International Development Planning Review

Planning, the urban poor and climate change in Small Island Developing States (SIDS): unmitigated disaster or inclusive adaptation?

International Development Planning Review (2015), 37, (2), 225–248.

Abstract

This article identifies the impacts of climate change on the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Caribbean and the Pacific, which, through their geography and location, are amongst the most vulnerable countries in the world to natural hazards and the impacts of climate change. It explores how, in the main, the lack of recognition of the economic imperatives and importance of well-managed cities and urban centres in the SIDS has resulted in national urban planning systems and internationally-funded climate change adaptation and natural risk resilience mitigation ‘best practice’ interventions that largely ignore the needs of the urban poor living in urban centres – in particular, those in extra-legal settlements. It goes on to posit a different set of interrelated measures based on successful lessons from the field that might circumscribe a more targeted approach to climate change adaptation and to strengthening risk resilience in these small, vulnerable countries, so as to be more inclusive of the poor.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ACE CRC (ANTARCTIC CLIMATE and ECOSYSTEMS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH CENTRE) (2008), ‘Position Analysis: climate change, Sea-Level Rise and Extreme Events: Impacts and Adaptation Issues’ (analysis report), Hobart, ACE CRC. Position Analysis: climate change, Sea-Level Rise and Extreme Events: Impacts and Adaptation Issues Google Scholar

ADB (ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK) (2013a), Economics of Climate Change in the Pacific, Manda-luyong city, ADB. Economics of Climate Change in the Pacific Google Scholar

ADB (ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK) (2013b), Moving from Risk to Resilience: Sustainable Urban Development in the Pacific, Mandaluyong city, ADB. Moving from Risk to Resilience: Sustainable Urban Development in the Pacific Google Scholar

APA (AMERICAN PLANNING ASSOCIATION) (2014), ‘Hazard mitigation draft policy guide’ (guide), chicago, IL, APA, available at: https://www.planning.org/policy/guides/pdf/ drafthazardmitigation.pdf (accessed 5 March 2014). Google Scholar

ARNSTEIN, S. (1969), ‘A ladder of citizen participation’, AIP Journal, 35, 216–24. A ladder of citizen participation AIP Journal 35 216 24 Google Scholar

BAKER, J. (ed) (2012), ‘climate change, Disaster Risk and the Urban Poor cities Building Resilience for a changing World’ (Urban Development Series 68358), Washington D.C., The World Bank. climate change, Disaster Risk and the Urban Poor cities Building Resilience for a changing World Google Scholar

BASSETT, T. and SCRUGGS, G. (2013), ‘Water, water everywhere: sea level rise and land use planning in Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Pará’ (Lincoln Institute report), Washington, DC, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Water, water everywhere: sea level rise and land use planning in Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Pará Google Scholar

BEDFORD, R. (2008), ‘Pasifka mobility: pathways, circuits, and challenges in the 21st century’, in A. Bisley (ed.), Pacific Interactions Pasifka in New Zealand – New Zealand in Pasifika, Wellington, Institute of Policy Studies, Victoria University of Wellington, 85–134. Pasifka mobility: pathways, circuits, and challenges in the 21st century Pacific Interactions Pasifka in New Zealand – New Zealand in Pasifika 85 134 Google Scholar

BUENO, R., HERZFELD, c., STANTON, E. and ACKERMAN, F. (2008), ‘The caribbean and climate change – the costs of inaction’ (report), Medford, MA, Stockholm Environment Institute, US center Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University. The caribbean and climate change – the costs of inaction Google Scholar

BUTCHER-GOLLACH, c. (2012), ‘Health and the city: consequences of the “king tides” of urbanization in Kiribati, central Pacific’ (paper delivered to the sixth Urban Research and Knowledge Symposium – Rethinking cities: Framing the Future, Barcelona, 10–12 October). Health and the city: consequences of the “king tides” of urbanization in Kiribati, central Pacific 10 12 Google Scholar

BUTCHER-GOLLACH, c. and LILOQULA, R. (2011), ‘Honiara Economic Development Support Programme (HEDSUP) 2011–2016 – Activity Design Document’ (design document report), Wellington and Honiara, The New Zealand Aid Programme and Honiara city council. Honiara Economic Development Support Programme (HEDSUP) 2011–2016 – Activity Design Document Google Scholar

