International Development Planning Review

Urban resilience and main streets in Ankara

International Development Planning Review (2014), 36, (3), 313–336.

Abstract

The decline of main streets and the rise of shopping centres have been discussed for decades. This paper aims to describe the role of main streets in achieving a high level of urban resilience. We analyse shopping preferences of main street users in terms of resilience. The increasing number of shopping centres has become a threat for main streets in Ankara, which has the highest level of shopping centre space supply among Turkish cities. Our research area covers 11 main streets in the Central Business District. Users' perceptions on various street attributes, shopping and the built environment are investigated using a survey. The survey results show that main streets are mainly used by urban dwellers living near the city centre. The users visit these streets for shopping, eating and entertainment purposes. This creates personal bonds and familiarity, offering trust in a cozy atmosphere with reasonable prices and the opportunity to bargain increase loyalty, which contributes to the economic resilience. This proves the strength of main streets and retailers on main streets to adapt to the effects of a possible economic crisis. In-depth interviews reveal that revitalisation programmes that take into account the strengths of the main streets will enhance user diversity, store variety and attract special brands in main streets.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ALZUBAIDI, H., VIGNALI, C., DAVIES, B. and SCHMIDT, R. A. (1997), ‘Town centre versus out-of-town shopping: a consumer perspective’, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 25, 78-89. ‘Town centre versus out-of-town shopping: a consumer perspective’ International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 25 78 89 Google Scholar

BANERJEE, T. (2001), ‘The Future of Public Space Beyond Invented Streets and Reinvented Places’, APA Journal, 67, 9-24. ‘The Future of Public Space Beyond Invented Streets and Reinvented Places’ APA Journal 67 9 24 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BARNETT, J. (2001), ‘Adapting to climate change in Pacific Island communities’, World Development, 29, 977-93. ‘Adapting to climate change in Pacific Island communities’ World Development 29 977 93 Google Scholar

BEATLEY, T. (2009), Planning for coastal resilience, Washington, DC, Island Press. Planning for coastal resilience Google Scholar

BERKES, F. and FOLKE, C. (eds) (1998), Linking social and ecological systems: management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. Linking social and ecological systems: management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience Google Scholar

CARMONA, M., HEATH, T., OC, T. and TIESDELL, S. (2003), Public Spaces Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design, Oxford, Architectural Press. Public Spaces Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design Google Scholar

COAFFEE, J. (2008), ‘Risk, resilience, and environmentally sustainable cities’, Energy Policy, 36, 4633-38. ‘Risk, resilience, and environmentally sustainable cities’ Energy Policy 36 4633 38 Google Scholar

CUSHMAN AND WAKEFIELD (2012), ‘Main Streets Across the World’, Research Publication, Cushman & Wakefield http://media.cushmanwakefield.com/~/media/global-reports/Main%20Streets%20Across%20the%20World_2012-2013.ashx Google Scholar

ERCOSKUN, O. Y. (2010), ‘Green urban planning and design for smarter communities’, in A. Hallin and T. Karrbom Gustavsson (eds), Organizational Communication and Sustainable Development, Hershey, Information Science Publishing, 41-59. Organizational Communication and Sustainable Development 41 59 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

FAHMI, W. and SUTTON, K. (2009), ‘Reviving historical Cairo through pedestrianisation: the al-Azhar Street axis’, International Development Planning Review, 25, 407-31. ‘Reviving historical Cairo through pedestrianisation: the al-Azhar Street axis’ International Development Planning Review 25 407 31 Google Scholar

FERNANDES, J. R., and CHAMUSCA, P. (2012), ‘Urban policies, planning and retail resilience’, Cities, 36, 170-77. ‘Urban policies, planning and retail resilience’ Cities 36 170 77 Google Scholar

FOLKE, C., COLDING, J. and BERKES, F. (2003), ‘Synthesis: Building resilience and adaptive capacity in social-ecological systems’, in Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C. (eds), Navigating social-ecological systems, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 352-87. Navigating social-ecological systems 352 87 Google Scholar

GREGORY, D. and URRY, J. (eds) (1985), Social Relations and Spatial Structures, London, Macmillan. Social Relations and Spatial Structures Google Scholar

HARVEY, D. (2007), A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford, Oxford University Press. A Brief History of Neoliberalism Google Scholar

