Contemporary French Civilization

French food on film: beyond gastronomy in La Noire de …, Chocolat, and La Graine et le mulet

Contemporary French Civilization (2017), 42, (3-4), 259–278.

Abstract

Cinematic representations of French foodways that depart significantly from the hegemonic gastronomic paradigm usefully uncover alternative systems as well as social, economic, and political tensions effaced by the European French normative ideal. By depicting French foodways abroad, and incursions into France of foreign foodways, Ousmane Sembène’s La Noire de … (1966), Claire Denis’s Chocolat (1988), and Abdellatif Kechiche’s La Graine et le mulet (2007) bring into the light lasting effects of France’s colonial past. In these films, food and foodways communicate experiences of migration and attendant crises of identity, racialized power dynamics, competing visions of right living, and problems of access and distribution. The familiar, dominant perception of French food as a European gastronomy has recently been sanctioned by UNESCO recognition of the “repas gastronomique des Français” as part of the “patrimoine culturel immatériel” not merely of the French but of all humanity. The films analyzed here complicate this perception. They deserve renewed attention from scholars and viewers, for they have never been more relevant. By revealing hidden histories, they emphasize the need to revise notions of what constitutes legitimate French identity and Frenchness.

Les représentations cinématographiques des pratiques alimentaires françaises, se distinguant de façon significative du modèle gastronomique dominant, font apparaître d’autres systèmes ainsi que les tensions sociale, économique et politique qui s’effacent derrière l’idéal normatif à la fois français et européen. La Noire de … (1966) d’Ousmane Sembène, Chocolat (1988) de Claire Denis et La Graine et le mulet (2007) d’Abdellatif Kechiche mettent en avant les pratiques françaises exportées à l’étranger et les incursions en France des pratiques étrangères, pour mieux mettre en lumière les effets durables du passé impérial de la France. Dans ces films, la nourriture et les pratiques alimentaires communiquent les expériences de la migration et des crises identitaires qu’elle amène, les dynamiques de pouvoir racialisées, les visions concurrentielles d’une vie bien menée, et les problèmes d’accès et de distribution. La perception dominante et familière de la nourriture française comme forme de gastronomie européenne a récemment été sacrée par la reconnaissance de l’UNESCO du “repas gastronomique des Français” au rang de “patrimoine culturel immatériel” non seulement des Français mais de toute l’humanité. Les films que nous analysons compliquent cette perception. Ils méritent une attention renouvelée de la part des chercheurs et des spectateurs, car ils n’ont jamais été plus pertinents qu’à l’heure actuelle. En révélant les histoires cachées, ils soulignent le besoin où nous nous trouvons d’actualiser nos conceptions de ce qui constitue une identité française légitime ainsi que notre idée de la francité.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Abramson, Julia. “Grimod’s Debt to Mercier and the Emergence of Gastronomic Writing Reconsidered.” Rethinking Cultural Studies, vol. 2, Exemplary Essays, edited by David Lee Rubin and Julia V. Douthwaite, EMF: Studies in Early Modern France, vol. 7, 2001, pp. 141–162. “Grimod’s Debt to Mercier and the Emergence of Gastronomic Writing Reconsidered.” EMF: Studies in Early Modern France 7 141 162 Google Scholar

Abramson, Julia. “Legitimacy and Nationalism in the Almanach des Gourmands (1803–1812).” Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, vol. 3, no. 2, 2003, pp. 101–135. “Legitimacy and Nationalism in the Almanach des Gourmands (1803–1812).” Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies 3 101 135 Google Scholar

Aldrich, Robert. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion. Macmillan, 1996. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion Google Scholar

Armes, Roy. African Filmmaking North and South of the Sahara. Indiana UP, 2006. African Filmmaking North and South of the Sahara Google Scholar

Babettes Gæstebud. Directed by Gabriel Axel, Nordisk Film, 28 Aug. 1987. Babettes Gæstebud Google Scholar

Bass, Loretta E. African Immigrant Families in Another France. Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. African Immigrant Families in Another France Google Scholar

Berghahn, Daniela. Far-Flung Families in Film: The Diasporic Family in Contemporary European Cinema. Edinburgh UP, 2013. Far-Flung Families in Film: The Diasporic Family in Contemporary European Cinema Google Scholar

Beugnet, Martine. Claire Denis. Manchester UP, 2004. Claire Denis Google Scholar

Bower, Anne L., editor. Reel Food: Essays on Food and Film. Routledge, 2004. Reel Food: Essays on Food and Film Google Scholar