BUTCHER-GOLLACH, C., BANES, C., JONES, P., LIOUSSE, C. and ONORIO, K. (2008), ‘Kiribati urban renewal scoping study. Vol. 2 – Recommendations’ (report), Wellington, The New Zealand Aid Programme. Kiribati urban renewal scoping study. Vol. 2 – Recommendations Google Scholar

CARRINGTON, W. and DETRAGAICHE, E. (n.d.), ‘How extensive is the brain drain?’, Finance & Development, 36, available at: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/1999/06/carringt.htm (accessed 6 February 2015). Google Scholar

CCCCC (cARIBBEAN COMMUNITY CLIMATE CHANGE CENTRE) and CDKN (THE CLIMATE AND DEVELOPMENT KNOWLEDGE NETWORK) (2012), ‘Delivering transformational change 2011–21’ (report), Belmopan, Belize, caribbean community climate change centre. Delivering transformational change 2011–21 Google Scholar

CHUNG, M. and HILL, D. (2002), ‘Urban informal settlements in Vanuatu: challenge for equitable development’ (report), Suva, PIFS (Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat) and UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social commission for Asia and the Pacific). Urban informal settlements in Vanuatu: challenge for equitable development Google Scholar

CIF (CLIMATE INVESTMENT FUNDS) (2014), ‘Jamaica’s PPCR strategic program’ (strategic report), Washington, DC, CIF, available at: https://www.climateinvestmentfunds.org/cifnet/investment-plan/jamaicas-ppcr-strategic-program (accessed 14 June 2014). Google Scholar

DUBAI MUNICIPALITY (2013), ‘Award criteria’ (Dubai award criteria), Dubai, Dubai Municipality, available at: http://www.dubaiaward.dm.gov.ae/wps/portal/DIABP/!ut/p/a1/rZJNU8IwEIZ_iweOmm3TfHcsWGwZ0EpxoL10kjaFKJQCGXT89aYMM56sMG-MuOzt58-y72UUZWqcsFke9FEZva7Fu84zm_ckO6DB0geOEQBRzHDpJHN4_O2iOMpTNB5M8Fkt1N1UHZfz1GqWz6WvQXhW1acwKpaUWsunBKeSq7s-Fqu1E9EB9iXxZ7bdRei0P7oLGCU (accessed 14 September 2014). Google Scholar

FOLGER, T. (2013), ‘Rising seas – how they are changing our coastlines’, Offcial Journal of The National Geographic Society, 224, 30–59. Rising seas – how they are changing our coastlines Offcial Journal of The National Geographic Society 224 30 59 Google Scholar

FRANKLIN, S., HADDAD, J., KOE, H., PATELA, P. and WHEATON, L. (2011), ‘Low cost house designs – Temaiku’ (designs and report prepared for the Melbourne School of Design, Kiribati Travelling Studio), Melbourne, University of Melbourne, available at: http://www.edsc.unimelb.edu.au/sites/default/files/docs/Kiribati%20Low%20cost%20 House%20Designs%20final%20presentation.pdf (accessed 8 February 2014). Google Scholar

GEMENNE, F. (2011), ‘Intepretation of the Foresight report “Migration and global environmental change”’ (Working Paper No. 51 for the World Bank, East Asia and Pacific Region), Norwich, School of International Development, University of East Anglia. Intepretation of the Foresight report “Migration and global environmental change” Google Scholar

GOVERNMENT OF SAMOA, MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT (2008),‘Top planning award won’, available at: http://www1.mnre.gov.ws/documents/newsletters/april%20newsletter%202008.pdf (accessed 13 December 2013). Google Scholar

HIRST, M. and McGEOWN, K. (2009), ‘Rising sea levels: a tale of two cities’, BBC News, 24 November, available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/science/nature/8369236.stm (accessed 16 October 2013). Google Scholar

HOLDREN, J. P. (2006), ‘Meeting the climate-change challenge’ (lecture delivered to the SES Distinguished Scientist seminar, Woods Hole, MA, 3 November). Meeting the climate-change challenge Google Scholar

HUNTER, J. (2011), ‘A simple technique for estimating an allowance for uncertain sea-level rise’, Climatic Change, 113, 239–52. A simple technique for estimating an allowance for uncertain sea-level rise Climatic Change 113 239 52 Google Scholar

IPCC (INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE) (2013), ‘Climate change 2013: The physical science basis’ (report prepared for Working Group I: Summary for Policymakers), Geneva, IPcc. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis Google Scholar