HOPKINS, R. (2010), ‘What can communities do?’, in Heinberg, R. and Lerch, D. (eds), The post-carbon reader: Managing the 21st century's sustainability crises, Healdsburg, CA, Watershed Media, 1-8. The post-carbon reader: Managing the 21st century's sustainability crises 1 8 Google Scholar

JACOBS, J. (1961), The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York, Vintage Books. The Death and Life of Great American Cities Google Scholar

LEO, P. Y. and PHILLIPE, J. (2002), ‘Retail centres: Location and consumer's satisfaction’, The Service Industries Journal, 22, 122-46. ‘Retail centres: Location and consumer's satisfaction’ The Service Industries Journal 22 122 46 Google Scholar

LYNCH, K., (1960), The Image of the City, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. The Image of the City Google Scholar

MACDONALD, J. M., STOKES, R. and BLUTHENTHAL, R. (2010), ‘The role of community context in business district revitalisation strategies: Business improvement districts in Los Angeles’, Public Performance and Management Review, 33, 436-58. ‘The role of community context in business district revitalisation strategies: Business improvement districts in Los Angeles’ Public Performance and Management Review 33 436 58 Google Scholar

MANZI, T., LUCAS, K., JONES, T.L. and ALLEN, J. (eds) (2010), Social Sustainability in Urban Areas: Communities, Connectivity and the Urban Fabric, London, Earthscan Ltd. Social Sustainability in Urban Areas: Communities, Connectivity and the Urban Fabric Google Scholar

MORENO-JIMENEZ, A. (2001), ‘Interurban shopping, new town planning and local development in Madrid metropolitan area’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 8, 291-98. ‘Interurban shopping, new town planning and local development in Madrid metropolitan area’ Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 8 291 98 Google Scholar

MUMFORD, L. (1961), The City in History: Its Origin, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects, New York, Mariner Books. The City in History: Its Origin, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects Google Scholar

NATIONAL TRUST MAIN STREET CENTER (N.D.) http://www.preservationnation.org/main-street/ Google Scholar

NEF (NEW ECONOMICS FOUNDATION) (N.D.), New Economics Foundation http://www.neweconomics.org/projects/clone-town-britain Google Scholar

NEWMAN, P. and JENNINGS, I. (2008), Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems Principles and Practices, Washington, DC, Island Press. Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems Principles and Practices Google Scholar

OGDEN, J. R. and OGDEN, D. T. (2004), Retailing: Integrated Retail Management, Boston, South-Western College Publications. Retailing: Integrated Retail Management Google Scholar

ORTAYLI, I. (2008), Ilgi Bekleyen Ankara, Milliyet Pazar http://www.milliyet.com.tr/2008/01/06/pazar/yazortay.html Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

OZUDURU, B., VAROL, C. and ERCOSKUN, O. Y. (2012), ‘Do shopping centres abate the resilience of shopping streets? The co-existence of both shopping venues in Ankara, Turkey’, Cities, 36, 145-57. ‘Do shopping centres abate the resilience of shopping streets? The co-existence of both shopping venues in Ankara, Turkey’ Cities 36 145 57 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

RESILIENCE ALLIANCE (N.D.), ‘Resilience’ http://www.resalliance.org/index.php/resilience Google Scholar

RGS (ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY) (N.D.) http://www.rgs.org/ourwork/schools/fieldwork+and+local+learning/fieldwork+techniques/urban+and+settlement.htm Google Scholar

ROBERTSON, K. A. (1997), ‘Downtown retail revitalization: a review of American development strategies’, Planning Perspectives, 12, 383-401. ‘Downtown retail revitalization: a review of American development strategies’ Planning Perspectives 12 383 401 Google Scholar

SIMMS, A., KJELL, P. and POTTS, R. (2005), Clone Town Britain, London, New Economics Foundation Publications. Clone Town Britain Google Scholar

SOUTHWORTH, M. (2005), ‘Reinventing main street: From mall to townscape mall’, Journal of Urban Design, 10,151-70. ‘Reinventing main street: From mall to townscape mall’ Journal of Urban Design 10 151 70 Google Scholar

TELLER, C. (2008), ‘Shopping streets versus shopping malls: Determinants of agglomeration format attractiveness from consumers' point of view’, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 18, 381-403. ‘Shopping streets versus shopping malls: Determinants of agglomeration format attractiveness from consumers' point of view’ The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 18 381 403 Google Scholar

