Contemporary French Civilization

THE NEXT GENE(T)RATION: AUTHENTICITY AND (HOMO) SEXUAL CITIZENSHIP IN CONTEMPORARY FRENCH GAY CULTURE

Contemporary French Civilization (2002), 26, (2), 335–346.

Abstract

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WORKS CITED

Altman, Dennis. “Global gays/Global gaze.” GLQ 3 (1997): 417–436. Google Scholar

Altman, Dennis. “Rupture or Continuity? The Internationalization of Gay Identities.” Social Text (Fall 1996): 77–94. Google Scholar

Bell, David and John Binnie. The Sexual Citizen: Queer Politics and Beyond. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. Google Scholar

Bersani, Leo. Homos. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Google Scholar

Braudel, Fernand. L'Identité de la France. Paris: Arthaud-Flammarion, 1986. Google Scholar

Bullock, Barbara E. and Denis M. Provencher. “The Linguistic Representation of Femininity and Masculinity in Jean Genet's Notre-Dame des Fleurs.” French Cultural Studies 12:1 (2001): 43–58. Google Scholar

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Collard, Cyril. Les Nuits fauves. Paris: Flammarion, 1989. Google Scholar

Dyer, Richard. Now You See It: Studies on Lesbian and Gay Film. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Eribon, Didier. Réflexions sur la question gay. Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1999. Google Scholar

Fassin, Eric. “Same Sex, Different Politics: ‘Gay Marriage’ Debates in France and the United States.” Public Culture 13(2): 215–232. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. La Volonté du savoir. Paris: Gallimard, 1976. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. Technologies of the Self. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988. Google Scholar

Gaultier, Jean-Paul. Advertisement (Le Mâle). Têtu, May 1997: 19. Google Scholar

Genet, Jean. Notre-Dame des Fleurs. Paris: Gallimard, 1948 [reprint 1992]. Google Scholar

Graham, Colin. “Blame it on Maureen O'Hara: Ireland and the Trope of Authenticity.” Cultural Studies 15:1 (2001): 58–75. Google Scholar

Jackson, Jean. “Culture, Genuine and Spurious: the Politics of Indianness in the Vaupés, Colombia.” American Ethnologist 22(1): 3–27. Google Scholar

Leap, William. “Language, Socialization, and Silence in Gay Adolescence.” In Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse. Edited by Mary Bucholtz, A. C. Liang and Laurel A. Sutton New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 259–272. Google Scholar

Leap, William. Word's Out: Gay Men's English. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. Google Scholar

Leap, William., ed. Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imagination, and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers, 1995. Google Scholar

Martel, Frédéric. Le Rose et le noir: Les homosexuels en France depuis 1968. Paris: Seuil, 1996. Google Scholar

Marty, Pascal. Entre Benoît et toi. Paris: Editions Balland, 1999. Google Scholar

Minella, Alain-Gilles and Philippe Angelotti. Générations Gay. Paris: Editions Durocher, 1996. Google Scholar

Nora, Pierre. Les Lieux de mémoire. Paris: Gallimard: 1984–92. 7 Volumes. Google Scholar

Paluch, Walter. Personal interview. 13 May 1997. Google Scholar

Provencher, Denis M. “Vague English Creole: (Gay English) Cooperative Discourse in the French Gay Press.” Contemporary French Civilization 26:1 (2002): 86–110. Google Scholar

Rosello, Mireille. Declining the Stereotype: Ethnicity and Representation in French Cultures. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1998. Google Scholar

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Saint Genet, comédien et martyr. Paris: Gallimard, 1952. Google Scholar

Warner, Michael. The Trouble with Normal: Sex, Politics, and the Ethics of Queer Life. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2000. Google Scholar

White, Edmund. Genet: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. Google Scholar

Altman, Dennis. “Global gays/Global gaze.” GLQ 3 (1997): 417–436. Google Scholar

Altman, Dennis. “Global gays/Global gaze.” GLQ 3 (1997): 417–436. Google Scholar

Altman, Dennis. “Rupture or Continuity? The Internationalization of Gay Identities.” Social Text (Fall 1996): 77–94. Google Scholar

