Town Planning Review

Trust and governance in regional planning

Town Planning Review (2013), 84, (3), 283–312.

Abstract

This paper seeks to understand how planning systems respond to narratives of distrust, focusing on regional planning as a particularly contested field. Using a framework to explore how reforms have enhanced trust, analysis of cases in England and Denmark reveals two distinct actions: firstly, a reliance on strengthening formal mechanisms of government, a feature common in England, and secondly, collaborative governance, as seen in Denmark. However, both strategies fail to adequately enhance trust in the values of regional planning, leaving it vulnerable to ideological critique as a worthwhile form of government.

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ALLMENDINGER, P. and HAUGHTON, G. (2010), ‘Spatial planning, devolution, and new planning spaces’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 28, 803-18. ‘Spatial planning, devolution, and new planning spaces’ Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 28 803 18 Google Scholar

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ANDERSEN, H. S. and ANDERSEN, H. T. (2004), Den mangfoldige by. Opløsning, oplevelse, opsplitning, SBi 2004:01, København, Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut. Den mangfoldige by. Opløsning, oplevelse, opsplitning Google Scholar

BAKER, M., ROBERTS, P. and SHAW, R. (2003), Stakeholder Involvement in Regional Planning, London, TCPA. Stakeholder Involvement in Regional Planning Google Scholar

BEEBEEJAUN, Y. (2004), ‘What's in a nation? Constructing ethnicity in the British planning system’, Planning Theory and Practice, 5, 437-51. ‘What's in a nation? Constructing ethnicity in the British planning system’ Planning Theory and Practice 5 437 51 Google Scholar

BIRDWELL, J., FAROOK, F. and JONES, S. (2010), Trust in Practice, London, Demos. Trust in Practice Google Scholar

BLACKBURN, S. (1998), ‘Trust, cooperation, and human psychology’, in V. Braithwaite and M. Levi (eds), Trust and Governance, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 28-45. Trust and Governance 28 45 Google Scholar

BRAITHWAITE, V. (1998), ‘Communal and exchange trust norms: their value base and relevance to institutional trust’, in V. Braithwaite and M. Levi (eds), Trust and Governance, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 46-74. Trust and Governance 46 74 Google Scholar

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COUNSELL, D. and HAUGHTON, G. (2006), ‘Advancing Together in Yorkshire and the Humber?’, in M. Tewdwr-Jones and P. Allmendinger (eds), Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning, London, Routledge, 106-22. Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning 106 22 Google Scholar

COUNSELL, D., JONAS, A, HART, T. and KETTLE, J. (2003), Links and Consistencies between Regional Strategies in Yorkshire and the Humber, Leeds, Yorkshire Futures. Links and Consistencies between Regional Strategies in Yorkshire and the Humber Google Scholar

DABINETT, G. (2009), ‘Doing strategic planning differently? The Yorkshire and Humber Regional Spatial Strategy’, in S. Davoudi and I. Strange (eds), Conceptions of Space and Place in Strategic Spatial Planning, London, Routledge, 147-80. Conceptions of Space and Place in Strategic Spatial Planning 147 80 Google Scholar

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DAVIS, A. R. (2001), ‘Hidden or hiding? Public perceptions of participation in the planning system’, Town Planning Review, 72, 193-216. ‘Hidden or hiding? Public perceptions of participation in the planning system’ Town Planning Review 72 193 216 Google Scholar

DEAS, I. (2006), ‘The contested creation of new state spaces: contrasting conceptions of regional strategy building in North West England’, in M. Tewdwr-Jones and P. Allmendinger (eds), Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning, London, Routledge, 83-105. Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning 83 105 Google Scholar

DETR (2000) Planning Policy Guidance Note 11: Regional Planning, London, DETR. Google Scholar

DETR (2001) Planning: Delivering a Fundamental Change, London, DETR. Google Scholar

EARLE, T. and CVETKOVICH, G. (1995), Social Trust: Toward a Cosmopolitan Society, Westport, CT, Praeger. Social Trust: Toward a Cosmopolitan Society Google Scholar