UNDERHILL, P. (2005), Alisveris Merkezleri Nereye Kadar?, Istanbul, Soysal Yayinlari. Alisveris Merkezleri Nereye Kadar? Google Scholar

UNISDR (UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION) (2010), ‘Making cities resilient: My city is getting ready’, 2010-2011 World Disaster Reduction Campaign Report, Geneva, UN. Google Scholar

WALKER, B., HOLLINGER, C. S., CARPENTER, S. R. and KINZIG, A. (2004), ‘Resilience, adaptability and transformability in socio-ecological systems’, Ecology and Society, 9, article 5. ‘Resilience, adaptability and transformability in socio-ecological systems’ Ecology and Society 9 Google Scholar

WARNABY G. and MEDWAY, D. (2004), ‘The Role of Place Marketing as a Competitive Response by Town Centres to Out-of-town Retail Developments’, Int. Rev. of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 14, 457-77. ‘The Role of Place Marketing as a Competitive Response by Town Centres to Out-of-town Retail Developments’ Int. Rev. of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 14 457 77 Google Scholar

WATSON, S. (2009), ‘The Magic of the Marketplace: Sociality in a Neglected Public Space’, Urban Studies, 46, 1577-91. ‘The Magic of the Marketplace: Sociality in a Neglected Public Space’ Urban Studies 46 1577 91 Google Scholar

WEBER, M. (1966), The City, New York, The Free Press. The City Google Scholar

WHEELER, S. M. (2004), Planning for Sustainability: Creating Livable, Equitable, and Ecological Communities, New York, Routledge. Planning for Sustainability: Creating Livable, Equitable, and Ecological Communities Google Scholar

WRIGLEY, N. and DOLEGA, L. (2011), ‘Resilience, Fragility, and Adaptation: New Evidence on the Performance of UK High Streets During Global Economic Crisis and Its Policy Implications’, Environment and Planning A, 43, 2337-63. ‘Resilience, Fragility, and Adaptation: New Evidence on the Performance of UK High Streets During Global Economic Crisis and Its Policy Implications’ Environment and Planning A 43 2337 63 Google Scholar

ALZUBAIDI, H., VIGNALI, C., DAVIES, B. and SCHMIDT, R. A. (1997), ‘Town centre versus out-of-town shopping: a consumer perspective’, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 25, 78-89. ‘Town centre versus out-of-town shopping: a consumer perspective’ International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 25 78 89 Google Scholar

BANERJEE, T. (2001), ‘The Future of Public Space Beyond Invented Streets and Reinvented Places’, APA Journal, 67, 9-24. ‘The Future of Public Space Beyond Invented Streets and Reinvented Places’ APA Journal 67 9 24 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BARNETT, J. (2001), ‘Adapting to climate change in Pacific Island communities’, World Development, 29, 977-93. ‘Adapting to climate change in Pacific Island communities’ World Development 29 977 93 Google Scholar

BEATLEY, T. (2009), Planning for coastal resilience, Washington, DC, Island Press. Planning for coastal resilience Google Scholar

BERKES, F. and FOLKE, C. (eds) (1998), Linking social and ecological systems: management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. Linking social and ecological systems: management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience Google Scholar

CARMONA, M., HEATH, T., OC, T. and TIESDELL, S. (2003), Public Spaces Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design, Oxford, Architectural Press. Public Spaces Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design Google Scholar

COAFFEE, J. (2008), ‘Risk, resilience, and environmentally sustainable cities’, Energy Policy, 36, 4633-38. ‘Risk, resilience, and environmentally sustainable cities’ Energy Policy 36 4633 38 Google Scholar

CUSHMAN AND WAKEFIELD (2012), ‘Main Streets Across the World’, Research Publication, Cushman & Wakefield http://media.cushmanwakefield.com/~/media/global-reports/Main%20Streets%20Across%20the%20World_2012-2013.ashx Google Scholar

ERCOSKUN, O. Y. (2010), ‘Green urban planning and design for smarter communities’, in A. Hallin and T. Karrbom Gustavsson (eds), Organizational Communication and Sustainable Development, Hershey, Information Science Publishing, 41-59. Organizational Communication and Sustainable Development 41 59 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