Altman, Dennis. “Rupture or Continuity? The Internationalization of Gay Identities.” Social Text (Fall 1996): 77–94. Google Scholar

Bell, David and John Binnie. The Sexual Citizen: Queer Politics and Beyond. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. Google Scholar

Bell, David and John Binnie. The Sexual Citizen: Queer Politics and Beyond. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. Google Scholar

Bersani, Leo. Homos. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Google Scholar

Bersani, Leo. Homos. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Google Scholar

Braudel, Fernand. L'Identité de la France. Paris: Arthaud-Flammarion, 1986. Google Scholar

Braudel, Fernand. L'Identité de la France. Paris: Arthaud-Flammarion, 1986. Google Scholar

Bullock, Barbara E. and Denis M. Provencher. “The Linguistic Representation of Femininity and Masculinity in Jean Genet's Notre-Dame des Fleurs.” French Cultural Studies 12:1 (2001): 43–58. Google Scholar

Bullock, Barbara E. and Denis M. Provencher. “The Linguistic Representation of Femininity and Masculinity in Jean Genet's Notre-Dame des Fleurs.” French Cultural Studies 12:1 (2001): 43–58. Google Scholar

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Collard, Cyril. Les Nuits fauves. Paris: Flammarion, 1989. Google Scholar

Dyer, Richard. Now You See It: Studies on Lesbian and Gay Film. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Collard, Cyril. Les Nuits fauves. Paris: Flammarion, 1989. Google Scholar

Dyer, Richard. Now You See It: Studies on Lesbian and Gay Film. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Eribon, Didier. Réflexions sur la question gay. Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1999. Google Scholar

Eribon, Didier. Réflexions sur la question gay. Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1999. Google Scholar

Fassin, Eric. “Same Sex, Different Politics: ‘Gay Marriage’ Debates in France and the United States.” Public Culture 13(2): 215–232. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. La Volonté du savoir. Paris: Gallimard, 1976. Google Scholar

Fassin, Eric. “Same Sex, Different Politics: ‘Gay Marriage’ Debates in France and the United States.” Public Culture 13(2): 215–232. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. Technologies of the Self. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. La Volonté du savoir. Paris: Gallimard, 1976. Google Scholar

Gaultier, Jean-Paul. Advertisement (Le Mâle). Têtu, May 1997: 19. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. Technologies of the Self. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988. Google Scholar

Gaultier, Jean-Paul. Advertisement (Le Mâle). Têtu, May 1997: 19. Google Scholar

Genet, Jean. Notre-Dame des Fleurs. Paris: Gallimard, 1948 [reprint 1992]. Google Scholar

Genet, Jean. Notre-Dame des Fleurs. Paris: Gallimard, 1948 [reprint 1992]. Google Scholar

Graham, Colin. “Blame it on Maureen O'Hara: Ireland and the Trope of Authenticity.” Cultural Studies 15:1 (2001): 58–75. Google Scholar

Graham, Colin. “Blame it on Maureen O'Hara: Ireland and the Trope of Authenticity.” Cultural Studies 15:1 (2001): 58–75. Google Scholar

Jackson, Jean. “Culture, Genuine and Spurious: the Politics of Indianness in the Vaupés, Colombia.” American Ethnologist 22(1): 3–27. Google Scholar

Jackson, Jean. “Culture, Genuine and Spurious: the Politics of Indianness in the Vaupés, Colombia.” American Ethnologist 22(1): 3–27. Google Scholar

Leap, William. “Language, Socialization, and Silence in Gay Adolescence.” In Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse. Edited by Mary Bucholtz, A. C. Liang and Laurel A. Sutton New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 259–272. Google Scholar

Leap, William. “Language, Socialization, and Silence in Gay Adolescence.” In Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse. Edited by Mary Bucholtz, A. C. Liang and Laurel A. Sutton New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 259–272. Google Scholar

Leap, William. Word's Out: Gay Men's English. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. Google Scholar

Leap, William. Word's Out: Gay Men's English. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. Google Scholar

Leap, William., ed. Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imagination, and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers, 1995. Google Scholar