Chocolat. Directed by Claire Denis. Cinemanuel, Marin-Karmitz-MK2 Productions, Cerito Films, Wim Wenders Produktion, La S.E.P.T., Caroline Productions, le F.o.D.I.D., TF1 Films Production, W.D.R. Cologne, 18 May 1988. Chocolat Google Scholar

Chocolat. Directed by Lasse Hallström. Miramax Films, 22 Dec. 2000. Chocolat Google Scholar

Conklin, Alice L. A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa, 1895–1930. Stanford UP, 1997. A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa, 1895–1930 Google Scholar

Dahm, Jacobia. “Emigrants and Immigrants of Burkina Faso, Senegal, and France: Ousmane Sembène’s La Noire de … and S. Pierre Yameogo’s Moi et mon blanc.” Transcultural Modernities: Narrating Africa in Europe, edited by Elisabeth Bekers, Sissy Helff, and Daniella Merolla. Rodopi, 2009, pp. 277–286. “Emigrants and Immigrants of Burkina Faso, Senegal, and France: Ousmane Sembène’s La Noire de … and S. Pierre Yameogo’s Moi et mon blanc.” Transcultural Modernities: Narrating Africa in Europe 277 286 Google Scholar

Davies, Lyell. “Why does Diouana Die? Facing History, Migration, and Trauma in Black Girl.” Ousmane Sembène and the Politics of Culture, edited by Lifongo Vetinde and Amadou T. Fofana, Lexington Books, 2015, pp. 97–114. “Why does Diouana Die? Facing History, Migration, and Trauma in Black Girl.” Ousmane Sembène and the Politics of Culture 97 114 Google Scholar

Diouf, Abdou. “La francophonie, une réalité oubliée.” Le Monde des Idées, 19 Mar. 2007, http://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2007/03/19/la-francophonie-une-realiteoubliee-par-abdou-diouf_884956_3232.html. Google Scholar

Durham, Carolyn. “More than Meets the Eye: Meandering Metaphor in Claire Denis’s Chocolat.” Moving Pictures, Migrating Identities, edited by Eva Rueschmann, UP of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 121–136 and 234–236. “More than Meets the Eye: Meandering Metaphor in Claire Denis’s Chocolat.” Moving Pictures, Migrating Identities 121 136 Google Scholar

Durmelat, Sylvie. “Introduction: Colonial Culinary Encounters and Imperial Leftovers.” French Cultural Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, 2015, pp. 115–129. “Introduction: Colonial Culinary Encounters and Imperial Leftovers.” French Cultural Studies 26 115 129 Google Scholar

Durmelat, Sylvie. “Tasting Displacement: Couscous and Culinary Citizenship in Maghrebi-French Diasporic Cinema.” Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of Human Nourishment, vol. 23, nos. 1–2, 2015, pp. 104–126. “Tasting Displacement: Couscous and Culinary Citizenship in Maghrebi-French Diasporic Cinema.” Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of Human Nourishment 23 104 126 Google Scholar

Escoffier, Auguste. The Complete Guide to the Art of Modern Cookery, translated by H. L. Cracknell and R. J. Kaufman. John Wiley, 2001 [orig. publ. 1903]. The Complete Guide to the Art of Modern Cookery Google Scholar

“Être né en France d’un parent immigré.” Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE), https://www.insee.fr/fr/statistiques/1283065, 19 Nov. 2016. Google Scholar

Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst. Accounting for Taste: The Triumph of French Cuisine. U of Chicago P, 2004. Accounting for Taste: The Triumph of French Cuisine Google Scholar

Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst. Word of Mouth: What we Talk about When we Talk about Food. U of California P, 2014. Word of Mouth: What we Talk about When we Talk about Food Google Scholar

Ferry, Jane. Food in Film: A Culinary Performance of Communication. Routledge, 2003. Forsdick, Charles. “World Literature, Littérature-Monde: Which Literature? Whose World?” Paragraph, vol. 33, no. 1, 2010, pp. 125–143. “World Literature, Littérature-Monde: Which Literature? Whose World?” Paragraph 33 125 143 Google Scholar

Gantrel, Martine. “La Gastronomie française au cinéma entre 1970 et 1990.” French Review, vol. 75, 2002, pp. 697–706. “La Gastronomie française au cinéma entre 1970 et 1990.” French Review 75 697 706 Google Scholar

Genova, James E. Cinema and Development in West Africa. Indiana UP, 2013. Cinema and Development in West Africa Google Scholar

La Graine et le mulet. Directed by Abdellatif Kechiche. Pathé, 12 Dec. 2007. La Graine et le mulet Google Scholar