LEVINE, S., PETERS, K. and FAN, L. (2014), ‘Confict, climate change and politics: why a techno-centric approach fails the resilience challenge’ (Humanitarian Policy Group Working Paper), London, Overseas Development Institute. Confict, climate change and politics: why a techno-centric approach fails the resilience challenge Google Scholar

MEJIA, J., HUNTINGTON, B. and HATCHETT, D. (2011), ‘Linking global climate models to an integrated hydrologic model using a hybrid downscaling approach’, Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education, 147, 17–27. Linking global climate models to an integrated hydrologic model using a hybrid downscaling approach Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education 147 17 27 Google Scholar

NAA JPL (NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION, JET PROPULSION LABORATORY) (2009), ‘Shuttle radar topography mission’, available at: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm (accessed 18 March 2012). Google Scholar

NICHOLLS, R. (2003), ‘case study on sea-level rise impacts’ (case study), Paris, OECD Working Party on Global and Structural Policies. case study on sea-level rise impacts Google Scholar

ODI (OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE), UK MET OFFICE AND RMS (RISK MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS) (2013), ‘The geography of poverty, disasters and climate extremes in 2030’ (report), London, ODI. The geography of poverty, disasters and climate extremes in 2030 Google Scholar

PACIFIC ISLANDS FORUM SECRETARIAT (2007), ‘The Pacific plan for strengthening regional cooperation and integration’ (plan), Suva, Pacific Forum Secretariat. The Pacific plan for strengthening regional cooperation and integration Google Scholar

PERSAUD, T. and BUTCHER-GOLLACH, c. (2009), ‘Implementation completion and results report for a cyclone emergency recovery project to the independent state of Samoa’ (report), Washington, DC, World Bank, available at: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDScontentServer/WDSP/IB/2009/04/24/000333038_20090424021849/Rendered/PDF/ICR10710P0882410Disclosed0041221091.pdf (accessed 19 January 2014). Google Scholar

PIOJ (PLANNING INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA) (2012), ‘Communication for climate resilience 2012 to 2017’ (Working Papers), Kingston, PIOJ. Communication for climate resilience 2012 to 2017 Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D., HUQ, S. and PELLING, M. (2007), ‘Adapting to climate change in urban areas – the possibilities and constraints in low- and middle-income nations’ (report), London, IIED (International Institute for Environment and Development). Adapting to climate change in urban areas – the possibilities and constraints in low- and middle-income nations Google Scholar

SEALY, A. (2012), ‘The impact of climate change in the caribbean’ (paper delivered to the Caribbean Climate Change Seminar, Barbados, 26 June). The impact of climate change in the Caribbean Google Scholar

SOPAc-UNEP (SOUTH PACIFIC APPLIED GEOSCIENCE COMMISSION AND UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME) (2005), ‘The environmental vulnerability calculator’, available at: http://www.vulnerabilityindex.net/Files/EVI%20CALCULATOR%205-1-05%20(Beta).xls (accessed 12 July 2012). Google Scholar

SOUBBOTINA, T. (2004), Beyond Economic Growth: An Introduction to Sustainable Development (2nd edn), Washington, DC, The World Bank. Beyond Economic Growth: An Introduction to Sustainable Development Google Scholar

SPAULDING, G. (2014), ‘UDc to divest state-owned properties this week’, The Weekly Gleaner,16 January, available at: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-3195574091.html (accessed 6 February 2014). Google Scholar

SU, R. (2014), ‘Rising sea levels to swallow low lying islands with rare animal species’, The International Business Times, 25 February, available at: http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/540429/20140225/climate-change-global-warming-island-sanctuaries-new.htm#.UxDtb_mSwrY (accessed 28 February 2014). Google Scholar

SZOLDRA, P. (2014), ‘Stunning map shows what a climate change nightmare scenario might actually look like’, Business Insider Australia, 26 February, available at: www.businessinsider.com.au/climate-change-map-2014-2 (accessed 28 February 2014). Google Scholar

TAYLOR, M., CENTELLA, A., CHARLERY, J., BEZANILLA, A., CAMPBELL, J., BORRAJERO, I.,STEPHENSON, T. and NURMOHAMED, R. (2013), ‘The PRECIS caribbean story: lessons and legacies’, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94, 1065–73. The PRECIS caribbean story: lessons and legacies Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94 1065 73 Google Scholar

