International Development Planning Review

Development of Chinese enclaves in the Seoul-Incheon metropolitan area, South Korea

International Development Planning Review (2014), 36, (3), 293–311.

Abstract

Ethnic enclaves are emerging in the Seoul metropolitan areas. Some ethnic enclaves have been developed to become tourist spots while others have evolved into semi-slums. This study examines how Chinese enclaves have evolved in relation to the provisions of government policy and the demands of natives towards the enclaves. This study compares three major Chinese enclaves: one that has become an official Chinatown, one that struggled to become a Chinatown and one that is at risk of disappearing. The comparison shows that the development process and the outcome of ethnic enclaves are sensitive to city planning strategies and the socio-economic demand of native communities. These factors can mould new identities and spatial characteristics of ethnic enclaves.

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WACQUANT, L. (2012), ‘A Janus-faced institution of ethnoracial closure: a sociological specification of the ghetto’, in R. Hutchison and B. D. Haynes (eds), The Ghetto: Contemporary Global Issues and Controversies, Boulder, CO, Westview, pp. 1-31. The Ghetto: Contemporary Global Issues and Controversies 1 31 Google Scholar

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YONHAP NEWS (2010), ‘Multicultural streets in Seoul: Garibong-dong Yanbian Street’, 14 November http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=100&oid=001&aid=0004762770 Google Scholar

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YEOH, B. S. A. (2005), ‘The Global Cultural City? Spatial Imagineering and Politics in the (Multi)cultural Marketplaces of South-east Asia’, Urban Studies, 42, 945-58, doi:10.1080/00420980500107201. ‘The Global Cultural City? Spatial Imagineering and Politics in the (Multi)cultural Marketplaces of South-east Asia’ Urban Studies 42 945 58 Google Scholar

ZUKIN, S. (1995), The Cultures of Cities, Cambridge, MA, Blackwell Publishers. The Cultures of Cities Google Scholar

ABRAHAMSON, M. (1996), Urban enclaves: Identity and place in America, New York, St. Martin's Press. Urban enclaves: Identity and place in America Google Scholar

COLOMBIJN, F. and ERDENTUG, A. (eds) (2002), Urban Ethnic Encounters: The Spatial Consequences, New York, Routledge. Urban Ethnic Encounters: The Spatial Consequences Google Scholar

DAVIS, M. (1992), ‘Chinatown, revisited? The "internationalization" of downtown Los Angeles’, in D. Reid (ed), Sex, death and God in L.A., New York, Random House, pp. 19-53. Sex, death and God in L.A. 19 53 Google Scholar

FAINSTEIN, S. S. and GLADSTONE, D. (1999), ‘Evaluating urban tourism’, in D. R. Judd and S. S. Fainstein (eds), The Tourist City, New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, pp. 21-34. The Tourist 21 34 Google Scholar

JARET, C. (1991), ‘Recent structural change and US urban ethnic minorities’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 13, 307-36. ‘Recent structural change and US urban ethnic minorities’ Journal of Urban Affairs 13 307 36 Google Scholar

JEON, J. S. (2003), ‘A pitfall in the values of Incheon Chinatown’, Hwanghae Review, Fall, 452-61. ‘A pitfall in the values of Incheon Chinatown’ Hwanghae Review 452 61 Google Scholar

JOHNSTON, R. J. (1997), ‘Ghetto’, in R. J. Johnston, D. Gregory and D. M. Smith (eds), The dictionary of human geography (3rd ed.), Oxford, Blackwell, p. 231. The dictionary of human geography 231 Google Scholar

KEELEY, B. (2009), International migration: the human face of globalisation, Paris, OECD. International migration: the human face of globalisation Google Scholar

KIM, B. K. (2010), ‘Why is there no "Chinatown" in Seoul?’, Pressian, 28 February, http://web2.pressian.com/article/article.asp?Section=02&article_num=10100207172946. http://web2.pressian.com/article/article.asp?Section=02&article_num=10100207172946 ‘Why is there no "Chinatown" in Seoul?’ Pressian Google Scholar