EAST RIDING OF YORKSHIRE COUNCIL (2011), ‘Written evidence to House of Commons Communities and Local Government Committee’, in Communities and Local Government Committee, Abolition of Regional Spatial Strategies: A Planning Vacuum, 2nd Report, Volume 1, HC514, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

FISCHER, F. (1993), ‘Citizen participation and the democratization of policy expertise: from theoretical inquiry to practical cases’, Policy Sciences, 26, 165-87. ‘Citizen participation and the democratization of policy expertise: from theoretical inquiry to practical cases’ Policy Sciences 26 165 87 Google Scholar

FLYVBJERG, B. (2001), Making Social Science Matter, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Making Social Science Matter Google Scholar

FURBEY, R., REID, B. and COLE, I. (2001), ‘Housing professionalism in the United Kingdom: the final curtain or a new age?’, Housing, Theory and Society, 18, 36-49. ‘Housing professionalism in the United Kingdom: the final curtain or a new age?’ Housing, Theory and Society 18 36 49 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

GIDDENS, A. (1990), The Consequences of Modernity, Cambridge, Polity. The Consequences of Modernity Google Scholar

GLASSON, J. and MARSHALL, T. (2007), Regional Planning, Abingdon, Routledge. Regional Planning Google Scholar

GORE, T. and JONES, C. (2006), ‘Yorkshire and the Humber’, in: P. Benneworth et al. (eds), The Rise of the English Regions?, London, Routledge. The Rise of the English Regions? Google Scholar

GRANT, M. (1999), ‘Regional government: the end of England?’, Journal of Planning and Environment Law, December, 6-17 ‘Regional government: the end of England?’ Journal of Planning and Environment Law December 6 17 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

HARDIN, R. (2002), Trust and Trustworthiness, New York, Russell Sage Foundation. Trust and Trustworthiness Google Scholar

HAUGHTON, G. (1998), ‘Private profits - public drought: the creation of a crisis in water management for West Yorkshire’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS23, 419-33. ‘Private profits - public drought: the creation of a crisis in water management for West Yorkshire’ Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers NS23 419 33 Google Scholar

HAY, C. (1999), ‘Crisis and the structural transformation of the state: interrogating the process of change’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 1, 317-44. ‘Crisis and the structural transformation of the state: interrogating the process of change’ British Journal of Politics and International Relations 1 317 44 Google Scholar

HM TREASURY (2007), Review of Sub-national Economic Development and Regeneration, London, HM Treasury. Google Scholar

HUMPHREY, L. and SHAW, K. (2004), ‘Regional devolution and democratic renewal: developing a radical approach to stakeholder involvement in the English regions’, Environment and Planning A, 36, 2183-202. ‘Regional devolution and democratic renewal: developing a radical approach to stakeholder involvement in the English regions’ Environment and Planning A 36 2183 202 Google Scholar

INDENRIGS- OG SUNDHEDSMINISTERIET (2004), Aftale om strukturreform, København, Indenrigs- og Sundhedsministeriet. Google Scholar

KORCZYNSKI, M. (2000), ‘The political economy of trust’, Journal of Management Studies, 37, 1-21. ‘The political economy of trust’ Journal of Management Studies 37 1 21 Google Scholar

KUMAR, A. and PADDISON, R. (2000), ‘Trust and collaborative planning theory: the case of the Scottish planning system’, International Planning Studies, 5, 205-23. ‘Trust and collaborative planning theory: the case of the Scottish planning system’ International Planning Studies 5 205 23 Google Scholar

LAURIAN, L. (2009), ‘Trust in planning: theoretical and practical considerations for participatory and deliberative planning’, Planning Theory and Practice, 10, 369-91. ‘Trust in planning: theoretical and practical considerations for participatory and deliberative planning’ Planning Theory and Practice 10 369 91 Google Scholar

LUHMANN, N. (1979), Trust and Power, Chichester, Wiley. Trust and Power Google Scholar