Hale, Dana S. “French Images of Race on Product Trademarks during the Third Republic.” The Color of Liberty: Histories of Race in France, edited by Sue Peabody and Tyler Stovall, Duke UP, 2003, pp. 131–146. “French Images of Race on Product Trademarks during the Third Republic.” The Color of Liberty: Histories of Race in France 131 146 Google Scholar

Hargreaves, Alec G. Immigration, “Race,” and Ethnicity in Contemporary France. Routledge, 1995. “Race,” Immigration, “Race,” and Ethnicity in Contemporary France Google Scholar

Hargreaves, Alec G. editor. Memory, Empire, and Postcolonialism: Legacies of French Colonialism. Lexington Books, 2005. Memory, Empire, and Postcolonialism: Legacies of French Colonialism Google Scholar

Hargreaves, Alec G., Charles Forsdick, and David Murphy, editors. Transnational French Studies: Postcolonialism and Littérature-monde. Liverpool UP, 2010. Transnational French Studies: Postcolonialism and Littérature-monde Google Scholar

Higbee, Will. Post-Beur Cinema: North African émigré and Maghrebi-French Filmmaking in France since 2000. Edinburgh UP, 2013. Post-Beur Cinema: North African émigré and Maghrebi-French Filmmaking in France since 2000 Google Scholar

The Hundred-Foot Journey. Directed by Lasse Hallström. Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, 28 August 2014. The Hundred-Foot Journey Google Scholar

Joseph, Richard A. Radical Nationalism in Cameroun: Social Origins of the UPC Rebellion. Clarendon P, 1977. Radical Nationalism in Cameroun: Social Origins of the UPC Rebellion Google Scholar

Kesteloot, Lylian, and Lamine Amadou Sall. “Un peu de mémoire, s’il vous plaît!” Le Monde, 6 Apr. 2007. “Un peu de mémoire, s’il vous plaît!” Le Monde Google Scholar

Kings of Pastry. Directed by Chris Hegedus and D.A. Pennebaker. First Run Features, 15 Sep. 2010. Kings of Pastry Google Scholar

Le Bris, Michel, Jean Rouaud, and Eva Almassy. Pour une littérature-monde. Gallimard, 2007. Pour une littérature-monde Google Scholar

Levine, Alison J. Murray. “Women, Nostalgia, Memory: Chocolat, Outremer, Indochine.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 33, no. 2, 2002, pp. 235–244. “Women, Nostalgia, Memory: Chocolat, Outremer, Indochine.” Research in African Literatures 33 235 244 Google Scholar

Lionnet, Françoise. “Universalism and Francophonies.” International Journal of Francophone Studies, vol. 12, nos. 2–3, 2009, pp. 203–221. “Universalism and Francophonies.” International Journal of Francophone Studies 12 203 221 Google Scholar

Mabanckou, Alain. “La francophonie, oui, le ghetto: non!” Le Monde, 18 Mar. 2006. http://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2006/03/18/la-francophonie-oui-le-ghettonon_752169_3232.html. Google Scholar

Mabanckou, Alain. “Immigration, Littérature-Monde, and Universality: The Strange Fate of the African Writer.” Francophone Sub-Saharan African Literature in Global Contexts, edited by Alain Mabanckou and Dominic Thomas, Yale French Studies, vol. 120, 2011, pp. 75–87. “Immigration, Littérature-Monde, and Universality: The Strange Fate of the African Writer.” Yale French Studies 120 75 87 Google Scholar

Manning, Patrick. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa, 1880–1995. 2nd ed. Cambridge UP, 1998. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa, 1880–1995 Google Scholar

Marks, Laura U. The Skin of the Film: Intercultural Cinema, Embodiment, and the Senses. Duke UP, 2000. The Skin of the Film: Intercultural Cinema, Embodiment, and the Senses Google Scholar

Marshall, Bill. “Cinéma-monde.” Francosphères, vol. 1, no. 1, 2012, pp. 35–51. “Cinéma-monde.” Francosphères 1 35 51 Google Scholar

Mathiot, Ginette. Je sais cuisiner. Albin Michel, 1990 [orig. publ. 1932]. Je sais cuisiner Google Scholar

Maule, Rosanna. “The Dialectics of Transnational Identity and Female Desire in Four Films of Claire Denis.” Remapping World Cinema: Identity, Culture and Politics in Film, edited by Stephanie Dennison and Song Hwee Lin. Wallflower P, 2006, pp. 73–85. “The Dialectics of Transnational Identity and Female Desire in Four Films of Claire Denis.” Remapping World Cinema: Identity, Culture and Politics in Film 73 85 Google Scholar