Leap, William., ed. Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imagination, and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers, 1995. Google Scholar

Martel, Frédéric. Le Rose et le noir: Les homosexuels en France depuis 1968. Paris: Seuil, 1996. Google Scholar

Martel, Frédéric. Le Rose et le noir: Les homosexuels en France depuis 1968. Paris: Seuil, 1996. Google Scholar

Marty, Pascal. Entre Benoît et toi. Paris: Editions Balland, 1999. Google Scholar

Marty, Pascal. Entre Benoît et toi. Paris: Editions Balland, 1999. Google Scholar

Minella, Alain-Gilles and Philippe Angelotti. Générations Gay. Paris: Editions Durocher, 1996. Google Scholar

Minella, Alain-Gilles and Philippe Angelotti. Générations Gay. Paris: Editions Durocher, 1996. Google Scholar

Nora, Pierre. Les Lieux de mémoire. Paris: Gallimard: 1984–92. 7 Volumes. Google Scholar

Nora, Pierre. Les Lieux de mémoire. Paris: Gallimard: 1984–92. 7 Volumes. Google Scholar

Paluch, Walter. Personal interview. 13 May 1997. Google Scholar

Paluch, Walter. Personal interview. 13 May 1997. Google Scholar

Provencher, Denis M. “Vague English Creole: (Gay English) Cooperative Discourse in the French Gay Press.” Contemporary French Civilization 26:1 (2002): 86–110. Google Scholar

Provencher, Denis M. “Vague English Creole: (Gay English) Cooperative Discourse in the French Gay Press.” Contemporary French Civilization 26:1 (2002): 86–110. Google Scholar

Rosello, Mireille. Declining the Stereotype: Ethnicity and Representation in French Cultures. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1998. Google Scholar

Rosello, Mireille. Declining the Stereotype: Ethnicity and Representation in French Cultures. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1998. Google Scholar

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Saint Genet, comédien et martyr. Paris: Gallimard, 1952. Google Scholar

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Saint Genet, comédien et martyr. Paris: Gallimard, 1952. Google Scholar

Warner, Michael. The Trouble with Normal: Sex, Politics, and the Ethics of Queer Life. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2000. Google Scholar

Warner, Michael. The Trouble with Normal: Sex, Politics, and the Ethics of Queer Life. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2000. Google Scholar

White, Edmund. Genet: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. Google Scholar

White, Edmund. Genet: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. Google Scholar

Altman, Dennis. “Global gays/Global gaze.” GLQ 3 (1997): 417–436. Google Scholar

Altman, Dennis. “Rupture or Continuity? The Internationalization of Gay Identities.” Social Text (Fall 1996): 77–94. Google Scholar

Bell, David and John Binnie. The Sexual Citizen: Queer Politics and Beyond. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. Google Scholar

Bersani, Leo. Homos. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Google Scholar

Altman, Dennis. “Global gays/Global gaze.” GLQ 3 (1997): 417–436. Google Scholar

Altman, Dennis. “Rupture or Continuity? The Internationalization of Gay Identities.” Social Text (Fall 1996): 77–94. Google Scholar

Braudel, Fernand. L'Identité de la France. Paris: Arthaud-Flammarion, 1986. Google Scholar

Bell, David and John Binnie. The Sexual Citizen: Queer Politics and Beyond. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. Google Scholar

Bullock, Barbara E. and Denis M. Provencher. “The Linguistic Representation of Femininity and Masculinity in Jean Genet's Notre-Dame des Fleurs.” French Cultural Studies 12:1 (2001): 43–58. Google Scholar

Bersani, Leo. Homos. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Google Scholar

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Braudel, Fernand. L'Identité de la France. Paris: Arthaud-Flammarion, 1986. Google Scholar

Collard, Cyril. Les Nuits fauves. Paris: Flammarion, 1989. Google Scholar

Bullock, Barbara E. and Denis M. Provencher. “The Linguistic Representation of Femininity and Masculinity in Jean Genet's Notre-Dame des Fleurs.” French Cultural Studies 12:1 (2001): 43–58. Google Scholar