METLAY, D. (1999) ‘Institutional trust and confidence: a journey into a conceptual quagmire’, in G. Cvetkovich and R. Löfstedt (eds), Social Trust and the Management of Risk, London, Earthscan, 100-116. Social Trust and the Management of Risk 100 116 Google Scholar

MILJØMINISTERIET (2004), Bidrag til Regionplanlægningens Historie, København, Miljøministeriet. Google Scholar

MILJØMINISTERIET (2006), Fornyelse af Planlægningen, København, Miljøministeriet. Google Scholar

MISHRA, A. (1996), ‘Organizational responses to crisis: the centrality of trust’, in R. Kramer and T. Tyler (eds), Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage, 261-87. Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research 261 87 Google Scholar

MISZTAL, B. (1996), Trust in Modern Societies, Cambridge, Polity. Trust in Modern Societies Google Scholar

MUSSON, S., TICKELL, A. and JOHN, P. (2005), ‘A decade of decentralisation: assessing the role of government offices for the English regions’, Environment and Planning A, 37, 1395-412. ‘A decade of decentralisation: assessing the role of government offices for the English regions’ Environment and Planning A 37 1395 412 Google Scholar

NØRGAARD, H. (2011), ‘Futures of rural and peripheral areas: challenges, strategies and policies’, Danish Journal of Geoinformatics and Land Management, 46, 81-95. ‘Futures of rural and peripheral areas: challenges, strategies and policies’ Danish Journal of Geoinformatics and Land Management 46 81 95 Google Scholar

ODPM (2004a), Planning Policy Statement 11: Regional Spatial Strategies, London, ODPM. Google Scholar

ODPM (2004b), Making It Happen: The Northern Way, London, ODPM. Google Scholar

ODPM (2005), Core Output Indicators for Regional Planning, London, ODPM. Google Scholar

OFFE, C. (1999), ‘How can we trust our fellow citizens?’, in Warren, M. (ed.), Democracy and Trust, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 42-87. Democracy and Trust 42 87 Google Scholar

OLESEN, K and RICHARDSON, T. (2011), ‘The spatial politics of spatial representation: relationality as a medium for depoliticization?’, International Planning Studies, 16, 355-75. ‘The spatial politics of spatial representation: relationality as a medium for depoliticization?’ International Planning Studies 16 355 75 Google Scholar

OSBORNE, D. and GAEBLER, T. (1993), Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector, Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley. Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector Google Scholar

OXFORD RESEARCH (2005), Regional Development Model for North Denmark, Frederiksberg, Oxford Research. Google Scholar

PAASI, A. (2002), ‘Place and region: regional worlds and regional words’, Progress in Human Geography, 26, 802-11. ‘Place and region: regional worlds and regional words’ Progress in Human Geography 26 802 11 Google Scholar

PAASI, A. (2004), ‘Place and region: looking through the prism of scale’, Progress in Human Geography, 28, 536-46. ‘Place and region: looking through the prism of scale’ Progress in Human Geography 28 536 46 Google Scholar

POWER, M. (1997), The Audit Society: Rituals of Verification, Oxford, Oxford University Press. The Audit Society: Rituals of Verification Google Scholar

REGERINGEN (2006), Fremgang, Fornyelse og Tryghed. Strategi for Danmark i den Globale Økonomi, København, Regeringen. Google Scholar

SHAW, D. and LORD, A. (2007), ‘The cultural turn? Culture change and what it means for spatial planning in England’, Planning Practice and Research, 22, 63-78. ‘The cultural turn? Culture change and what it means for spatial planning in England’ Planning Practice and Research 22 63 78 Google Scholar

SOUTH WEST COUNCILS (n.d.), Towards an Integrated Regional Strategy for the South West: An Analysis of Existing Regional Strategies, Taunton, South West Councils. Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, R. and POXON, J. (2001), ‘Regional strategy making and the new structures and processes for regional governance’, Local Government Studies, 27, 109-24. ‘Regional strategy making and the new structures and processes for regional governance’ Local Government Studies 27 109 24 Google Scholar