THE NATURE CONSERVANCY (2009), ‘coastal resilience mapping portal’, available at: http://maps.coastalresilience.org/network/ (accessed 14 June, 2014). Google Scholar

THE WORLD BANK (2014), ‘Data: urban development’ (data), Washington, DC, World Bank, available at: http://data.worldbank.org/topic/urban-development (accessed 28 February 2014). Google Scholar

TOMLINSON, R. (2002), ‘International best practice, enabling frameworks and the policy process: a South African case study’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 26, 377–88. International best practice, enabling frameworks and the policy process: a South African case study International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 26 377 88 Google Scholar

TURNER, J. and FICHTER, R. (1972), Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process, New York, NY, MacMillan. Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process Google Scholar

UN DESA (UN DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIc AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS), POPULATION DIVISION (2011), ‘World urbanization prospects: the 2011 revision’ (report), New York, NY, United Nations. World urbanization prospects: the 2011 revision Google Scholar

UNDP (UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME) (2004), ‘Regional report on the achievement of the millennium development goals in the caribbean community’ (report), New York, NY, UNDP. Regional report on the achievement of the millennium development goals in the caribbean community Google Scholar

UNEP (UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME), CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY SECRETARIAT, UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (2000), ‘caribbean-Environment Outlook’ (report), Nairobi, UNEP, available at: http://www.unep.org/PDF/SIDS/caribbean_EO_final.pdf (accessed 6 February 2014) Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2011a), ‘Antigua and Barbuda: national urban profile’ (profile report), Nairobi, UN Human Settlement Programme. Antigua and Barbuda: national urban profile Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2011b), Promising Practices on Climate Change in Urban Sub-Saharan Africa, Nairobi,UN-Habitat (United Nations Human Settlements Programme). Promising Practices on Climate Change in Urban Sub-Saharan Africa Google Scholar

UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN (2013), ‘EM-DAT: the OFDA/cRED international disaster database’ (database), Brussels, Université catholique de Louvain. EM-DAT: the OFDA/CRED international disaster database Google Scholar

US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (2008), ‘Shuttle radar topography mission’, available at: http://srtm.usgs.gov.mission.php (accessed 18 February 2014). Google Scholar

VIZE, S. (2012), ‘Using education to bring climate change adaptation to Pacific communities’, Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 6, 219–35. Using education to bring climate change adaptation to Pacific communities Journal of Education for Sustainable Development 6 219 35 Google Scholar

WILKINSON, A. (2011), ‘Urban challenges in the Pacific’ (discussion paper prepared for Asia Pacific Urban Forum, Suva, Pacific Sub-Region, 16 June). Urban challenges in the Pacific Google Scholar

ACE CRC (ANTARCTIC CLIMATE and ECOSYSTEMS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH CENTRE) (2008), ‘Position Analysis: climate change, Sea-Level Rise and Extreme Events: Impacts and Adaptation Issues’ (analysis report), Hobart, ACE CRC. Position Analysis: climate change, Sea-Level Rise and Extreme Events: Impacts and Adaptation Issues Google Scholar

ADB (ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK) (2013a), Economics of Climate Change in the Pacific, Manda-luyong city, ADB. Economics of Climate Change in the Pacific Google Scholar

ADB (ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK) (2013b), Moving from Risk to Resilience: Sustainable Urban Development in the Pacific, Mandaluyong city, ADB. Moving from Risk to Resilience: Sustainable Urban Development in the Pacific Google Scholar

APA (AMERICAN PLANNING ASSOCIATION) (2014), ‘Hazard mitigation draft policy guide’ (guide), chicago, IL, APA, available at: https://www.planning.org/policy/guides/pdf/ drafthazardmitigation.pdf (accessed 5 March 2014). Google Scholar

ARNSTEIN, S. (1969), ‘A ladder of citizen participation’, AIP Journal, 35, 216–24. A ladder of citizen participation AIP Journal 35 216 24 Google Scholar

BAKER, J. (ed) (2012), ‘climate change, Disaster Risk and the Urban Poor cities Building Resilience for a changing World’ (Urban Development Series 68358), Washington D.C., The World Bank. climate change, Disaster Risk and the Urban Poor cities Building Resilience for a changing World Google Scholar

BASSETT, T. and SCRUGGS, G. (2013), ‘Water, water everywhere: sea level rise and land use planning in Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Pará’ (Lincoln Institute report), Washington, DC, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Water, water everywhere: sea level rise and land use planning in Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Pará Google Scholar