Mayne, Judith. Claire Denis. U of Illinois P, 2005. Claire Denis Google Scholar

McGowan, Todd. The Real Gaze: Film Theory after Lacan. State U of New York P, 2007. The Real Gaze: Film Theory after Lacan Google Scholar

Mission française du patrimoine et des cultures alimentaires, http://www.repasgastronomiquedesfrancais.org/mission-francaise-du-patrimoine-des-cultures-alimentaires/, 19. Nov. 2016. Google Scholar

Le Souper: Le vice au bras du crime. Directed by Édouardo Molinaro. France 2, Parma Films, and Trinacra Films, 23 Dec. 1992. Le Souper: Le vice au bras du crime Google Scholar

Najjar, Alexandre. “Contre le manifeste “Pour une littérature-monde en français” – Expliquer l’eau par l’eau.” Le Monde des Livres, 30 Mar. 2007. http://www.najjar.org/litteratureMondeEnFrancais.asp, 27 Nov. 2016. Google Scholar

La Noire de …. Directed by Ousmane Sembène. Filmi Domirev, 1 Jan. 1966. La Noire de … Google Scholar

Oscherwitz, Dayna. “A Twice-Told Tale: The Postcolonial Allegory of La Noire de … and Faat Kiné.” Ousmane Sembène and the Politics of Culture, edited by Lifongo Vetinde and Amadou T. Fofana, Lexington Books, 2015, pp. 51–65. “A Twice-Told Tale: The Postcolonial Allegory of La Noire de … and Faat Kiné.” Ousmane Sembène and the Politics of Culture 51 65 Google Scholar

Parker, Thomas. Tasting French Terroir: The History of an Idea. U of California P, 2015. Tasting French Terroir: The History of an Idea Google Scholar

Porra, Véronique. “Malaise dans la littérature-monde (en français): de la reprise des discours aux paradoxes de l’énonciation.” Recherches et Travaux, vol. 76, 2010, pp. 109–129, http://recherchestravaux.revues.org/411. Google Scholar

“Pour Nicolas Sarkozy, ‘dès que l’on devient Français, nos ancêtres sont Gaulois,’” Le Figaro, 20 Sept. 2016, http://www.lefigaro.fr/politique/le-scan/2016/09/19/25001-20160919ARTFIG00393-pour-nicolas-sarkozy-des-que-l-on-devient-francais-nosancetres-sont-gaulois.php. Google Scholar

“Pour une littérature-monde en français.” Le Monde, 16 Mar. 2007. “Pour une littérature-monde en français.” Le Monde Google Scholar

“Le repas gastronomique des français.” Nomination file 00437 (Nov. 2010). Patrimoine culturel immatériel. Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’éducation, la science et la culture, http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/fr/RL/le-repas-gastronomiquedes-francais-00437. Google Scholar

Ross, Kristin. Fast Cars, Clean Bodies: Decolonization and the Reordering of French Culture. Massachusetts Institute of Technology P, 1995. Fast Cars, Clean Bodies: Decolonization and the Reordering of French Culture Google Scholar

Ruhe, Cornelia. “Beyond Post-Colonialism? From Chocolat to White Material.” The Films of Claire Denis: Intimacy on the Border, edited by Marjorie Vecchio. I. B. Tauris, 2014, pp. 111–124. “Beyond Post-Colonialism? From Chocolat to White Material.” The Films of Claire Denis: Intimacy on the Border 111 124 Google Scholar

Les Saveurs du palais. Directed by Christian Vincent. Wild Bunch, 19 Sept. 2012. Les Saveurs du palais Google Scholar

Sembène, Ousmane. “La Noire de …” Voltaïque, La Noire de …, Nouvelles, Présence africaine, 1962, pp. 157–184. “La Noire de …” La Noire de …, Nouvelles 157 184 Google Scholar

Shugart, Helene A. “Sumptuous Texts: Consuming ‘Otherness’ in the Food Film Genre.” Critical Studies in Media Communication, vol. 25, no. 1, 2008, pp. 68–90. “Sumptuous Texts: Consuming ‘Otherness’ in the Food Film Genre.” Critical Studies in Media Communication 25 68 90 Google Scholar

Stiller, Nikki. “Chocolat by Claire Denis.” Film Quarterly, vol. 44, no. 2, 1990–1991, pp. 52–56. “Chocolat by Claire Denis.” Film Quarterly 44 52 56 Google Scholar