STRATHERN, M. (2000), ‘The tyranny of transparency’, British Educational Research Journal, 26, 309-21. ‘The tyranny of transparency’ British Educational Research Journal 26 309 21 Google Scholar

SWAIN, C. and TAIT, M. (2007), ‘The crisis of trust and planning’, Planning Theory and Practice, 8, 229-47. ‘The crisis of trust and planning’ Planning Theory and Practice 8 229 47 Google Scholar

TAIT, M. (2011), ‘Trust and the public interest in the micropolitics of planning practice’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 31, 157-71. ‘Trust and the public interest in the micropolitics of planning practice’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 31 157 71 Google Scholar

TALVITIE, A. (2012), ‘The problem of trust in planning’, Planning Theory, 11, 257-78. ‘The problem of trust in planning’ Planning Theory 11 257 78 Google Scholar

USLANER, E. (1999), ‘Democracy and social capital’, in M. Warren (ed.), Democracy and Trust, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 121-50. Democracy and Trust 121 50 Google Scholar

WILLIAMSON, V., SKOCPOL, T. and COGGIN, J. (2011), ‘The Tea Party and the remaking of Republican conservatism’, Perspectives on Politics, 9, 25-43. ‘The Tea Party and the remaking of Republican conservatism’ Perspectives on Politics 9 25 43 Google Scholar

YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER ASSEMBLY (2005), Statement of Pre-Draft Consultation, Wakefield, Yorkshire and Humber Assembly. Google Scholar

ZUCKER, L. (1986), ‘Production of trust: institutional sources of economic structure, 1840-1920’, Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, 53-111. ‘Production of trust: institutional sources of economic structure, 1840-1920’ Research in Organizational Behavior 8 53 111 Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. and HAUGHTON, G. (2010), ‘Spatial planning, devolution, and new planning spaces’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 28, 803-18. ‘Spatial planning, devolution, and new planning spaces’ Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 28 803 18 Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. and HAUGHTON, G. (2012), ‘Post-political spatial planning in England: a crisis of consensus?’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS37, 89-103. ‘Post-political spatial planning in England: a crisis of consensus?’ Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers NS37 89 103 Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P., MORPHET, J. and TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2005), ‘Devolution and the modernization of local government: prospects for spatial planning’, European Planning Studies, 13, 349-70. ‘Devolution and the modernization of local government: prospects for spatial planning’ European Planning Studies 13 349 70 Google Scholar

ANDERSEN, H. S. and ANDERSEN, H. T. (2004), Den mangfoldige by. Opløsning, oplevelse, opsplitning, SBi 2004:01, København, Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut. Den mangfoldige by. Opløsning, oplevelse, opsplitning Google Scholar

BAKER, M., ROBERTS, P. and SHAW, R. (2003), Stakeholder Involvement in Regional Planning, London, TCPA. Stakeholder Involvement in Regional Planning Google Scholar

BEEBEEJAUN, Y. (2004), ‘What's in a nation? Constructing ethnicity in the British planning system’, Planning Theory and Practice, 5, 437-51. ‘What's in a nation? Constructing ethnicity in the British planning system’ Planning Theory and Practice 5 437 51 Google Scholar

BIRDWELL, J., FAROOK, F. and JONES, S. (2010), Trust in Practice, London, Demos. Trust in Practice Google Scholar

BLACKBURN, S. (1998), ‘Trust, cooperation, and human psychology’, in V. Braithwaite and M. Levi (eds), Trust and Governance, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 28-45. Trust and Governance 28 45 Google Scholar

BRAITHWAITE, V. (1998), ‘Communal and exchange trust norms: their value base and relevance to institutional trust’, in V. Braithwaite and M. Levi (eds), Trust and Governance, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 46-74. Trust and Governance 46 74 Google Scholar

CLARK, G. (2011), ‘A new settlement for planning: a speech to the Royal Town Planning Institute’, 14 June http://www.gregclark.org/articles~speeches/articles~speeches/a-new-settlement-for-planning-a-speech-to-the/38 Google Scholar