BEDFORD, R. (2008), ‘Pasifka mobility: pathways, circuits, and challenges in the 21st century’, in A. Bisley (ed.), Pacific Interactions Pasifka in New Zealand – New Zealand in Pasifika, Wellington, Institute of Policy Studies, Victoria University of Wellington, 85–134. Pasifka mobility: pathways, circuits, and challenges in the 21st century Pacific Interactions Pasifka in New Zealand – New Zealand in Pasifika 85 134 Google Scholar

BUENO, R., HERZFELD, c., STANTON, E. and ACKERMAN, F. (2008), ‘The caribbean and climate change – the costs of inaction’ (report), Medford, MA, Stockholm Environment Institute, US center Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University. The caribbean and climate change – the costs of inaction Google Scholar

BUTCHER-GOLLACH, c. (2012), ‘Health and the city: consequences of the “king tides” of urbanization in Kiribati, central Pacific’ (paper delivered to the sixth Urban Research and Knowledge Symposium – Rethinking cities: Framing the Future, Barcelona, 10–12 October). Health and the city: consequences of the “king tides” of urbanization in Kiribati, central Pacific 10 12 Google Scholar

BUTCHER-GOLLACH, c. and LILOQULA, R. (2011), ‘Honiara Economic Development Support Programme (HEDSUP) 2011–2016 – Activity Design Document’ (design document report), Wellington and Honiara, The New Zealand Aid Programme and Honiara city council. Honiara Economic Development Support Programme (HEDSUP) 2011–2016 – Activity Design Document Google Scholar

BUTCHER-GOLLACH, C., BANES, C., JONES, P., LIOUSSE, C. and ONORIO, K. (2008), ‘Kiribati urban renewal scoping study. Vol. 2 – Recommendations’ (report), Wellington, The New Zealand Aid Programme. Kiribati urban renewal scoping study. Vol. 2 – Recommendations Google Scholar

CARRINGTON, W. and DETRAGAICHE, E. (n.d.), ‘How extensive is the brain drain?’, Finance & Development, 36, available at: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/1999/06/carringt.htm (accessed 6 February 2015). Google Scholar

CCCCC (cARIBBEAN COMMUNITY CLIMATE CHANGE CENTRE) and CDKN (THE CLIMATE AND DEVELOPMENT KNOWLEDGE NETWORK) (2012), ‘Delivering transformational change 2011–21’ (report), Belmopan, Belize, caribbean community climate change centre. Delivering transformational change 2011–21 Google Scholar

CHUNG, M. and HILL, D. (2002), ‘Urban informal settlements in Vanuatu: challenge for equitable development’ (report), Suva, PIFS (Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat) and UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social commission for Asia and the Pacific). Urban informal settlements in Vanuatu: challenge for equitable development Google Scholar

CIF (CLIMATE INVESTMENT FUNDS) (2014), ‘Jamaica’s PPCR strategic program’ (strategic report), Washington, DC, CIF, available at: https://www.climateinvestmentfunds.org/cifnet/investment-plan/jamaicas-ppcr-strategic-program (accessed 14 June 2014). Google Scholar

DUBAI MUNICIPALITY (2013), ‘Award criteria’ (Dubai award criteria), Dubai, Dubai Municipality, available at: http://www.dubaiaward.dm.gov.ae/wps/portal/DIABP/!ut/p/a1/rZJNU8IwEIZ_iweOmm3TfHcsWGwZ0EpxoL10kjaFKJQCGXT89aYMM56sMG-MuOzt58-y72UUZWqcsFke9FEZva7Fu84zm_ckO6DB0geOEQBRzHDpJHN4_O2iOMpTNB5M8Fkt1N1UHZfz1GqWz6WvQXhW1acwKpaUWsunBKeSq7s-Fqu1E9EB9iXxZ7bdRei0P7oLGCU (accessed 14 September 2014). Google Scholar

FOLGER, T. (2013), ‘Rising seas – how they are changing our coastlines’, Offcial Journal of The National Geographic Society, 224, 30–59. Rising seas – how they are changing our coastlines Offcial Journal of The National Geographic Society 224 30 59 Google Scholar