Thomas, Dominic. “Decolonizing France: From National Literatures to World Literatures.” Contemporary French and Francophone Studies, vol. 14, no. 1, 2010, pp. 47–55. “Decolonizing France: From National Literatures to World Literatures.” Contemporary French and Francophone Studies 14 47 55 Google Scholar

Toledo, Camille de [Alexis Mital]. Visiter le Flurkistan ou les illusions de la littérature monde. Presses Universitaires de France, 2008. Visiter le Flurkistan ou les illusions de la littérature monde Google Scholar

Trubek, Amy B. The Taste of Place: A Cultural Journey into Terroir. U of California P, 2008. The Taste of Place: A Cultural Journey into Terroir Google Scholar

Watson, Ruth. “Beholding the Colonial Past in Claire Denis’s Chocolat.” Black and White in Colour: African History on Screen, edited by Vivian Bickford-Smith and Richard Mendelsohn, Ohio UP, 2006, pp. 185–202 and 346–349. “Beholding the Colonial Past in Claire Denis’s Chocolat.” Black and White in Colour: African History on Screen 185 202 Google Scholar

Williams, James S. Space and Being in Contemporary French Cinema. Manchester UP, 2013. Space and Being in Contemporary French Cinema Google Scholar

Zimmerman, Steve, and Ken Weiss. Food in the Movies. McFarland, 2005. Food in the Movies Google Scholar

Abramson, Julia. “Grimod’s Debt to Mercier and the Emergence of Gastronomic Writing Reconsidered.” Rethinking Cultural Studies, vol. 2, Exemplary Essays, edited by David Lee Rubin and Julia V. Douthwaite, EMF: Studies in Early Modern France, vol. 7, 2001, pp. 141–162. “Grimod’s Debt to Mercier and the Emergence of Gastronomic Writing Reconsidered.” EMF: Studies in Early Modern France 7 141 162 Google Scholar

Abramson, Julia. “Legitimacy and Nationalism in the Almanach des Gourmands (1803–1812).” Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, vol. 3, no. 2, 2003, pp. 101–135. “Legitimacy and Nationalism in the Almanach des Gourmands (1803–1812).” Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies 3 101 135 Google Scholar

Aldrich, Robert. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion. Macmillan, 1996. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion Google Scholar

Armes, Roy. African Filmmaking North and South of the Sahara. Indiana UP, 2006. African Filmmaking North and South of the Sahara Google Scholar

Babettes Gæstebud. Directed by Gabriel Axel, Nordisk Film, 28 Aug. 1987. Babettes Gæstebud Google Scholar

Bass, Loretta E. African Immigrant Families in Another France. Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. African Immigrant Families in Another France Google Scholar

Berghahn, Daniela. Far-Flung Families in Film: The Diasporic Family in Contemporary European Cinema. Edinburgh UP, 2013. Far-Flung Families in Film: The Diasporic Family in Contemporary European Cinema Google Scholar

Beugnet, Martine. Claire Denis. Manchester UP, 2004. Claire Denis Google Scholar

Bower, Anne L., editor. Reel Food: Essays on Food and Film. Routledge, 2004. Reel Food: Essays on Food and Film Google Scholar

Chocolat. Directed by Claire Denis. Cinemanuel, Marin-Karmitz-MK2 Productions, Cerito Films, Wim Wenders Produktion, La S.E.P.T., Caroline Productions, le F.o.D.I.D., TF1 Films Production, W.D.R. Cologne, 18 May 1988. Chocolat Google Scholar

Chocolat. Directed by Lasse Hallström. Miramax Films, 22 Dec. 2000. Chocolat Google Scholar

Conklin, Alice L. A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa, 1895–1930. Stanford UP, 1997. A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa, 1895–1930 Google Scholar

Dahm, Jacobia. “Emigrants and Immigrants of Burkina Faso, Senegal, and France: Ousmane Sembène’s La Noire de … and S. Pierre Yameogo’s Moi et mon blanc.” Transcultural Modernities: Narrating Africa in Europe, edited by Elisabeth Bekers, Sissy Helff, and Daniella Merolla. Rodopi, 2009, pp. 277–286. “Emigrants and Immigrants of Burkina Faso, Senegal, and France: Ousmane Sembène’s La Noire de … and S. Pierre Yameogo’s Moi et mon blanc.” Transcultural Modernities: Narrating Africa in Europe 277 286 Google Scholar