COUNSELL, D. and HAUGHTON, G. (2003), ‘Regional planning tensions: planning for economic growth and sustainable development in two contrasting English regions’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 21, 225-39. ‘Regional planning tensions: planning for economic growth and sustainable development in two contrasting English regions’ Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 21 225 39 Google Scholar

COUNSELL, D. and HAUGHTON, G. (2006), ‘Advancing Together in Yorkshire and the Humber?’, in M. Tewdwr-Jones and P. Allmendinger (eds), Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning, London, Routledge, 106-22. Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning 106 22 Google Scholar

COUNSELL, D., JONAS, A, HART, T. and KETTLE, J. (2003), Links and Consistencies between Regional Strategies in Yorkshire and the Humber, Leeds, Yorkshire Futures. Links and Consistencies between Regional Strategies in Yorkshire and the Humber Google Scholar

DABINETT, G. (2009), ‘Doing strategic planning differently? The Yorkshire and Humber Regional Spatial Strategy’, in S. Davoudi and I. Strange (eds), Conceptions of Space and Place in Strategic Spatial Planning, London, Routledge, 147-80. Conceptions of Space and Place in Strategic Spatial Planning 147 80 Google Scholar

DANISH MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT (2006), The 2006 National Planning Report: The New Map of Denmark - Spatial Planning under New Conditions, Copenhagen, Danish Ministry of the Environment http://www.skovognatur.dk/Udgivelser/2006/The_national_planning_report.htm Google Scholar

DAVIS, A. R. (2001), ‘Hidden or hiding? Public perceptions of participation in the planning system’, Town Planning Review, 72, 193-216. ‘Hidden or hiding? Public perceptions of participation in the planning system’ Town Planning Review 72 193 216 Google Scholar

DEAS, I. (2006), ‘The contested creation of new state spaces: contrasting conceptions of regional strategy building in North West England’, in M. Tewdwr-Jones and P. Allmendinger (eds), Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning, London, Routledge, 83-105. Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning 83 105 Google Scholar

DETR (2000) Planning Policy Guidance Note 11: Regional Planning, London, DETR. Google Scholar

DETR (2001) Planning: Delivering a Fundamental Change, London, DETR. Google Scholar

EARLE, T. and CVETKOVICH, G. (1995), Social Trust: Toward a Cosmopolitan Society, Westport, CT, Praeger. Social Trust: Toward a Cosmopolitan Society Google Scholar

EAST RIDING OF YORKSHIRE COUNCIL (2011), ‘Written evidence to House of Commons Communities and Local Government Committee’, in Communities and Local Government Committee, Abolition of Regional Spatial Strategies: A Planning Vacuum, 2nd Report, Volume 1, HC514, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

FISCHER, F. (1993), ‘Citizen participation and the democratization of policy expertise: from theoretical inquiry to practical cases’, Policy Sciences, 26, 165-87. ‘Citizen participation and the democratization of policy expertise: from theoretical inquiry to practical cases’ Policy Sciences 26 165 87 Google Scholar

FLYVBJERG, B. (2001), Making Social Science Matter, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Making Social Science Matter Google Scholar

FURBEY, R., REID, B. and COLE, I. (2001), ‘Housing professionalism in the United Kingdom: the final curtain or a new age?’, Housing, Theory and Society, 18, 36-49. ‘Housing professionalism in the United Kingdom: the final curtain or a new age?’ Housing, Theory and Society 18 36 49 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

GIDDENS, A. (1990), The Consequences of Modernity, Cambridge, Polity. The Consequences of Modernity Google Scholar

GLASSON, J. and MARSHALL, T. (2007), Regional Planning, Abingdon, Routledge. Regional Planning Google Scholar

GORE, T. and JONES, C. (2006), ‘Yorkshire and the Humber’, in: P. Benneworth et al. (eds), The Rise of the English Regions?, London, Routledge. The Rise of the English Regions? Google Scholar

GRANT, M. (1999), ‘Regional government: the end of England?’, Journal of Planning and Environment Law, December, 6-17 ‘Regional government: the end of England?’ Journal of Planning and Environment Law December 6 17 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

