International Development Planning Review

Non-participation of low-income households in community-managed water supply projects in India

International Development Planning Review (2014), 36, (3), 265–291.

Abstract

Efforts to promote community-managed water supply and extend services to underserved low-income communities in urban areas in the developing world prescribe participation as a key component for success. Scholars and practitioners view participation as an empowering process designed to mobilise communities to become involved in planning, implementing and managing their own water supply systems. However, these well-intentioned efforts have had limited success in motivating households to participate. This paper attributes the decision by low-income households not to participate in community-managed water projects to resource constraints at the household level. We analyse survey data from three cities in central India to assess which households are more likely to participate in community-managed water supply and why. Our findings underscore the importance of contextual influences on participation and suggest that households with relatively fewer economic and social constraints are generally more inclined to participate.

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ADHIKARI, B., DI FALCO, S. and LOVETT, J. C. (2004), ‘Household characteristics and forest dependency: evidence from common property forest management in Nepal’, Ecological Economics, 48, 245-57. ‘Household characteristics and forest dependency: evidence from common property forest management in Nepal’ Ecological Economics 48 245 57 Google Scholar

AGARWAL, A. and GUPTA, K. (2005), ‘Decentralization and participation: the governance of common pool resources in Nepal's Terai’, World Development, 33, 1101-14. ‘Decentralization and participation: the governance of common pool resources in Nepal's Terai’ World Development 33 1101 14 Google Scholar

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BOLAND, J. and WHITTINGTON, D. (2000), ‘The political economy of water tariff design: increasing block tariffs versus uniform price with rebate’, in A. Dinar (ed.), Political economy of water pricing reforms, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Political economy of water pricing reforms Google Scholar

BEARD, V. A. and CARTMILL, R. S. (2007), ‘Gender, collective action and participatory development in Indonesia’, International Development Planning Review, 29, 185-213. ‘Gender, collective action and participatory development in Indonesia’ International Development Planning Review 29 185 213 Google Scholar

BEARD, V. A. (2007), ‘Household contributions to community development in Indonesia’, World Development, 35, 607-25. ‘Household contributions to community development in Indonesia’ World Development 35 607 25 Google Scholar

CARPENTER, J. P., DANIERE, A. G. and TAKAHASHI, L. M. (2004), ‘Social capital and trust in Southeast Asian cities’, Urban Studies, 41, 853-74. ‘Social capital and trust in Southeast Asian cities’ Urban Studies 41 853 74 Google Scholar

CHATTERJEE, P. (2004), The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics in Most of the World, New York, Columbia University Press. The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics in Most of the World Google Scholar

CHHIBBER, P. (2002), ‘Why are some women politically active? The household, public space, and political participation in India’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 43, 409-29. ‘Why are some women politically active? The household, public space, and political participation in India’ International Journal of Comparative Sociology 43 409 29 Google Scholar

COHEN, J. M. and UPHOFF, N. T. (1980), ‘Participation's place in rural development: seeking clarity through specificity’, World Development, 8, 213-35. ‘Participation's place in rural development: seeking clarity through specificity’ World Development 8 213 35 Google Scholar

COOKE, B. and KOTHARI, U. (eds) (2001), Participation: The New Tyranny, New York, Zed Books. Participation: The New Tyranny Google Scholar

CORNWALL, A. (2008), ‘Unpacking ‘participation’: models, meanings, and practices’, Community Development Journal, 43, 269-83. ‘Unpacking ‘participation’: models, meanings, and practices’ Community Development Journal 43 269 83 Google Scholar

DANIERE, A., TAKAHASHI, L. A., NARANONG, A. and NGOC LAN, V. T. (2005), ‘Social capital and urban environments in Southeast Asia: lessons from settlements in Bangkok and Ho Chi Minh City’, International Development Planning Review, 27, 21-58. ‘Social capital and urban environments in Southeast Asia: lessons from settlements in Bangkok and Ho Chi Minh City’ International Development Planning Review 27 21 58 Google Scholar

DASGUPTA, A. and BEARD, V. A. (2007), ‘Community driven development, collective action and elite capture in Indonesia’, Development and Change, 38, 229-49. ‘Community driven development, collective action and elite capture in Indonesia’ Development and Change 38 229 49 Google Scholar