Davies, Lyell. “Why does Diouana Die? Facing History, Migration, and Trauma in Black Girl.” Ousmane Sembène and the Politics of Culture, edited by Lifongo Vetinde and Amadou T. Fofana, Lexington Books, 2015, pp. 97–114. “Why does Diouana Die? Facing History, Migration, and Trauma in Black Girl.” Ousmane Sembène and the Politics of Culture 97 114 Google Scholar

Diouf, Abdou. “La francophonie, une réalité oubliée.” Le Monde des Idées, 19 Mar. 2007, http://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2007/03/19/la-francophonie-une-realiteoubliee-par-abdou-diouf_884956_3232.html. Google Scholar

Durham, Carolyn. “More than Meets the Eye: Meandering Metaphor in Claire Denis’s Chocolat.” Moving Pictures, Migrating Identities, edited by Eva Rueschmann, UP of Mississippi, 2003, pp. 121–136 and 234–236. “More than Meets the Eye: Meandering Metaphor in Claire Denis’s Chocolat.” Moving Pictures, Migrating Identities 121 136 Google Scholar

Durmelat, Sylvie. “Introduction: Colonial Culinary Encounters and Imperial Leftovers.” French Cultural Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, 2015, pp. 115–129. “Introduction: Colonial Culinary Encounters and Imperial Leftovers.” French Cultural Studies 26 115 129 Google Scholar

Durmelat, Sylvie. “Tasting Displacement: Couscous and Culinary Citizenship in Maghrebi-French Diasporic Cinema.” Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of Human Nourishment, vol. 23, nos. 1–2, 2015, pp. 104–126. “Tasting Displacement: Couscous and Culinary Citizenship in Maghrebi-French Diasporic Cinema.” Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of Human Nourishment 23 104 126 Google Scholar

Escoffier, Auguste. The Complete Guide to the Art of Modern Cookery, translated by H. L. Cracknell and R. J. Kaufman. John Wiley, 2001 [orig. publ. 1903]. The Complete Guide to the Art of Modern Cookery Google Scholar

“Être né en France d’un parent immigré.” Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE), https://www.insee.fr/fr/statistiques/1283065, 19 Nov. 2016. Google Scholar

Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst. Accounting for Taste: The Triumph of French Cuisine. U of Chicago P, 2004. Accounting for Taste: The Triumph of French Cuisine Google Scholar

Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst. Word of Mouth: What we Talk about When we Talk about Food. U of California P, 2014. Word of Mouth: What we Talk about When we Talk about Food Google Scholar

Ferry, Jane. Food in Film: A Culinary Performance of Communication. Routledge, 2003. Forsdick, Charles. “World Literature, Littérature-Monde: Which Literature? Whose World?” Paragraph, vol. 33, no. 1, 2010, pp. 125–143. “World Literature, Littérature-Monde: Which Literature? Whose World?” Paragraph 33 125 143 Google Scholar

Gantrel, Martine. “La Gastronomie française au cinéma entre 1970 et 1990.” French Review, vol. 75, 2002, pp. 697–706. “La Gastronomie française au cinéma entre 1970 et 1990.” French Review 75 697 706 Google Scholar

Genova, James E. Cinema and Development in West Africa. Indiana UP, 2013. Cinema and Development in West Africa Google Scholar

La Graine et le mulet. Directed by Abdellatif Kechiche. Pathé, 12 Dec. 2007. La Graine et le mulet Google Scholar

Hale, Dana S. “French Images of Race on Product Trademarks during the Third Republic.” The Color of Liberty: Histories of Race in France, edited by Sue Peabody and Tyler Stovall, Duke UP, 2003, pp. 131–146. “French Images of Race on Product Trademarks during the Third Republic.” The Color of Liberty: Histories of Race in France 131 146 Google Scholar

Hargreaves, Alec G. Immigration, “Race,” and Ethnicity in Contemporary France. Routledge, 1995. “Race,” Immigration, “Race,” and Ethnicity in Contemporary France Google Scholar

Hargreaves, Alec G. editor. Memory, Empire, and Postcolonialism: Legacies of French Colonialism. Lexington Books, 2005. Memory, Empire, and Postcolonialism: Legacies of French Colonialism Google Scholar

Hargreaves, Alec G., Charles Forsdick, and David Murphy, editors. Transnational French Studies: Postcolonialism and Littérature-monde. Liverpool UP, 2010. Transnational French Studies: Postcolonialism and Littérature-monde Google Scholar

Higbee, Will. Post-Beur Cinema: North African émigré and Maghrebi-French Filmmaking in France since 2000. Edinburgh UP, 2013. Post-Beur Cinema: North African émigré and Maghrebi-French Filmmaking in France since 2000 Google Scholar

