Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

The Problem of Witchcraft, Slavery and Jesuits in Seventeenth-century New Granada

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2013), 90, (2), 223–250.

Abstract

This article analyses a series of seventeenth-century inquisitorial witchcraft trials involving enslaved and free Africans that took place in the Viceroyalty of New Granada. It discusses the methodological problems inherent in the study of texts that appear to demonstrate the imposition of a stereotypical formula onto the reality of the defendants. It will also examine two further possible lines of enquiry: the role, in particular, of Jesuit intermediaries and interpreters in the trial process; and what, if anything, we might infer from the trials about African socio-religious practices in Early Modern New Granada. Despite the obscuring role of European witchcraft stereotypes, the Cartagena trial testimonies still hint at a slave society that could and did come together in a ritual communion aimed at investing individuals and groups with power in a society where Africans were deliberately denied it.

The Problem of Witchcraft, Slavery and Jesuits in Seventeenth-century New Granada

Abstract

This article analyses a series of seventeenth-century inquisitorial witchcraft trials involving enslaved and free Africans that took place in the Viceroyalty of New Granada. It discusses the methodological problems inherent in the study of texts that appear to demonstrate the imposition of a stereotypical formula onto the reality of the defendants. It will also examine two further possible lines of enquiry: the role, in particular, of Jesuit intermediaries and interpreters in the trial process; and what, if anything, we might infer from the trials about African socio-religious practices in Early Modern New Granada. Despite the obscuring role of European witchcraft stereotypes, the Cartagena trial testimonies still hint at a slave society that could and did come together in a ritual communion aimed at investing individuals and groups with power in a society where Africans were deliberately denied it.

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Arriaga, Pablo José de, 1621. Extirpacion de la Idolatria del Piru (Lima: Por Geronymo de Contreras). Extirpacion de la Idolatria del Piru Google Scholar

Aristizabal, Tulio, and Anna María Splendiani (eds), 2002. Procesos de la beatificación y canonización de San Pedro Claver (Bogotá: CEJA). Procesos de la beatificación y canonización de San Pedro Claver Google Scholar

Bennett, Herman L., 2009. Colonial Blackness: A History of Afro-Mexico (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press). Colonial Blackness: A History of Afro-Mexico Google Scholar

Bowser, Frederick, 1974. The African Slave in Colonial Peru, 1524-1650 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press). The African Slave in Colonial Peru, 1524-1650 Google Scholar

Brandon, George, 1997. Santería from Africa to the New World (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press). Santería from Africa to the New World Google Scholar

Brioschi, Pedro A., 1889. Vida de San Pedro Claver (Paris: Garnier Hermanos). Vida de San Pedro Claver Google Scholar

Bristol, Joan Cameron, 2007. Christians, Blasphemers and Witches: Afro-Mexican Ritual Practice in the Seventeenth Century (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press). Christians, Blasphemers and Witches: Afro-Mexican Ritual Practice in the Seventeenth Century Google Scholar

Caro Baroja, Julio, 1997. Las brujas y su mundo (Madrid: Biblioteca Alianza Editorial). Las brujas y su mundo Google Scholar

Ceballos Gómez, Diana Luz, 1994. Hechicería, brujería e inquisición en el Nuevo Reino de Granada: Un duelo de imaginarios (Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad Nacional). Hechicería, brujería e inquisición en el Nuevo Reino de Granada: Un duelo de imaginarios Google Scholar

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Chambers, Douglas B., 1997. ‘"My own nation": Igbo Exiles in the Diaspora’, in Routes to Slavery: Direction, Ethnicity and Mortality in the Atlantic Slave Trade, ed. David Eltis and David Richardson (London: Frank Cass), pp. 72-97. Routes to Slavery: Direction, Ethnicity and Mortality in the Atlantic Slave Trade 72 97 Google Scholar

Ciruelo, Pedro, 1978. Reprouacion de las supersticiones y hechizerias, ed. A. V. Ebersole (Valencia: Ediciones Albatros Hispanófila). Reprouacion de las supersticiones y hechizerias Google Scholar

Clark, Stuart, 1997. Thinking with Demons: Early Modern Witchcraft (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Thinking with Demons: Early Modern Witchcraft Google Scholar

Cushner, Nicholas P., 1975. ‘Slave Mortality and Reproduction on Jesuit Haciendas in Colonial Peru’, Hispanic American Historical Review, 55.2: 177-99. ‘Slave Mortality and Reproduction on Jesuit Haciendas in Colonial Peru’ Hispanic American Historical Review 55 177 99 Google Scholar