KIM, J. M. (2010), ‘Yeonnam-dong Chinatown, a spcimen of the helter-skelter administration’, The Naeil News, 27 January, http://www.naeil.com/News/politics/ViewNews.asp?nnum=521950&sid=E&tid=2. http://www.naeil.com/News/politics/ViewNews.asp?nnum=521950&sid=E&tid=2 ‘Yeonnam-dong Chinatown, a spcimen of the helter-skelter administration’ The Naeil News Google Scholar

KOREA IMMIGRATION SERVICE (2010), Statistics of Arrival, Departure, and Foreign Policy, Seoul, Ministry of Justice. Google Scholar

LEE, D. W. (2013, January, 4), ‘Incheon Central District, "Chinatown Facelift"’ The Korea Herald Economy, 4 January, http://news.heraldcorp.com/view.php?ud=20130104000299&md=20130107003550_AR. http://news.heraldcorp.com/view.php?ud=20130104000299&md=20130107003550_AR ‘Incheon Central District, "Chinatown Facelift"’ The Korea Herald Economy Google Scholar

LEE, H. J. (2007), ‘A small foreign-country in my neighborhood: Yeonhui·Yeonnam-dong Chinatown’, Dong-A Ilbo [East Asia Daily], 8 October, http://news.donga.com/3//20071008/8497361/1. http://news.donga.com/3//20071008/8497361/1 ‘A small foreign-country in my neighborhood: Yeonhui·Yeonnam-dong Chinatown’ Dong-A Ilbo [East Asia Daily] Google Scholar

LEE, Y. J. (2009), ‘Seoul Yeonnamg-dong, 200,000 m2 Chinatown plan’, Dong-A Ilbo [East Asia Daily], 25 September, http://news.donga.com/3//20080229/8549752/1. http://news.donga.com/3//20080229/8549752/1 ‘Seoul Yeonnamg-dong, 200,000 m2 Chinatown plan’ Dong-A Ilbo [East Asia Daily] Google Scholar

LI, W. (2009), Ethnoburb: The New Ethnic Community in Urban America, Honolulu, University of Hawai'i Press. Ethnoburb: The New Ethnic Community in Urban America Google Scholar

LIN, J. (1998a), ‘Globalization and the Revalorizing of Ethnic Places in Immigration Gateway Cities’, Urban Affairs Review, 34, 313-39, doi:10.1177/107808749803400206. ‘Globalization and the Revalorizing of Ethnic Places in Immigration Gateway Cities’ Urban Affairs Review 34 313 39 Google Scholar

LIN, J. (1998b), Reconstructing Chinatown: Ethnic enclaves, global change, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. Reconstructing Chinatown: Ethnic enclaves, global change Google Scholar

LIN, J. (2008), ‘Los Angeles Chinatown: Tourism, Gentrification, and the Rise of an Ethnic Growth Machine’, Amerasia Journal, 34, 110-26. ‘Los Angeles Chinatown: Tourism, Gentrification, and the Rise of an Ethnic Growth Machine’ Amerasia Journal 34 110 26 Google Scholar

LIN, J. (2011), The Power of Urban Ethnic Places: Cultural Heritage and Community Life, New York and London, Routledge. The Power of Urban Ethnic Places: Cultural Heritage and Community Life Google Scholar

LLOYD, R., and CLARK, T. N. (2001), ‘The City as an Entertainment Machine’, Critical Perspectives on Urban Redevelopment, 6, 359-80. ‘The City as an Entertainment Machine’ Critical Perspectives on Urban Redevelopment 6 359 80 Google Scholar

ONISHI, N. (2007), ‘South Korea's Main Chinatown Lacks Only the Chinese’, New York Times, 2 March, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/02/world/asia/02korea.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/02/world/asia/02korea.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all ‘South Korea's Main Chinatown Lacks Only the Chinese’ New York Times Google Scholar