FAHMI, W. and SUTTON, K. (2009), ‘Reviving historical Cairo through pedestrianisation: the al-Azhar Street axis’, International Development Planning Review, 25, 407-31. ‘Reviving historical Cairo through pedestrianisation: the al-Azhar Street axis’ International Development Planning Review 25 407 31 Google Scholar

FERNANDES, J. R., and CHAMUSCA, P. (2012), ‘Urban policies, planning and retail resilience’, Cities, 36, 170-77. ‘Urban policies, planning and retail resilience’ Cities 36 170 77 Google Scholar

FOLKE, C., COLDING, J. and BERKES, F. (2003), ‘Synthesis: Building resilience and adaptive capacity in social-ecological systems’, in Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C. (eds), Navigating social-ecological systems, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 352-87. Navigating social-ecological systems 352 87 Google Scholar

GREGORY, D. and URRY, J. (eds) (1985), Social Relations and Spatial Structures, London, Macmillan. Social Relations and Spatial Structures Google Scholar

HARVEY, D. (2007), A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford, Oxford University Press. A Brief History of Neoliberalism Google Scholar

HOPKINS, R. (2010), ‘What can communities do?’, in Heinberg, R. and Lerch, D. (eds), The post-carbon reader: Managing the 21st century's sustainability crises, Healdsburg, CA, Watershed Media, 1-8. The post-carbon reader: Managing the 21st century's sustainability crises 1 8 Google Scholar

JACOBS, J. (1961), The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York, Vintage Books. The Death and Life of Great American Cities Google Scholar

LEO, P. Y. and PHILLIPE, J. (2002), ‘Retail centres: Location and consumer's satisfaction’, The Service Industries Journal, 22, 122-46. ‘Retail centres: Location and consumer's satisfaction’ The Service Industries Journal 22 122 46 Google Scholar

LYNCH, K., (1960), The Image of the City, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. The Image of the City Google Scholar

MACDONALD, J. M., STOKES, R. and BLUTHENTHAL, R. (2010), ‘The role of community context in business district revitalisation strategies: Business improvement districts in Los Angeles’, Public Performance and Management Review, 33, 436-58. ‘The role of community context in business district revitalisation strategies: Business improvement districts in Los Angeles’ Public Performance and Management Review 33 436 58 Google Scholar

MANZI, T., LUCAS, K., JONES, T.L. and ALLEN, J. (eds) (2010), Social Sustainability in Urban Areas: Communities, Connectivity and the Urban Fabric, London, Earthscan Ltd. Social Sustainability in Urban Areas: Communities, Connectivity and the Urban Fabric Google Scholar

MORENO-JIMENEZ, A. (2001), ‘Interurban shopping, new town planning and local development in Madrid metropolitan area’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 8, 291-98. ‘Interurban shopping, new town planning and local development in Madrid metropolitan area’ Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 8 291 98 Google Scholar

MUMFORD, L. (1961), The City in History: Its Origin, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects, New York, Mariner Books. The City in History: Its Origin, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects Google Scholar

NATIONAL TRUST MAIN STREET CENTER (N.D.) http://www.preservationnation.org/main-street/ Google Scholar

NEF (NEW ECONOMICS FOUNDATION) (N.D.), New Economics Foundation http://www.neweconomics.org/projects/clone-town-britain Google Scholar

NEWMAN, P. and JENNINGS, I. (2008), Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems Principles and Practices, Washington, DC, Island Press. Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems Principles and Practices Google Scholar

OGDEN, J. R. and OGDEN, D. T. (2004), Retailing: Integrated Retail Management, Boston, South-Western College Publications. Retailing: Integrated Retail Management Google Scholar

ORTAYLI, I. (2008), Ilgi Bekleyen Ankara, Milliyet Pazar http://www.milliyet.com.tr/2008/01/06/pazar/yazortay.html Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

OZUDURU, B., VAROL, C. and ERCOSKUN, O. Y. (2012), ‘Do shopping centres abate the resilience of shopping streets? The co-existence of both shopping venues in Ankara, Turkey’, Cities, 36, 145-57. ‘Do shopping centres abate the resilience of shopping streets? The co-existence of both shopping venues in Ankara, Turkey’ Cities 36 145 57 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

RESILIENCE ALLIANCE (N.D.), ‘Resilience’ http://www.resalliance.org/index.php/resilience Google Scholar

RGS (ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY) (N.D.) http://www.rgs.org/ourwork/schools/fieldwork+and+local+learning/fieldwork+techniques/urban+and+settlement.htm Google Scholar