Del Río, Martín, 2000. Investigations into Magic, trans. and ed. P. G. Maxwell Stuart (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press). Investigations into Magic Google Scholar

Estenssoro Fuchs, Juan Carlos, 2003. Del paganismo a la santidad: la incorporación de los indios del Perú al catolicismo 1532-1750 (Lima: IFEA). Del paganismo a la santidad: la incorporación de los indios del Perú al catolicismo 1532-1750 Google Scholar

Ginzburg, Carlo, 1992. The Night Battles: Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, trans. John and Anne Tedeschi (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press). The Night Battles: Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Google Scholar

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Hilton, Anne, 1985. The Kingdom of Kongo (Oxford: Clarendon Press). The Kingdom of Kongo Google Scholar

Hobbes, Thomas, 2009 [1651]. Leviathan (New York: Cosimo). Leviathan Google Scholar

Lewis, Laura A., 2003. Hall of Mirrors: Power, Witchcraft and Caste in Colonial Mexico (Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press). Hall of Mirrors: Power, Witchcraft and Caste in Colonial Mexico Google Scholar

Lisón Tolosana, Carmelo, 1983. Brujería, estructura social y simbolismo en Galicia (Madrid: Akal). Brujería, estructura social y simbolismo en Galicia Google Scholar

MacGaffey, Wyatt, 1986. Religion and Society in Central Africa: The BaKongo of Lower Zaire (Chicago, IL and London: University of Chicago Press). Religion and Society in Central Africa: The BaKongo of Lower Zaire Google Scholar

Mackay, Christopher, 2006. Malleus Maleficarum, 2 vols. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press). Malleus Maleficarum 2 Google Scholar

Mackay, Christopher, 2009. The Hammer of Witches: A Complete Translation of the Malleus Maleficarum (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press). The Hammer of Witches: A Complete Translation of the Malleus Maleficarum Google Scholar

Maya Restrepo, Luz Adriana, 2005. Brujería y reconstrucción de identidades entre los africanos y sus descendientes en la Nueva Granada, Siglo XVII (Ministerio de Cultura: Bogotá). Brujería y reconstrucción de identidades entre los africanos y sus descendientes en la Nueva Granada, Siglo XVII Google Scholar

McKnight, Kathryn Joy, 2003. ‘"En su tierra lo aprendió": An African Curandero's Defense before the Cartagena Inquisition’, Colonial Latin American Review, 12.1: 63-84. ‘"En su tierra lo aprendió": An African Curandero's Defense before the Cartagena Inquisition’ Colonial Latin American Review 12 63 84 Google Scholar

McKnight, Kathryn Joy, 2004. ‘Confronted Rituals: Spanish Colonial and Angolan "Maroon" Executions in Cartagena de Indias (1634)’, Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, 5.3. Available at: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_colonialism_and_colonial_history/v005/5.3mcknight.html (accessed: 25 May 2010). http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_colonialism_and_colonial_history/v005/5.3mcknight.html ‘Confronted Rituals: Spanish Colonial and Angolan "Maroon" Executions in Cartagena de Indias (1634)’ Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History 5 Google Scholar

Negro, Sandra, and Manuel M. Marzal (eds), 2005. Esclavitud, economía y evangelización: Las haciendas jesuitas en la América Virreinal (Lima: Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú). Esclavitud, economía y evangelización: Las haciendas jesuitas en la América Virreinal Google Scholar

Olsen, Margaret, 2004. Slavery and Salvation in Colonial Cartagena de Indias (Gainsville: University Press of Florida). Slavery and Salvation in Colonial Cartagena de Indias Google Scholar

Redden, Andrew, 2008. Diabolism in Colonial Peru 1560-1750 (London: Pickering and Chatto). Diabolism in Colonial Peru 1560-1750 Google Scholar

Sandoval, Alonso de, 1647. De instauranda Aethiopum Salute: Historia de Aethiopia, naturaleça, Policia Sagrada y profana, Costumbres ritos y Cathecismo Evangelico, de todos los Aethopes con que se restaura la salud de sus almas […] (Madrid: Por Alonso de Paredes), I. De instauranda Aethiopum Salute: Historia de Aethiopia, naturaleça, Policia Sagrada y profana, Costumbres ritos y Cathecismo Evangelico, de todos los Aethopes con que se restaura la salud de sus almas […] I Google Scholar