HARDIN, R. (2002), Trust and Trustworthiness, New York, Russell Sage Foundation. Trust and Trustworthiness Google Scholar

HAUGHTON, G. (1998), ‘Private profits - public drought: the creation of a crisis in water management for West Yorkshire’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS23, 419-33. ‘Private profits - public drought: the creation of a crisis in water management for West Yorkshire’ Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers NS23 419 33 Google Scholar

HAY, C. (1999), ‘Crisis and the structural transformation of the state: interrogating the process of change’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 1, 317-44. ‘Crisis and the structural transformation of the state: interrogating the process of change’ British Journal of Politics and International Relations 1 317 44 Google Scholar

HM TREASURY (2007), Review of Sub-national Economic Development and Regeneration, London, HM Treasury. Google Scholar

HUMPHREY, L. and SHAW, K. (2004), ‘Regional devolution and democratic renewal: developing a radical approach to stakeholder involvement in the English regions’, Environment and Planning A, 36, 2183-202. ‘Regional devolution and democratic renewal: developing a radical approach to stakeholder involvement in the English regions’ Environment and Planning A 36 2183 202 Google Scholar

INDENRIGS- OG SUNDHEDSMINISTERIET (2004), Aftale om strukturreform, København, Indenrigs- og Sundhedsministeriet. Google Scholar

KORCZYNSKI, M. (2000), ‘The political economy of trust’, Journal of Management Studies, 37, 1-21. ‘The political economy of trust’ Journal of Management Studies 37 1 21 Google Scholar

KUMAR, A. and PADDISON, R. (2000), ‘Trust and collaborative planning theory: the case of the Scottish planning system’, International Planning Studies, 5, 205-23. ‘Trust and collaborative planning theory: the case of the Scottish planning system’ International Planning Studies 5 205 23 Google Scholar

LAURIAN, L. (2009), ‘Trust in planning: theoretical and practical considerations for participatory and deliberative planning’, Planning Theory and Practice, 10, 369-91. ‘Trust in planning: theoretical and practical considerations for participatory and deliberative planning’ Planning Theory and Practice 10 369 91 Google Scholar

LUHMANN, N. (1979), Trust and Power, Chichester, Wiley. Trust and Power Google Scholar

METLAY, D. (1999) ‘Institutional trust and confidence: a journey into a conceptual quagmire’, in G. Cvetkovich and R. Löfstedt (eds), Social Trust and the Management of Risk, London, Earthscan, 100-116. Social Trust and the Management of Risk 100 116 Google Scholar

MILJØMINISTERIET (2004), Bidrag til Regionplanlægningens Historie, København, Miljøministeriet. Google Scholar

MILJØMINISTERIET (2006), Fornyelse af Planlægningen, København, Miljøministeriet. Google Scholar

MISHRA, A. (1996), ‘Organizational responses to crisis: the centrality of trust’, in R. Kramer and T. Tyler (eds), Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage, 261-87. Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research 261 87 Google Scholar

MISZTAL, B. (1996), Trust in Modern Societies, Cambridge, Polity. Trust in Modern Societies Google Scholar

MUSSON, S., TICKELL, A. and JOHN, P. (2005), ‘A decade of decentralisation: assessing the role of government offices for the English regions’, Environment and Planning A, 37, 1395-412. ‘A decade of decentralisation: assessing the role of government offices for the English regions’ Environment and Planning A 37 1395 412 Google Scholar

NØRGAARD, H. (2011), ‘Futures of rural and peripheral areas: challenges, strategies and policies’, Danish Journal of Geoinformatics and Land Management, 46, 81-95. ‘Futures of rural and peripheral areas: challenges, strategies and policies’ Danish Journal of Geoinformatics and Land Management 46 81 95 Google Scholar

ODPM (2004a), Planning Policy Statement 11: Regional Spatial Strategies, London, ODPM. Google Scholar

ODPM (2004b), Making It Happen: The Northern Way, London, ODPM. Google Scholar

ODPM (2005), Core Output Indicators for Regional Planning, London, ODPM. Google Scholar