ROBERTSON, K. A. (1997), ‘Downtown retail revitalization: a review of American development strategies’, Planning Perspectives, 12, 383-401. ‘Downtown retail revitalization: a review of American development strategies’ Planning Perspectives 12 383 401 Google Scholar

SIMMS, A., KJELL, P. and POTTS, R. (2005), Clone Town Britain, London, New Economics Foundation Publications. Clone Town Britain Google Scholar

SOUTHWORTH, M. (2005), ‘Reinventing main street: From mall to townscape mall’, Journal of Urban Design, 10,151-70. ‘Reinventing main street: From mall to townscape mall’ Journal of Urban Design 10 151 70 Google Scholar

TELLER, C. (2008), ‘Shopping streets versus shopping malls: Determinants of agglomeration format attractiveness from consumers' point of view’, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 18, 381-403. ‘Shopping streets versus shopping malls: Determinants of agglomeration format attractiveness from consumers' point of view’ The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 18 381 403 Google Scholar

UNDERHILL, P. (2005), Alisveris Merkezleri Nereye Kadar?, Istanbul, Soysal Yayinlari. Alisveris Merkezleri Nereye Kadar? Google Scholar

UNISDR (UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION) (2010), ‘Making cities resilient: My city is getting ready’, 2010-2011 World Disaster Reduction Campaign Report, Geneva, UN. Google Scholar

WALKER, B., HOLLINGER, C. S., CARPENTER, S. R. and KINZIG, A. (2004), ‘Resilience, adaptability and transformability in socio-ecological systems’, Ecology and Society, 9, article 5. ‘Resilience, adaptability and transformability in socio-ecological systems’ Ecology and Society 9 Google Scholar

WARNABY G. and MEDWAY, D. (2004), ‘The Role of Place Marketing as a Competitive Response by Town Centres to Out-of-town Retail Developments’, Int. Rev. of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 14, 457-77. ‘The Role of Place Marketing as a Competitive Response by Town Centres to Out-of-town Retail Developments’ Int. Rev. of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 14 457 77 Google Scholar

WATSON, S. (2009), ‘The Magic of the Marketplace: Sociality in a Neglected Public Space’, Urban Studies, 46, 1577-91. ‘The Magic of the Marketplace: Sociality in a Neglected Public Space’ Urban Studies 46 1577 91 Google Scholar

WEBER, M. (1966), The City, New York, The Free Press. The City Google Scholar

WHEELER, S. M. (2004), Planning for Sustainability: Creating Livable, Equitable, and Ecological Communities, New York, Routledge. Planning for Sustainability: Creating Livable, Equitable, and Ecological Communities Google Scholar

WRIGLEY, N. and DOLEGA, L. (2011), ‘Resilience, Fragility, and Adaptation: New Evidence on the Performance of UK High Streets During Global Economic Crisis and Its Policy Implications’, Environment and Planning A, 43, 2337-63. ‘Resilience, Fragility, and Adaptation: New Evidence on the Performance of UK High Streets During Global Economic Crisis and Its Policy Implications’ Environment and Planning A 43 2337 63 Google Scholar

ALZUBAIDI, H., VIGNALI, C., DAVIES, B. and SCHMIDT, R. A. (1997), ‘Town centre versus out-of-town shopping: a consumer perspective’, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 25, 78-89. ‘Town centre versus out-of-town shopping: a consumer perspective’ International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 25 78 89 Google Scholar

BANERJEE, T. (2001), ‘The Future of Public Space Beyond Invented Streets and Reinvented Places’, APA Journal, 67, 9-24. ‘The Future of Public Space Beyond Invented Streets and Reinvented Places’ APA Journal 67 9 24 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BARNETT, J. (2001), ‘Adapting to climate change in Pacific Island communities’, World Development, 29, 977-93. ‘Adapting to climate change in Pacific Island communities’ World Development 29 977 93 Google Scholar

BEATLEY, T. (2009), Planning for coastal resilience, Washington, DC, Island Press. Planning for coastal resilience Google Scholar

BERKES, F. and FOLKE, C. (eds) (1998), Linking social and ecological systems: management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. Linking social and ecological systems: management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience Google Scholar