Sandoval, Alonso de, 1987. Un tratado sobre la esclavitud, ed. Enriqueta Vila Vilar (Madrid: Alianza Editorial). Un tratado sobre la esclavitud Google Scholar

Sandoval, Alonso de, 2008. Treatise on Slavery: Selections from De instauranda Aethiopum salute, ed. and trans. Nicole von Germeten (Indianapolis, IN and Cambridge, MA: Hackett Publishing). Treatise on Slavery: Selections from De instauranda Aethiopum salute Google Scholar

Slave Voyages Database, n.d. [Online.] Available at: http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/database/search.faces Google Scholar

Splendiani, Anna María, José Enrique Sánchez Bohórquez and Emma Cecilia Luque de Salazar (eds), 1997. Cincuenta años de inquisición en el Tribunal de Cartagena de Indias 1610-1660. 4 vols. (Bogotá: Centro Editorial Javeriano, Instituto Colombiano de Cultura Hispánica). Cincuenta años de inquisición en el Tribunal de Cartagena de Indias 1610-1660 4 Google Scholar

Thornton, John, 2003. ‘Cannibals, Witches and Slave Traders in the Atlantic World’, The William and Mary Quarterly, 60.2: 273-94. ‘Cannibals, Witches and Slave Traders in the Atlantic World’ The William and Mary Quarterly 60 273 94 Google Scholar

Vargas Arana, Paola, 2006. ‘Pedro Claver y la labor de evangelización en Cartagena de Indias (Siglo XVII): Fuentes claves para analizar a los africanos en el Nuevo Mundo’, Revista de Historia, 155.2: 43-79. ‘Pedro Claver y la labor de evangelización en Cartagena de Indias (Siglo XVII): Fuentes claves para analizar a los africanos en el Nuevo Mundo’ Revista de Historia 155 43 79 Google Scholar

Vidal Ortega, Antonino, 2002. Cartagena de Indias y la región histórica del Caribe, 1580-1640 (Sevilla: CSIC / Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos). Cartagena de Indias y la región histórica del Caribe, 1580-1640 Google Scholar

White, Heather Rachelle, 2005. ‘Between the Devil and the Inquisition: African Slaves and the Witchcraft Trials in Cartagena de Indies’, The North Star: A Journal of African American Religious History, 8.2. Available at: http://clio.missouristate.edu/chuchiak/template/white-INq%20Cartagena.pdf (accessed 19 December 2012). http://clio.missouristate.edu/chuchiak/template/white-INq%20Cartagena.pdf ‘Between the Devil and the Inquisition: African Slaves and the Witchcraft Trials in Cartagena de Indies’ The North Star: A Journal of African American Religious History 8 Google Scholar

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ARSI Google Scholar

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Acosta, José de, 1984, 1987 [1577]. De procuranda Indorum salute. 2 vols. (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas). De procuranda Indorum salute 2 Google Scholar

Arriaga, Pablo José de, 1621. Extirpacion de la Idolatria del Piru (Lima: Por Geronymo de Contreras). Extirpacion de la Idolatria del Piru Google Scholar

Aristizabal, Tulio, and Anna María Splendiani (eds), 2002. Procesos de la beatificación y canonización de San Pedro Claver (Bogotá: CEJA). Procesos de la beatificación y canonización de San Pedro Claver Google Scholar

Bennett, Herman L., 2009. Colonial Blackness: A History of Afro-Mexico (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press). Colonial Blackness: A History of Afro-Mexico Google Scholar

Bowser, Frederick, 1974. The African Slave in Colonial Peru, 1524-1650 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press). The African Slave in Colonial Peru, 1524-1650 Google Scholar

Brandon, George, 1997. Santería from Africa to the New World (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press). Santería from Africa to the New World Google Scholar

Brioschi, Pedro A., 1889. Vida de San Pedro Claver (Paris: Garnier Hermanos). Vida de San Pedro Claver Google Scholar

Bristol, Joan Cameron, 2007. Christians, Blasphemers and Witches: Afro-Mexican Ritual Practice in the Seventeenth Century (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press). Christians, Blasphemers and Witches: Afro-Mexican Ritual Practice in the Seventeenth Century Google Scholar

Caro Baroja, Julio, 1997. Las brujas y su mundo (Madrid: Biblioteca Alianza Editorial). Las brujas y su mundo Google Scholar

