geography', Journal of Economic Geography, 2, 55–71. Bohemia and economic geography Journal of Economic Geography 2 55 71 Google Scholar

FLORIDA, R. (2003), The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community, and Everyday Life, New York, Basic Books. The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community, and Everyday Life Google Scholar

FOSHAN MUNICIPALITY (2008), 'Tourism Bureau Statistics', report to Foshan Municipality, http://www.foshan.gov.cn/english/kmafs Google Scholar

HEMPEL, J. (2006), 'Designed in China: the best D-schools for creative talent', Businessweek, 9 October, http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_41/b4004412.htm Google Scholar

HODGSON, A. (2007), 'China's middle class reaches 80 million', Euromonitor, http://www.euromonitor.com/Chinas_middle_class_reaches_80_million Google Scholar

HUI, D. (2006), 'From cultural to creative industries: strategies for the Chaoyang District, Beijing', International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9, 317–31. From cultural to creative industries: strategies for the Chaoyang District, Beijing International Journal of Cultural Studies 9 317 31 Google Scholar

JACKSON, P. (2004), 'Local consumption cultures in a globalizing world', Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 29, 165–78. Local consumption cultures in a globalizing world Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 29 165 78 Google Scholar

KEANE, M. (2006), 'From made in China to created in China', International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9, 285–96. From made in China to created in China International Journal of Cultural Studies 9 285 96 Google Scholar

LAFRANIERE, S. (2009), 'All-nighter? For this test, some Chinese cram all year', New York Times, 12 June. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/13/world/asia/13exam.html?hpw Google Scholar

LARMER, B. (2010), 'Shop, China, Shop', New York Times Magazine, global edition, 28 November. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/28/magazine/28ChinaPortfolio-t.html Google Scholar

LU, H. (2000), 'To be relatively comfortable in an egalitarian society', in Deborah Davis (ed.), The Consumer Revolution in Urban China, Berkeley, University of California Press, pp. 124–44. To be relatively comfortable in an egalitarian society The Consumer Revolution in Urban China 124 44 Google Scholar

MARKUSEN, A. and GADWA, A. (2010), 'Arts and culture in urban or regional planning: a review and research agenda', Journal of Planning Education and Research, 29, 379–91. Google Scholar

MATTHEWS, O. (2007), 'Spreading the wealth', Newsweek, 14–21 May, http://www.newsweek.com/id/34873 Google Scholar

MT. AUBURN ASSOCIATES (2005), 'Louisiana: Where Culture Means Business', report to New Orleans, Office of Cultural Development, State of Louisiana, www.crt.state.la.us/CulturalEconomy/mtauburn/culturaleconomyreport.htm Google Scholar

MULLER, L. (2005), 'Localizing international investment: the advertising industry in Southeast Asia', in T. Hutton, P. Daniels and K. C. Ho (eds), Service Industries and Asia Pacific Cities: New Development Trajectories, London, Routledge, pp. 133–52. Localizing international investment: the advertising industry in Southeast Asia Service Industries and Asia Pacific Cities: New Development Trajectories 133 52 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA (2010), 'Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2009 National Economic and Social Development', report for the National Bureau of Statistics of China, 26 February. http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/StatisticalCommuniques/ Google Scholar

O'CONNER, J. and XIN, G. (2006), 'A new modernity: the arrival of creative industries in China', International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9, 271–83. A new modernity: the arrival of creative industries in China International Journal of Cultural Studies 9 271 83 Google Scholar

PEOPLE'S DAILY ONLINE (2008), 'Cultural industry reports over two-digit growth', 17 October, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/6517087.html Google Scholar

PORTER, M. (1998), On Competition, Boston, Harvard Business School Publishing. On Competition Google Scholar

PRATT, A. (2008), 'Cultural commodity chains, cultural clusters, or cultural production chains?', Journal of Growth and Change, 39, 95–103. Cultural commodity chains, cultural clusters, or cultural production chains? Journal of Growth and Change 39 95 103 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ROSSITER, N. (2006), 'Creative industries in Beijing: initial thoughts', Leonardo, 39, 367–70. Creative industries in Beijing: initial thoughts Leonardo 39 367 70 Google Scholar

SCOTT, A. (1997), 'The cultural economy of cities', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 21, 323–39. The cultural economy of cities International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 21 323 39 Google Scholar

TONG, S. (2006), 'Cultural resources, creative industries and the long economy', International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9, 307–16. Cultural resources, creative industries and the long economy International Journal of Cultural Studies 9 307 16 Google Scholar

UNESCO (UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION) (2006), 'Backgrounder on Cultural Industries', report to UNESCO, 12 November, http://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/culture/Cultural_Industries/HK_Open_Forum/Backgrounder-FINAL.pdf Google Scholar

WANG, J. (2000), Foreign Advertising in China: Becoming Global, Becoming Local, Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University Press. Foreign Advertising in China: Becoming Global, Becoming Local Google Scholar

WEBSTER, D. (2011), 'City building in China: implications for urban land and form efficiency', in Birch, E. and Wachter, S. (eds), Global Urbanization in the 21st Century, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 212–33. City building in China: implications for urban land and form efficiency Global Urbanization in the 21st Century 212 33 Google Scholar

WTO (WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION) (2007), Tourism Market Trends: Asia and the Pacific, 2006 edition, WTO, Madrid. Google Scholar

XIN, Z. (2004), 'Dissecting China's middle class', China Daily, 27 October, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-10/27/content_386060.htm Google Scholar

YATSKO, P. (2001), New Shanghai: The Rocky Rebirth of China's Legendary City, New York, John Wiley. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

YUSUF, S. and NABESHIMA, K. (2005), 'Creative industries in East Asia', Cities, 22, 109–22. Creative industries in East Asia Cities 22 109 22 Google Scholar

ZHANG, J. (2007), Development of Creative Industries in China, Beijing, China's Economy Publishing. Development of Creative Industries in China Google Scholar

ZHANG, X. (2006), 'From institution to industry: reforms in cultural institutions', International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9, 297–306. From institution to industry: reforms in cultural institutions International Journal of Cultural Studies 9 297 306 Google Scholar

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Author details

Webster, Douglas

Muller, Larissa

Cai, Jianming