OFFE, C. (1999), ‘How can we trust our fellow citizens?’, in Warren, M. (ed.), Democracy and Trust, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 42-87. Democracy and Trust 42 87 Google Scholar

OLESEN, K and RICHARDSON, T. (2011), ‘The spatial politics of spatial representation: relationality as a medium for depoliticization?’, International Planning Studies, 16, 355-75. ‘The spatial politics of spatial representation: relationality as a medium for depoliticization?’ International Planning Studies 16 355 75 Google Scholar

OSBORNE, D. and GAEBLER, T. (1993), Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector, Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley. Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector Google Scholar

OXFORD RESEARCH (2005), Regional Development Model for North Denmark, Frederiksberg, Oxford Research. Google Scholar

PAASI, A. (2002), ‘Place and region: regional worlds and regional words’, Progress in Human Geography, 26, 802-11. ‘Place and region: regional worlds and regional words’ Progress in Human Geography 26 802 11 Google Scholar

PAASI, A. (2004), ‘Place and region: looking through the prism of scale’, Progress in Human Geography, 28, 536-46. ‘Place and region: looking through the prism of scale’ Progress in Human Geography 28 536 46 Google Scholar

POWER, M. (1997), The Audit Society: Rituals of Verification, Oxford, Oxford University Press. The Audit Society: Rituals of Verification Google Scholar

REGERINGEN (2006), Fremgang, Fornyelse og Tryghed. Strategi for Danmark i den Globale Økonomi, København, Regeringen. Google Scholar

SHAW, D. and LORD, A. (2007), ‘The cultural turn? Culture change and what it means for spatial planning in England’, Planning Practice and Research, 22, 63-78. ‘The cultural turn? Culture change and what it means for spatial planning in England’ Planning Practice and Research 22 63 78 Google Scholar

SOUTH WEST COUNCILS (n.d.), Towards an Integrated Regional Strategy for the South West: An Analysis of Existing Regional Strategies, Taunton, South West Councils. Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, R. and POXON, J. (2001), ‘Regional strategy making and the new structures and processes for regional governance’, Local Government Studies, 27, 109-24. ‘Regional strategy making and the new structures and processes for regional governance’ Local Government Studies 27 109 24 Google Scholar

STRATHERN, M. (2000), ‘The tyranny of transparency’, British Educational Research Journal, 26, 309-21. ‘The tyranny of transparency’ British Educational Research Journal 26 309 21 Google Scholar

SWAIN, C. and TAIT, M. (2007), ‘The crisis of trust and planning’, Planning Theory and Practice, 8, 229-47. ‘The crisis of trust and planning’ Planning Theory and Practice 8 229 47 Google Scholar

TAIT, M. (2011), ‘Trust and the public interest in the micropolitics of planning practice’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 31, 157-71. ‘Trust and the public interest in the micropolitics of planning practice’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 31 157 71 Google Scholar

TALVITIE, A. (2012), ‘The problem of trust in planning’, Planning Theory, 11, 257-78. ‘The problem of trust in planning’ Planning Theory 11 257 78 Google Scholar

USLANER, E. (1999), ‘Democracy and social capital’, in M. Warren (ed.), Democracy and Trust, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 121-50. Democracy and Trust 121 50 Google Scholar

WILLIAMSON, V., SKOCPOL, T. and COGGIN, J. (2011), ‘The Tea Party and the remaking of Republican conservatism’, Perspectives on Politics, 9, 25-43. ‘The Tea Party and the remaking of Republican conservatism’ Perspectives on Politics 9 25 43 Google Scholar

YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER ASSEMBLY (2005), Statement of Pre-Draft Consultation, Wakefield, Yorkshire and Humber Assembly. Google Scholar

ZUCKER, L. (1986), ‘Production of trust: institutional sources of economic structure, 1840-1920’, Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, 53-111. ‘Production of trust: institutional sources of economic structure, 1840-1920’ Research in Organizational Behavior 8 53 111 Google Scholar

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Author details

Tait, Malcolm

Hansen, Carsten