The Hundred-Foot Journey. Directed by Lasse Hallström. Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, 28 August 2014. The Hundred-Foot Journey Google Scholar

Joseph, Richard A. Radical Nationalism in Cameroun: Social Origins of the UPC Rebellion. Clarendon P, 1977. Radical Nationalism in Cameroun: Social Origins of the UPC Rebellion Google Scholar

Kesteloot, Lylian, and Lamine Amadou Sall. “Un peu de mémoire, s’il vous plaît!” Le Monde, 6 Apr. 2007. “Un peu de mémoire, s’il vous plaît!” Le Monde Google Scholar

Kings of Pastry. Directed by Chris Hegedus and D.A. Pennebaker. First Run Features, 15 Sep. 2010. Kings of Pastry Google Scholar

Le Bris, Michel, Jean Rouaud, and Eva Almassy. Pour une littérature-monde. Gallimard, 2007. Pour une littérature-monde Google Scholar

Levine, Alison J. Murray. “Women, Nostalgia, Memory: Chocolat, Outremer, Indochine.” Research in African Literatures, vol. 33, no. 2, 2002, pp. 235–244. “Women, Nostalgia, Memory: Chocolat, Outremer, Indochine.” Research in African Literatures 33 235 244 Google Scholar

Lionnet, Françoise. “Universalism and Francophonies.” International Journal of Francophone Studies, vol. 12, nos. 2–3, 2009, pp. 203–221. “Universalism and Francophonies.” International Journal of Francophone Studies 12 203 221 Google Scholar

Mabanckou, Alain. “La francophonie, oui, le ghetto: non!” Le Monde, 18 Mar. 2006. http://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2006/03/18/la-francophonie-oui-le-ghettonon_752169_3232.html. Google Scholar

Mabanckou, Alain. “Immigration, Littérature-Monde, and Universality: The Strange Fate of the African Writer.” Francophone Sub-Saharan African Literature in Global Contexts, edited by Alain Mabanckou and Dominic Thomas, Yale French Studies, vol. 120, 2011, pp. 75–87. “Immigration, Littérature-Monde, and Universality: The Strange Fate of the African Writer.” Yale French Studies 120 75 87 Google Scholar

Manning, Patrick. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa, 1880–1995. 2nd ed. Cambridge UP, 1998. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa, 1880–1995 Google Scholar

Marks, Laura U. The Skin of the Film: Intercultural Cinema, Embodiment, and the Senses. Duke UP, 2000. The Skin of the Film: Intercultural Cinema, Embodiment, and the Senses Google Scholar

Marshall, Bill. “Cinéma-monde.” Francosphères, vol. 1, no. 1, 2012, pp. 35–51. “Cinéma-monde.” Francosphères 1 35 51 Google Scholar

Mathiot, Ginette. Je sais cuisiner. Albin Michel, 1990 [orig. publ. 1932]. Je sais cuisiner Google Scholar

Maule, Rosanna. “The Dialectics of Transnational Identity and Female Desire in Four Films of Claire Denis.” Remapping World Cinema: Identity, Culture and Politics in Film, edited by Stephanie Dennison and Song Hwee Lin. Wallflower P, 2006, pp. 73–85. “The Dialectics of Transnational Identity and Female Desire in Four Films of Claire Denis.” Remapping World Cinema: Identity, Culture and Politics in Film 73 85 Google Scholar

Mayne, Judith. Claire Denis. U of Illinois P, 2005. Claire Denis Google Scholar

McGowan, Todd. The Real Gaze: Film Theory after Lacan. State U of New York P, 2007. The Real Gaze: Film Theory after Lacan Google Scholar

Mission française du patrimoine et des cultures alimentaires, http://www.repasgastronomiquedesfrancais.org/mission-francaise-du-patrimoine-des-cultures-alimentaires/, 19. Nov. 2016. Google Scholar

Le Souper: Le vice au bras du crime. Directed by Édouardo Molinaro. France 2, Parma Films, and Trinacra Films, 23 Dec. 1992. Le Souper: Le vice au bras du crime Google Scholar

Najjar, Alexandre. “Contre le manifeste “Pour une littérature-monde en français” – Expliquer l’eau par l’eau.” Le Monde des Livres, 30 Mar. 2007. http://www.najjar.org/litteratureMondeEnFrancais.asp, 27 Nov. 2016. Google Scholar

La Noire de …. Directed by Ousmane Sembène. Filmi Domirev, 1 Jan. 1966. La Noire de … Google Scholar