Dyer, Richard. Now You See It: Studies on Lesbian and Gay Film. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Eribon, Didier. Réflexions sur la question gay. Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1999. Google Scholar

Fassin, Eric. “Same Sex, Different Politics: ‘Gay Marriage’ Debates in France and the United States.” Public Culture 13(2): 215–232. Google Scholar

Collard, Cyril. Les Nuits fauves. Paris: Flammarion, 1989. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. La Volonté du savoir. Paris: Gallimard, 1976. Google Scholar

Dyer, Richard. Now You See It: Studies on Lesbian and Gay Film. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. Technologies of the Self. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988. Google Scholar

Eribon, Didier. Réflexions sur la question gay. Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1999. Google Scholar

Fassin, Eric. “Same Sex, Different Politics: ‘Gay Marriage’ Debates in France and the United States.” Public Culture 13(2): 215–232. Google Scholar

Gaultier, Jean-Paul. Advertisement (Le Mâle). Têtu, May 1997: 19. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. La Volonté du savoir. Paris: Gallimard, 1976. Google Scholar

Genet, Jean. Notre-Dame des Fleurs. Paris: Gallimard, 1948 [reprint 1992]. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. Technologies of the Self. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988. Google Scholar

Graham, Colin. “Blame it on Maureen O'Hara: Ireland and the Trope of Authenticity.” Cultural Studies 15:1 (2001): 58–75. Google Scholar

Gaultier, Jean-Paul. Advertisement (Le Mâle). Têtu, May 1997: 19. Google Scholar

Jackson, Jean. “Culture, Genuine and Spurious: the Politics of Indianness in the Vaupés, Colombia.” American Ethnologist 22(1): 3–27. Google Scholar

Leap, William. “Language, Socialization, and Silence in Gay Adolescence.” In Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse. Edited by Mary Bucholtz, A. C. Liang and Laurel A. Sutton New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 259–272. Google Scholar

Genet, Jean. Notre-Dame des Fleurs. Paris: Gallimard, 1948 [reprint 1992]. Google Scholar

Leap, William. Word's Out: Gay Men's English. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. Google Scholar

Graham, Colin. “Blame it on Maureen O'Hara: Ireland and the Trope of Authenticity.” Cultural Studies 15:1 (2001): 58–75. Google Scholar

Leap, William., ed. Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imagination, and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers, 1995. Google Scholar

Jackson, Jean. “Culture, Genuine and Spurious: the Politics of Indianness in the Vaupés, Colombia.” American Ethnologist 22(1): 3–27. Google Scholar

Martel, Frédéric. Le Rose et le noir: Les homosexuels en France depuis 1968. Paris: Seuil, 1996. Google Scholar

Leap, William. “Language, Socialization, and Silence in Gay Adolescence.” In Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse. Edited by Mary Bucholtz, A. C. Liang and Laurel A. Sutton New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 259–272. Google Scholar

Marty, Pascal. Entre Benoît et toi. Paris: Editions Balland, 1999. Google Scholar

Leap, William. Word's Out: Gay Men's English. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. Google Scholar

Minella, Alain-Gilles and Philippe Angelotti. Générations Gay. Paris: Editions Durocher, 1996. Google Scholar

Leap, William., ed. Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imagination, and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers, 1995. Google Scholar

Martel, Frédéric. Le Rose et le noir: Les homosexuels en France depuis 1968. Paris: Seuil, 1996. Google Scholar

Nora, Pierre. Les Lieux de mémoire. Paris: Gallimard: 1984–92. 7 Volumes. Google Scholar

Marty, Pascal. Entre Benoît et toi. Paris: Editions Balland, 1999. Google Scholar

Paluch, Walter. Personal interview. 13 May 1997. Google Scholar

Provencher, Denis M. “Vague English Creole: (Gay English) Cooperative Discourse in the French Gay Press.” Contemporary French Civilization 26:1 (2002): 86–110. Google Scholar

Minella, Alain-Gilles and Philippe Angelotti. Générations Gay. Paris: Editions Durocher, 1996. Google Scholar

Rosello, Mireille. Declining the Stereotype: Ethnicity and Representation in French Cultures. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1998. Google Scholar