FRANKLIN, S., HADDAD, J., KOE, H., PATELA, P. and WHEATON, L. (2011), ‘Low cost house designs – Temaiku’ (designs and report prepared for the Melbourne School of Design, Kiribati Travelling Studio), Melbourne, University of Melbourne, available at: http://www.edsc.unimelb.edu.au/sites/default/files/docs/Kiribati%20Low%20cost%20 House%20Designs%20final%20presentation.pdf (accessed 8 February 2014). Google Scholar

GEMENNE, F. (2011), ‘Intepretation of the Foresight report “Migration and global environmental change”’ (Working Paper No. 51 for the World Bank, East Asia and Pacific Region), Norwich, School of International Development, University of East Anglia. Intepretation of the Foresight report “Migration and global environmental change” Google Scholar

GOVERNMENT OF SAMOA, MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT (2008),‘Top planning award won’, available at: http://www1.mnre.gov.ws/documents/newsletters/april%20newsletter%202008.pdf (accessed 13 December 2013). Google Scholar

HIRST, M. and McGEOWN, K. (2009), ‘Rising sea levels: a tale of two cities’, BBC News, 24 November, available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/science/nature/8369236.stm (accessed 16 October 2013). Google Scholar

HOLDREN, J. P. (2006), ‘Meeting the climate-change challenge’ (lecture delivered to the SES Distinguished Scientist seminar, Woods Hole, MA, 3 November). Meeting the climate-change challenge Google Scholar

HUNTER, J. (2011), ‘A simple technique for estimating an allowance for uncertain sea-level rise’, Climatic Change, 113, 239–52. A simple technique for estimating an allowance for uncertain sea-level rise Climatic Change 113 239 52 Google Scholar

IPCC (INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE) (2013), ‘Climate change 2013: The physical science basis’ (report prepared for Working Group I: Summary for Policymakers), Geneva, IPcc. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis Google Scholar

LEVINE, S., PETERS, K. and FAN, L. (2014), ‘Confict, climate change and politics: why a techno-centric approach fails the resilience challenge’ (Humanitarian Policy Group Working Paper), London, Overseas Development Institute. Confict, climate change and politics: why a techno-centric approach fails the resilience challenge Google Scholar

MEJIA, J., HUNTINGTON, B. and HATCHETT, D. (2011), ‘Linking global climate models to an integrated hydrologic model using a hybrid downscaling approach’, Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education, 147, 17–27. Linking global climate models to an integrated hydrologic model using a hybrid downscaling approach Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education 147 17 27 Google Scholar

NAA JPL (NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION, JET PROPULSION LABORATORY) (2009), ‘Shuttle radar topography mission’, available at: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm (accessed 18 March 2012). Google Scholar

NICHOLLS, R. (2003), ‘case study on sea-level rise impacts’ (case study), Paris, OECD Working Party on Global and Structural Policies. case study on sea-level rise impacts Google Scholar

ODI (OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE), UK MET OFFICE AND RMS (RISK MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS) (2013), ‘The geography of poverty, disasters and climate extremes in 2030’ (report), London, ODI. The geography of poverty, disasters and climate extremes in 2030 Google Scholar

PACIFIC ISLANDS FORUM SECRETARIAT (2007), ‘The Pacific plan for strengthening regional cooperation and integration’ (plan), Suva, Pacific Forum Secretariat. The Pacific plan for strengthening regional cooperation and integration Google Scholar

PERSAUD, T. and BUTCHER-GOLLACH, c. (2009), ‘Implementation completion and results report for a cyclone emergency recovery project to the independent state of Samoa’ (report), Washington, DC, World Bank, available at: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDScontentServer/WDSP/IB/2009/04/24/000333038_20090424021849/Rendered/PDF/ICR10710P0882410Disclosed0041221091.pdf (accessed 19 January 2014). Google Scholar

PIOJ (PLANNING INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA) (2012), ‘Communication for climate resilience 2012 to 2017’ (Working Papers), Kingston, PIOJ. Communication for climate resilience 2012 to 2017 Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D., HUQ, S. and PELLING, M. (2007), ‘Adapting to climate change in urban areas – the possibilities and constraints in low- and middle-income nations’ (report), London, IIED (International Institute for Environment and Development). Adapting to climate change in urban areas – the possibilities and constraints in low- and middle-income nations Google Scholar

SEALY, A. (2012), ‘The impact of climate change in the caribbean’ (paper delivered to the Caribbean Climate Change Seminar, Barbados, 26 June). The impact of climate change in the Caribbean Google Scholar