Oscherwitz, Dayna. “A Twice-Told Tale: The Postcolonial Allegory of La Noire de … and Faat Kiné.” Ousmane Sembène and the Politics of Culture, edited by Lifongo Vetinde and Amadou T. Fofana, Lexington Books, 2015, pp. 51–65. “A Twice-Told Tale: The Postcolonial Allegory of La Noire de … and Faat Kiné.” Ousmane Sembène and the Politics of Culture 51 65 Google Scholar

Parker, Thomas. Tasting French Terroir: The History of an Idea. U of California P, 2015. Tasting French Terroir: The History of an Idea Google Scholar

Porra, Véronique. “Malaise dans la littérature-monde (en français): de la reprise des discours aux paradoxes de l’énonciation.” Recherches et Travaux, vol. 76, 2010, pp. 109–129, http://recherchestravaux.revues.org/411. Google Scholar

“Pour Nicolas Sarkozy, ‘dès que l’on devient Français, nos ancêtres sont Gaulois,’” Le Figaro, 20 Sept. 2016, http://www.lefigaro.fr/politique/le-scan/2016/09/19/25001-20160919ARTFIG00393-pour-nicolas-sarkozy-des-que-l-on-devient-francais-nosancetres-sont-gaulois.php. Google Scholar

“Pour une littérature-monde en français.” Le Monde, 16 Mar. 2007. “Pour une littérature-monde en français.” Le Monde Google Scholar

“Le repas gastronomique des français.” Nomination file 00437 (Nov. 2010). Patrimoine culturel immatériel. Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’éducation, la science et la culture, http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/fr/RL/le-repas-gastronomiquedes-francais-00437. Google Scholar

Ross, Kristin. Fast Cars, Clean Bodies: Decolonization and the Reordering of French Culture. Massachusetts Institute of Technology P, 1995. Fast Cars, Clean Bodies: Decolonization and the Reordering of French Culture Google Scholar

Ruhe, Cornelia. “Beyond Post-Colonialism? From Chocolat to White Material.” The Films of Claire Denis: Intimacy on the Border, edited by Marjorie Vecchio. I. B. Tauris, 2014, pp. 111–124. “Beyond Post-Colonialism? From Chocolat to White Material.” The Films of Claire Denis: Intimacy on the Border 111 124 Google Scholar

Les Saveurs du palais. Directed by Christian Vincent. Wild Bunch, 19 Sept. 2012. Les Saveurs du palais Google Scholar

Sembène, Ousmane. “La Noire de …” Voltaïque, La Noire de …, Nouvelles, Présence africaine, 1962, pp. 157–184. “La Noire de …” La Noire de …, Nouvelles 157 184 Google Scholar

Shugart, Helene A. “Sumptuous Texts: Consuming ‘Otherness’ in the Food Film Genre.” Critical Studies in Media Communication, vol. 25, no. 1, 2008, pp. 68–90. “Sumptuous Texts: Consuming ‘Otherness’ in the Food Film Genre.” Critical Studies in Media Communication 25 68 90 Google Scholar

Stiller, Nikki. “Chocolat by Claire Denis.” Film Quarterly, vol. 44, no. 2, 1990–1991, pp. 52–56. “Chocolat by Claire Denis.” Film Quarterly 44 52 56 Google Scholar

Thomas, Dominic. “Decolonizing France: From National Literatures to World Literatures.” Contemporary French and Francophone Studies, vol. 14, no. 1, 2010, pp. 47–55. “Decolonizing France: From National Literatures to World Literatures.” Contemporary French and Francophone Studies 14 47 55 Google Scholar

Toledo, Camille de [Alexis Mital]. Visiter le Flurkistan ou les illusions de la littérature monde. Presses Universitaires de France, 2008. Visiter le Flurkistan ou les illusions de la littérature monde Google Scholar

Trubek, Amy B. The Taste of Place: A Cultural Journey into Terroir. U of California P, 2008. The Taste of Place: A Cultural Journey into Terroir Google Scholar

Watson, Ruth. “Beholding the Colonial Past in Claire Denis’s Chocolat.” Black and White in Colour: African History on Screen, edited by Vivian Bickford-Smith and Richard Mendelsohn, Ohio UP, 2006, pp. 185–202 and 346–349. “Beholding the Colonial Past in Claire Denis’s Chocolat.” Black and White in Colour: African History on Screen 185 202 Google Scholar

Williams, James S. Space and Being in Contemporary French Cinema. Manchester UP, 2013. Space and Being in Contemporary French Cinema Google Scholar

Zimmerman, Steve, and Ken Weiss. Food in the Movies. McFarland, 2005. Food in the Movies Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Abramson, Julia