CARMONA, M., HEATH, T., OC, T. and TIESDELL, S. (2003), Public Spaces Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design, Oxford, Architectural Press. Public Spaces Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design Google Scholar

COAFFEE, J. (2008), ‘Risk, resilience, and environmentally sustainable cities’, Energy Policy, 36, 4633-38. ‘Risk, resilience, and environmentally sustainable cities’ Energy Policy 36 4633 38 Google Scholar

CUSHMAN AND WAKEFIELD (2012), ‘Main Streets Across the World’, Research Publication, Cushman & Wakefield http://media.cushmanwakefield.com/~/media/global-reports/Main%20Streets%20Across%20the%20World_2012-2013.ashx Google Scholar

ERCOSKUN, O. Y. (2010), ‘Green urban planning and design for smarter communities’, in A. Hallin and T. Karrbom Gustavsson (eds), Organizational Communication and Sustainable Development, Hershey, Information Science Publishing, 41-59. Organizational Communication and Sustainable Development 41 59 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

FAHMI, W. and SUTTON, K. (2009), ‘Reviving historical Cairo through pedestrianisation: the al-Azhar Street axis’, International Development Planning Review, 25, 407-31. ‘Reviving historical Cairo through pedestrianisation: the al-Azhar Street axis’ International Development Planning Review 25 407 31 Google Scholar

FERNANDES, J. R., and CHAMUSCA, P. (2012), ‘Urban policies, planning and retail resilience’, Cities, 36, 170-77. ‘Urban policies, planning and retail resilience’ Cities 36 170 77 Google Scholar

FOLKE, C., COLDING, J. and BERKES, F. (2003), ‘Synthesis: Building resilience and adaptive capacity in social-ecological systems’, in Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C. (eds), Navigating social-ecological systems, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 352-87. Navigating social-ecological systems 352 87 Google Scholar

GREGORY, D. and URRY, J. (eds) (1985), Social Relations and Spatial Structures, London, Macmillan. Social Relations and Spatial Structures Google Scholar

HARVEY, D. (2007), A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford, Oxford University Press. A Brief History of Neoliberalism Google Scholar

HOPKINS, R. (2010), ‘What can communities do?’, in Heinberg, R. and Lerch, D. (eds), The post-carbon reader: Managing the 21st century's sustainability crises, Healdsburg, CA, Watershed Media, 1-8. The post-carbon reader: Managing the 21st century's sustainability crises 1 8 Google Scholar

JACOBS, J. (1961), The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York, Vintage Books. The Death and Life of Great American Cities Google Scholar

LEO, P. Y. and PHILLIPE, J. (2002), ‘Retail centres: Location and consumer's satisfaction’, The Service Industries Journal, 22, 122-46. ‘Retail centres: Location and consumer's satisfaction’ The Service Industries Journal 22 122 46 Google Scholar

LYNCH, K., (1960), The Image of the City, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. The Image of the City Google Scholar

MACDONALD, J. M., STOKES, R. and BLUTHENTHAL, R. (2010), ‘The role of community context in business district revitalisation strategies: Business improvement districts in Los Angeles’, Public Performance and Management Review, 33, 436-58. ‘The role of community context in business district revitalisation strategies: Business improvement districts in Los Angeles’ Public Performance and Management Review 33 436 58 Google Scholar

MANZI, T., LUCAS, K., JONES, T.L. and ALLEN, J. (eds) (2010), Social Sustainability in Urban Areas: Communities, Connectivity and the Urban Fabric, London, Earthscan Ltd. Social Sustainability in Urban Areas: Communities, Connectivity and the Urban Fabric Google Scholar

MORENO-JIMENEZ, A. (2001), ‘Interurban shopping, new town planning and local development in Madrid metropolitan area’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 8, 291-98. ‘Interurban shopping, new town planning and local development in Madrid metropolitan area’ Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 8 291 98 Google Scholar

MUMFORD, L. (1961), The City in History: Its Origin, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects, New York, Mariner Books. The City in History: Its Origin, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects Google Scholar

NATIONAL TRUST MAIN STREET CENTER (N.D.) http://www.preservationnation.org/main-street/ Google Scholar

NEF (NEW ECONOMICS FOUNDATION) (N.D.), New Economics Foundation http://www.neweconomics.org/projects/clone-town-britain Google Scholar

NEWMAN, P. and JENNINGS, I. (2008), Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems Principles and Practices, Washington, DC, Island Press. Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems Principles and Practices Google Scholar