Nora, Pierre. Les Lieux de mémoire. Paris: Gallimard: 1984–92. 7 Volumes. Google Scholar

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Saint Genet, comédien et martyr. Paris: Gallimard, 1952. Google Scholar

Paluch, Walter. Personal interview. 13 May 1997. Google Scholar

Warner, Michael. The Trouble with Normal: Sex, Politics, and the Ethics of Queer Life. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2000. Google Scholar

Provencher, Denis M. “Vague English Creole: (Gay English) Cooperative Discourse in the French Gay Press.” Contemporary French Civilization 26:1 (2002): 86–110. Google Scholar

Rosello, Mireille. Declining the Stereotype: Ethnicity and Representation in French Cultures. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1998. Google Scholar

White, Edmund. Genet: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. Google Scholar

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Saint Genet, comédien et martyr. Paris: Gallimard, 1952. Google Scholar

Warner, Michael. The Trouble with Normal: Sex, Politics, and the Ethics of Queer Life. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2000. Google Scholar

White, Edmund. Genet: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. Google Scholar

Altman, Dennis. “Global gays/Global gaze.” GLQ 3 (1997): 417–436. Google Scholar

Altman, Dennis. “Rupture or Continuity? The Internationalization of Gay Identities.” Social Text (Fall 1996): 77–94. Google Scholar

Bell, David and John Binnie. The Sexual Citizen: Queer Politics and Beyond. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. Google Scholar

Bersani, Leo. Homos. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Google Scholar

Braudel, Fernand. L'Identité de la France. Paris: Arthaud-Flammarion, 1986. Google Scholar

Bullock, Barbara E. and Denis M. Provencher. “The Linguistic Representation of Femininity and Masculinity in Jean Genet's Notre-Dame des Fleurs.” French Cultural Studies 12:1 (2001): 43–58. Google Scholar

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Collard, Cyril. Les Nuits fauves. Paris: Flammarion, 1989. Google Scholar

Dyer, Richard. Now You See It: Studies on Lesbian and Gay Film. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Eribon, Didier. Réflexions sur la question gay. Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1999. Google Scholar

Fassin, Eric. “Same Sex, Different Politics: ‘Gay Marriage’ Debates in France and the United States.” Public Culture 13(2): 215–232. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. La Volonté du savoir. Paris: Gallimard, 1976. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. Technologies of the Self. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988. Google Scholar

Gaultier, Jean-Paul. Advertisement (Le Mâle). Têtu, May 1997: 19. Google Scholar

Genet, Jean. Notre-Dame des Fleurs. Paris: Gallimard, 1948 [reprint 1992]. Google Scholar

Graham, Colin. “Blame it on Maureen O'Hara: Ireland and the Trope of Authenticity.” Cultural Studies 15:1 (2001): 58–75. Google Scholar

Jackson, Jean. “Culture, Genuine and Spurious: the Politics of Indianness in the Vaupés, Colombia.” American Ethnologist 22(1): 3–27. Google Scholar

Leap, William. “Language, Socialization, and Silence in Gay Adolescence.” In Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse. Edited by Mary Bucholtz, A. C. Liang and Laurel A. Sutton New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 259–272. Google Scholar

Leap, William. Word's Out: Gay Men's English. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. Google Scholar

Leap, William., ed. Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imagination, and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers, 1995. Google Scholar

Martel, Frédéric. Le Rose et le noir: Les homosexuels en France depuis 1968. Paris: Seuil, 1996. Google Scholar

Marty, Pascal. Entre Benoît et toi. Paris: Editions Balland, 1999. Google Scholar

Minella, Alain-Gilles and Philippe Angelotti. Générations Gay. Paris: Editions Durocher, 1996. Google Scholar

Nora, Pierre. Les Lieux de mémoire. Paris: Gallimard: 1984–92. 7 Volumes. Google Scholar

Paluch, Walter. Personal interview. 13 May 1997. Google Scholar

Provencher, Denis M. “Vague English Creole: (Gay English) Cooperative Discourse in the French Gay Press.” Contemporary French Civilization 26:1 (2002): 86–110. Google Scholar