SOPAc-UNEP (SOUTH PACIFIC APPLIED GEOSCIENCE COMMISSION AND UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME) (2005), ‘The environmental vulnerability calculator’, available at: http://www.vulnerabilityindex.net/Files/EVI%20CALCULATOR%205-1-05%20(Beta).xls (accessed 12 July 2012). Google Scholar

SOUBBOTINA, T. (2004), Beyond Economic Growth: An Introduction to Sustainable Development (2nd edn), Washington, DC, The World Bank. Beyond Economic Growth: An Introduction to Sustainable Development Google Scholar

SPAULDING, G. (2014), ‘UDc to divest state-owned properties this week’, The Weekly Gleaner,16 January, available at: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-3195574091.html (accessed 6 February 2014). Google Scholar

SU, R. (2014), ‘Rising sea levels to swallow low lying islands with rare animal species’, The International Business Times, 25 February, available at: http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/540429/20140225/climate-change-global-warming-island-sanctuaries-new.htm#.UxDtb_mSwrY (accessed 28 February 2014). Google Scholar

SZOLDRA, P. (2014), ‘Stunning map shows what a climate change nightmare scenario might actually look like’, Business Insider Australia, 26 February, available at: www.businessinsider.com.au/climate-change-map-2014-2 (accessed 28 February 2014). Google Scholar

TAYLOR, M., CENTELLA, A., CHARLERY, J., BEZANILLA, A., CAMPBELL, J., BORRAJERO, I.,STEPHENSON, T. and NURMOHAMED, R. (2013), ‘The PRECIS caribbean story: lessons and legacies’, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94, 1065–73. The PRECIS caribbean story: lessons and legacies Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94 1065 73 Google Scholar

THE NATURE CONSERVANCY (2009), ‘coastal resilience mapping portal’, available at: http://maps.coastalresilience.org/network/ (accessed 14 June, 2014). Google Scholar

THE WORLD BANK (2014), ‘Data: urban development’ (data), Washington, DC, World Bank, available at: http://data.worldbank.org/topic/urban-development (accessed 28 February 2014). Google Scholar

TOMLINSON, R. (2002), ‘International best practice, enabling frameworks and the policy process: a South African case study’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 26, 377–88. International best practice, enabling frameworks and the policy process: a South African case study International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 26 377 88 Google Scholar

TURNER, J. and FICHTER, R. (1972), Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process, New York, NY, MacMillan. Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process Google Scholar

UN DESA (UN DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIc AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS), POPULATION DIVISION (2011), ‘World urbanization prospects: the 2011 revision’ (report), New York, NY, United Nations. World urbanization prospects: the 2011 revision Google Scholar

UNDP (UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME) (2004), ‘Regional report on the achievement of the millennium development goals in the caribbean community’ (report), New York, NY, UNDP. Regional report on the achievement of the millennium development goals in the caribbean community Google Scholar

UNEP (UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME), CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY SECRETARIAT, UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (2000), ‘caribbean-Environment Outlook’ (report), Nairobi, UNEP, available at: http://www.unep.org/PDF/SIDS/caribbean_EO_final.pdf (accessed 6 February 2014) Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2011a), ‘Antigua and Barbuda: national urban profile’ (profile report), Nairobi, UN Human Settlement Programme. Antigua and Barbuda: national urban profile Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2011b), Promising Practices on Climate Change in Urban Sub-Saharan Africa, Nairobi,UN-Habitat (United Nations Human Settlements Programme). Promising Practices on Climate Change in Urban Sub-Saharan Africa Google Scholar

UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN (2013), ‘EM-DAT: the OFDA/cRED international disaster database’ (database), Brussels, Université catholique de Louvain. EM-DAT: the OFDA/CRED international disaster database Google Scholar

US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (2008), ‘Shuttle radar topography mission’, available at: http://srtm.usgs.gov.mission.php (accessed 18 February 2014). Google Scholar

VIZE, S. (2012), ‘Using education to bring climate change adaptation to Pacific communities’, Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 6, 219–35. Using education to bring climate change adaptation to Pacific communities Journal of Education for Sustainable Development 6 219 35 Google Scholar

WILKINSON, A. (2011), ‘Urban challenges in the Pacific’ (discussion paper prepared for Asia Pacific Urban Forum, Suva, Pacific Sub-Region, 16 June). Urban challenges in the Pacific Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Butcher-Gollach, Colleen