OGDEN, J. R. and OGDEN, D. T. (2004), Retailing: Integrated Retail Management, Boston, South-Western College Publications. Retailing: Integrated Retail Management Google Scholar

ORTAYLI, I. (2008), Ilgi Bekleyen Ankara, Milliyet Pazar http://www.milliyet.com.tr/2008/01/06/pazar/yazortay.html Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

OZUDURU, B., VAROL, C. and ERCOSKUN, O. Y. (2012), ‘Do shopping centres abate the resilience of shopping streets? The co-existence of both shopping venues in Ankara, Turkey’, Cities, 36, 145-57. ‘Do shopping centres abate the resilience of shopping streets? The co-existence of both shopping venues in Ankara, Turkey’ Cities 36 145 57 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

RESILIENCE ALLIANCE (N.D.), ‘Resilience’ http://www.resalliance.org/index.php/resilience Google Scholar

RGS (ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY) (N.D.) http://www.rgs.org/ourwork/schools/fieldwork+and+local+learning/fieldwork+techniques/urban+and+settlement.htm Google Scholar

ROBERTSON, K. A. (1997), ‘Downtown retail revitalization: a review of American development strategies’, Planning Perspectives, 12, 383-401. ‘Downtown retail revitalization: a review of American development strategies’ Planning Perspectives 12 383 401 Google Scholar

SIMMS, A., KJELL, P. and POTTS, R. (2005), Clone Town Britain, London, New Economics Foundation Publications. Clone Town Britain Google Scholar

SOUTHWORTH, M. (2005), ‘Reinventing main street: From mall to townscape mall’, Journal of Urban Design, 10,151-70. ‘Reinventing main street: From mall to townscape mall’ Journal of Urban Design 10 151 70 Google Scholar

TELLER, C. (2008), ‘Shopping streets versus shopping malls: Determinants of agglomeration format attractiveness from consumers' point of view’, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 18, 381-403. ‘Shopping streets versus shopping malls: Determinants of agglomeration format attractiveness from consumers' point of view’ The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 18 381 403 Google Scholar

UNDERHILL, P. (2005), Alisveris Merkezleri Nereye Kadar?, Istanbul, Soysal Yayinlari. Alisveris Merkezleri Nereye Kadar? Google Scholar

UNISDR (UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION) (2010), ‘Making cities resilient: My city is getting ready’, 2010-2011 World Disaster Reduction Campaign Report, Geneva, UN. Google Scholar

WALKER, B., HOLLINGER, C. S., CARPENTER, S. R. and KINZIG, A. (2004), ‘Resilience, adaptability and transformability in socio-ecological systems’, Ecology and Society, 9, article 5. ‘Resilience, adaptability and transformability in socio-ecological systems’ Ecology and Society 9 Google Scholar

WARNABY G. and MEDWAY, D. (2004), ‘The Role of Place Marketing as a Competitive Response by Town Centres to Out-of-town Retail Developments’, Int. Rev. of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 14, 457-77. ‘The Role of Place Marketing as a Competitive Response by Town Centres to Out-of-town Retail Developments’ Int. Rev. of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 14 457 77 Google Scholar

WATSON, S. (2009), ‘The Magic of the Marketplace: Sociality in a Neglected Public Space’, Urban Studies, 46, 1577-91. ‘The Magic of the Marketplace: Sociality in a Neglected Public Space’ Urban Studies 46 1577 91 Google Scholar

WEBER, M. (1966), The City, New York, The Free Press. The City Google Scholar

WHEELER, S. M. (2004), Planning for Sustainability: Creating Livable, Equitable, and Ecological Communities, New York, Routledge. Planning for Sustainability: Creating Livable, Equitable, and Ecological Communities Google Scholar

WRIGLEY, N. and DOLEGA, L. (2011), ‘Resilience, Fragility, and Adaptation: New Evidence on the Performance of UK High Streets During Global Economic Crisis and Its Policy Implications’, Environment and Planning A, 43, 2337-63. ‘Resilience, Fragility, and Adaptation: New Evidence on the Performance of UK High Streets During Global Economic Crisis and Its Policy Implications’ Environment and Planning A 43 2337 63 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Ercoskun, Ozge

Ozuduru, Burcu

Ercoskun, Ozge

Ozuduru, Burcu