Rosello, Mireille. Declining the Stereotype: Ethnicity and Representation in French Cultures. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1998. Google Scholar

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Saint Genet, comédien et martyr. Paris: Gallimard, 1952. Google Scholar

Warner, Michael. The Trouble with Normal: Sex, Politics, and the Ethics of Queer Life. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2000. Google Scholar

White, Edmund. Genet: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. Google Scholar

Altman, Dennis. “Global gays/Global gaze.” GLQ 3 (1997): 417–436. Google Scholar

Altman, Dennis. “Rupture or Continuity? The Internationalization of Gay Identities.” Social Text (Fall 1996): 77–94. Google Scholar

Bell, David and John Binnie. The Sexual Citizen: Queer Politics and Beyond. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. Google Scholar

Bersani, Leo. Homos. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Google Scholar

Braudel, Fernand. L'Identité de la France. Paris: Arthaud-Flammarion, 1986. Google Scholar

Bullock, Barbara E. and Denis M. Provencher. “The Linguistic Representation of Femininity and Masculinity in Jean Genet's Notre-Dame des Fleurs.” French Cultural Studies 12:1 (2001): 43–58. Google Scholar

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Collard, Cyril. Les Nuits fauves. Paris: Flammarion, 1989. Google Scholar

Dyer, Richard. Now You See It: Studies on Lesbian and Gay Film. New York: Routledge, 1990. Google Scholar

Eribon, Didier. Réflexions sur la question gay. Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1999. Google Scholar

Fassin, Eric. “Same Sex, Different Politics: ‘Gay Marriage’ Debates in France and the United States.” Public Culture 13(2): 215–232. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. La Volonté du savoir. Paris: Gallimard, 1976. Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel. Technologies of the Self. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988. Google Scholar

Gaultier, Jean-Paul. Advertisement (Le Mâle). Têtu, May 1997: 19. Google Scholar

Genet, Jean. Notre-Dame des Fleurs. Paris: Gallimard, 1948 [reprint 1992]. Google Scholar

Graham, Colin. “Blame it on Maureen O'Hara: Ireland and the Trope of Authenticity.” Cultural Studies 15:1 (2001): 58–75. Google Scholar

Jackson, Jean. “Culture, Genuine and Spurious: the Politics of Indianness in the Vaupés, Colombia.” American Ethnologist 22(1): 3–27. Google Scholar

Leap, William. “Language, Socialization, and Silence in Gay Adolescence.” In Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse. Edited by Mary Bucholtz, A. C. Liang and Laurel A. Sutton New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 259–272. Google Scholar

Leap, William. Word's Out: Gay Men's English. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. Google Scholar

Leap, William., ed. Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imagination, and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers, 1995. Google Scholar

Martel, Frédéric. Le Rose et le noir: Les homosexuels en France depuis 1968. Paris: Seuil, 1996. Google Scholar

Marty, Pascal. Entre Benoît et toi. Paris: Editions Balland, 1999. Google Scholar

Minella, Alain-Gilles and Philippe Angelotti. Générations Gay. Paris: Editions Durocher, 1996. Google Scholar

Nora, Pierre. Les Lieux de mémoire. Paris: Gallimard: 1984–92. 7 Volumes. Google Scholar

Paluch, Walter. Personal interview. 13 May 1997. Google Scholar

Provencher, Denis M. “Vague English Creole: (Gay English) Cooperative Discourse in the French Gay Press.” Contemporary French Civilization 26:1 (2002): 86–110. Google Scholar

Rosello, Mireille. Declining the Stereotype: Ethnicity and Representation in French Cultures. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1998. Google Scholar

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Saint Genet, comédien et martyr. Paris: Gallimard, 1952. Google Scholar

Warner, Michael. The Trouble with Normal: Sex, Politics, and the Ethics of Queer Life. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2000. Google Scholar

White, Edmund. Genet: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. Google Scholar

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Author details

Provencher, Denis M.

Provencher, Denis M.

Provencher, Denis M.

Provencher, Denis M.

Provencher, Denis M.

Provencher, Denis M.

Provencher, Denis M.