Ceballos Gómez, Diana Luz, 1994. Hechicería, brujería e inquisición en el Nuevo Reino de Granada: Un duelo de imaginarios (Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad Nacional). Hechicería, brujería e inquisición en el Nuevo Reino de Granada: Un duelo de imaginarios Google Scholar

Cervantes, Fernando, 1994. The Devil in the New World: The Impact of Diabolism in New Spain (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press). The Devil in the New World: The Impact of Diabolism in New Spain Google Scholar

Chambers, Douglas B., 1997. ‘"My own nation": Igbo Exiles in the Diaspora’, in Routes to Slavery: Direction, Ethnicity and Mortality in the Atlantic Slave Trade, ed. David Eltis and David Richardson (London: Frank Cass), pp. 72-97. Routes to Slavery: Direction, Ethnicity and Mortality in the Atlantic Slave Trade 72 97 Google Scholar

Ciruelo, Pedro, 1978. Reprouacion de las supersticiones y hechizerias, ed. A. V. Ebersole (Valencia: Ediciones Albatros Hispanófila). Reprouacion de las supersticiones y hechizerias Google Scholar

Clark, Stuart, 1997. Thinking with Demons: Early Modern Witchcraft (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Thinking with Demons: Early Modern Witchcraft Google Scholar

Cushner, Nicholas P., 1975. ‘Slave Mortality and Reproduction on Jesuit Haciendas in Colonial Peru’, Hispanic American Historical Review, 55.2: 177-99. ‘Slave Mortality and Reproduction on Jesuit Haciendas in Colonial Peru’ Hispanic American Historical Review 55 177 99 Google Scholar

Del Río, Martín, 2000. Investigations into Magic, trans. and ed. P. G. Maxwell Stuart (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press). Investigations into Magic Google Scholar

Estenssoro Fuchs, Juan Carlos, 2003. Del paganismo a la santidad: la incorporación de los indios del Perú al catolicismo 1532-1750 (Lima: IFEA). Del paganismo a la santidad: la incorporación de los indios del Perú al catolicismo 1532-1750 Google Scholar

Ginzburg, Carlo, 1992. The Night Battles: Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, trans. John and Anne Tedeschi (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press). The Night Battles: Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Google Scholar

Henningsen, Gustav (ed.), 2004. The Salazar Documents: Inquisitor Alonso de Salazar Frías and Others on the Basque Witch Persecution (Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston, MA: Brill). The Salazar Documents: Inquisitor Alonso de Salazar Frías and Others on the Basque Witch Persecution Google Scholar

Hilton, Anne, 1985. The Kingdom of Kongo (Oxford: Clarendon Press). The Kingdom of Kongo Google Scholar

Hobbes, Thomas, 2009 [1651]. Leviathan (New York: Cosimo). Leviathan Google Scholar

Lewis, Laura A., 2003. Hall of Mirrors: Power, Witchcraft and Caste in Colonial Mexico (Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press). Hall of Mirrors: Power, Witchcraft and Caste in Colonial Mexico Google Scholar

Lisón Tolosana, Carmelo, 1983. Brujería, estructura social y simbolismo en Galicia (Madrid: Akal). Brujería, estructura social y simbolismo en Galicia Google Scholar

MacGaffey, Wyatt, 1986. Religion and Society in Central Africa: The BaKongo of Lower Zaire (Chicago, IL and London: University of Chicago Press). Religion and Society in Central Africa: The BaKongo of Lower Zaire Google Scholar

Mackay, Christopher, 2006. Malleus Maleficarum, 2 vols. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press). Malleus Maleficarum 2 Google Scholar

Mackay, Christopher, 2009. The Hammer of Witches: A Complete Translation of the Malleus Maleficarum (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press). The Hammer of Witches: A Complete Translation of the Malleus Maleficarum Google Scholar

Maya Restrepo, Luz Adriana, 2005. Brujería y reconstrucción de identidades entre los africanos y sus descendientes en la Nueva Granada, Siglo XVII (Ministerio de Cultura: Bogotá). Brujería y reconstrucción de identidades entre los africanos y sus descendientes en la Nueva Granada, Siglo XVII Google Scholar

McKnight, Kathryn Joy, 2003. ‘"En su tierra lo aprendió": An African Curandero's Defense before the Cartagena Inquisition’, Colonial Latin American Review, 12.1: 63-84. ‘"En su tierra lo aprendió": An African Curandero's Defense before the Cartagena Inquisition’ Colonial Latin American Review 12 63 84 Google Scholar