PANG, C. L. and RATH, J. (2006), ‘D.C. as an ethnic commercial enclave the force of regulation in the land of the free : The persistence of Chinatown, Washington D.C. as an ethnic commercial enclave’, paper prepared for the workshop on Migrations between East and West: Normalizing the Periphery, held at the Research School for Southeast Asian Studies, Xiamen University, China, 2-5 April. Google Scholar

PARK, S. H., LEE, Y. A., KIM, E. R. and JUNG, S. Y. (2009), Reinventing urban policy in response to ethnic diversity: A report on emerging ethnic places in South Korea, Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements (KRIHS). Reinventing urban policy in response to ethnic diversity: A report on emerging ethnic places in South Korea Google Scholar

PEACH, C. (2003), ‘The ghetto and the ethnic enclave’, in J. Doomernik and H. Knippenberg (eds), Migration and Immigrants: Between Policy and Reality, Amsterdam, Aksant Academic, pp. 99-122. Migration and Immigrants: Between Policy and Reality 99 122 Google Scholar

PHILPOTT, T. L. (1991), The slum and the ghetto: Immigrants, Blacks, and reformers in Chicago, 1880-1930, Belmont, CA, Wadsworth. The slum and the ghetto: Immigrants, Blacks, and reformers in Chicago, 1880-1930 Google Scholar

SCHIERUP, C-U., HANSEN, P. and CASTLES, S. (2006), Migration, citizenship, and the European welfare state: a European dilemma, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Migration, citizenship, and the European welfare state: a European dilemma Google Scholar

SEOL, D-H., and SKRENTNY, J. D. (2009), ‘Ethnic return migration and hierarchical nationhood: Korean Chinese foreign workers in South Korea’, Ethnicities, 9, 147-74, doi:10.1177/1468796808099901. ‘Ethnic return migration and hierarchical nationhood: Korean Chinese foreign workers in South Korea’ Ethnicities 9 147 74 Google Scholar

SON, C. (2003), Seoul Dosi Gyehwek iyagi 2, Seoul, Hanul. Seoul Dosi Gyehwek iyagi 2 Google Scholar

WACQUANT, L. (2012), ‘A Janus-faced institution of ethnoracial closure: a sociological specification of the ghetto’, in R. Hutchison and B. D. Haynes (eds), The Ghetto: Contemporary Global Issues and Controversies, Boulder, CO, Westview, pp. 1-31. The Ghetto: Contemporary Global Issues and Controversies 1 31 Google Scholar

YANG, P. S., and LEE, J. H. (2004), A Country Without A Chinatown: Yesterday And Today Of The Economies Of Chinese Immigrants In Korea, Samsung Economic Research Institute (SERI). A Country Without A Chinatown: Yesterday And Today Of The Economies Of Chinese Immigrants In Korea Google Scholar

YONHAP NEWS (2010), ‘Multicultural streets in Seoul: Garibong-dong Yanbian Street’, 14 November http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=100&oid=001&aid=0004762770 Google Scholar

YEONNAM-DONG NEIGHBOURHOOD COMMITTEE WEBSITE (N. D.) HTTP://CAFE.NAVER.COM/YEONNAMDONG Google Scholar

YEOH, B. S. A. (2005), ‘The Global Cultural City? Spatial Imagineering and Politics in the (Multi)cultural Marketplaces of South-east Asia’, Urban Studies, 42, 945-58, doi:10.1080/00420980500107201. ‘The Global Cultural City? Spatial Imagineering and Politics in the (Multi)cultural Marketplaces of South-east Asia’ Urban Studies 42 945 58 Google Scholar

ZUKIN, S. (1995), The Cultures of Cities, Cambridge, MA, Blackwell Publishers. The Cultures of Cities Google Scholar

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Lee, Wonhyung