McKnight, Kathryn Joy, 2004. ‘Confronted Rituals: Spanish Colonial and Angolan "Maroon" Executions in Cartagena de Indias (1634)’, Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, 5.3. Available at: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_colonialism_and_colonial_history/v005/5.3mcknight.html (accessed: 25 May 2010). http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_colonialism_and_colonial_history/v005/5.3mcknight.html ‘Confronted Rituals: Spanish Colonial and Angolan "Maroon" Executions in Cartagena de Indias (1634)’ Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History 5 Google Scholar

Negro, Sandra, and Manuel M. Marzal (eds), 2005. Esclavitud, economía y evangelización: Las haciendas jesuitas en la América Virreinal (Lima: Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú). Esclavitud, economía y evangelización: Las haciendas jesuitas en la América Virreinal Google Scholar

Olsen, Margaret, 2004. Slavery and Salvation in Colonial Cartagena de Indias (Gainsville: University Press of Florida). Slavery and Salvation in Colonial Cartagena de Indias Google Scholar

Redden, Andrew, 2008. Diabolism in Colonial Peru 1560-1750 (London: Pickering and Chatto). Diabolism in Colonial Peru 1560-1750 Google Scholar

Sandoval, Alonso de, 1647. De instauranda Aethiopum Salute: Historia de Aethiopia, naturaleça, Policia Sagrada y profana, Costumbres ritos y Cathecismo Evangelico, de todos los Aethopes con que se restaura la salud de sus almas […] (Madrid: Por Alonso de Paredes), I. De instauranda Aethiopum Salute: Historia de Aethiopia, naturaleça, Policia Sagrada y profana, Costumbres ritos y Cathecismo Evangelico, de todos los Aethopes con que se restaura la salud de sus almas […] I Google Scholar

Sandoval, Alonso de, 1987. Un tratado sobre la esclavitud, ed. Enriqueta Vila Vilar (Madrid: Alianza Editorial). Un tratado sobre la esclavitud Google Scholar

Sandoval, Alonso de, 2008. Treatise on Slavery: Selections from De instauranda Aethiopum salute, ed. and trans. Nicole von Germeten (Indianapolis, IN and Cambridge, MA: Hackett Publishing). Treatise on Slavery: Selections from De instauranda Aethiopum salute Google Scholar

Slave Voyages Database, n.d. [Online.] Available at: http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/database/search.faces Google Scholar

Splendiani, Anna María, José Enrique Sánchez Bohórquez and Emma Cecilia Luque de Salazar (eds), 1997. Cincuenta años de inquisición en el Tribunal de Cartagena de Indias 1610-1660. 4 vols. (Bogotá: Centro Editorial Javeriano, Instituto Colombiano de Cultura Hispánica). Cincuenta años de inquisición en el Tribunal de Cartagena de Indias 1610-1660 4 Google Scholar

Thornton, John, 2003. ‘Cannibals, Witches and Slave Traders in the Atlantic World’, The William and Mary Quarterly, 60.2: 273-94. ‘Cannibals, Witches and Slave Traders in the Atlantic World’ The William and Mary Quarterly 60 273 94 Google Scholar

Vargas Arana, Paola, 2006. ‘Pedro Claver y la labor de evangelización en Cartagena de Indias (Siglo XVII): Fuentes claves para analizar a los africanos en el Nuevo Mundo’, Revista de Historia, 155.2: 43-79. ‘Pedro Claver y la labor de evangelización en Cartagena de Indias (Siglo XVII): Fuentes claves para analizar a los africanos en el Nuevo Mundo’ Revista de Historia 155 43 79 Google Scholar

Vidal Ortega, Antonino, 2002. Cartagena de Indias y la región histórica del Caribe, 1580-1640 (Sevilla: CSIC / Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos). Cartagena de Indias y la región histórica del Caribe, 1580-1640 Google Scholar

White, Heather Rachelle, 2005. ‘Between the Devil and the Inquisition: African Slaves and the Witchcraft Trials in Cartagena de Indies’, The North Star: A Journal of African American Religious History, 8.2. Available at: http://clio.missouristate.edu/chuchiak/template/white-INq%20Cartagena.pdf (accessed 19 December 2012). http://clio.missouristate.edu/chuchiak/template/white-INq%20Cartagena.pdf ‘Between the Devil and the Inquisition: African Slaves and the Witchcraft Trials in Cartagena de Indies’ The North Star: A Journal of African American Religious History 8 Google Scholar


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Author details

Redden, Andrew