DOE, S. R. and KHAN, M. S. (2004), ‘The boundaries and limits of community management: lessons from the water sector in Ghana’, Community Development Journal, 39, 360-71. ‘The boundaries and limits of community management: lessons from the water sector in Ghana’ Community Development Journal 39 360 71 Google Scholar

FRANCEYS, R. and WEITZ, A. (2003), ‘Public-private community partnerships in infrastructure for the poor’, Journal of International Development, 15, 1083-98. ‘Public-private community partnerships in infrastructure for the poor’ Journal of International Development 15 1083 98 Google Scholar

FRANCEYS, R. and GERLACH, E. (eds) (2008), Regulating Water and Sanitation for the Poor, London, Earthscan. Regulating Water and Sanitation for the Poor Google Scholar

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA (2001a). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Basic Data Sheet 2304, 2326, 2339. Census of India, 2001. Retrieved May 2, 2014. http://censusindia.gov.in/Dist_File/datasheet-2304.pdf http://censusindia.gov.in/Dist_File/datasheet-2326.pdf http://censusindia.gov.in/Dist_File/datasheet-2339.pdf Google Scholar

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA (2001b). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. List of Towns. Census of India, 2001. Retrieved May 2, 2014. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/towns/mp_towns.pdf Google Scholar

GROSS, B., VAN WIJK, C. and MUKHERJEE, N. (2001), Linking Sustainability with Demand, Gender and Poverty, Delft, IRC International Water and Sanitation Center. Linking Sustainability with Demand, Gender and Poverty Google Scholar

GUIJT, I. and KAUL SHAH, M. (eds) (1998), The Myth of Community: Gender Issues in Participatory Development, New Delhi, Sage Publications. The Myth of Community: Gender Issues in Participatory Development Google Scholar

HARVEY, P. A. and REED, R. A. (2006), ‘Community-managed water supplies in Africa: sustainable or dispensable?’, Community Development Journal, 42, 365-78. ‘Community-managed water supplies in Africa: sustainable or dispensable?’ Community Development Journal 42 365 78 Google Scholar

ISHAM, J., NARAYAN, D. and PRITCHETT, L. (1995), ‘Does participation improve performance? Establishing causality with subjective data’, World Bank Economic Review, 9, 175-200. ‘Does participation improve performance? Establishing causality with subjective data’ World Bank Economic Review 9 175 200 Google Scholar

JAGLIN, S. (2002), ‘The right to water versus cost recovery: participation, urban water supply and the poor in sub-Saharan Africa’, Environment and Urbanization, 14, 231-45. ‘The right to water versus cost recovery: participation, urban water supply and the poor in sub-Saharan Africa’ Environment and Urbanization 14 231 45 Google Scholar

KHWAJA, A. I. (2004), ‘Is increasing community participation always a good thing?’, Journal of the European Economic Association, 2, 427-36. ‘Is increasing community participation always a good thing?’ Journal of the European Economic Association 2 427 36 Google Scholar

KLEEMEIER, L. (1995), ‘From supply-driven to demand-driven rural drinking water - a Tanzanian case study of the arguments of a transition’, Working Paper, Center for Development Research, Denmark. Google Scholar

KORTEN, D. C. (1980), ‘Community organization and rural development: a learning process approach’, Public Administration Review, 40, 480-511. ‘Community organization and rural development: a learning process approach’ Public Administration Review 40 480 511 Google Scholar

LALL, S. V., DEICHMANN, UWE, LUNDBERG, MATTIAS K. A. and CHAUDHURY, N. (2002), ‘Tenure, diversity, and commitment: community participation for urban service provision’ (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2862, June 2002), available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=636226 Google Scholar

LISE, W. (2000), ‘Factors influencing people's participation in forest management in India’, Ecological Economics, 34, 379-92. ‘Factors influencing people's participation in forest management in India’ Ecological Economics 34 379 92 Google Scholar

MANIKUTTY, S. (1997), ‘Community participation: so what? Evidence from a comparative study of two rural water supply and sanitation projects in India’, Development Policy Review, 15, 115-40. ‘Community participation: so what? Evidence from a comparative study of two rural water supply and sanitation projects in India’ Development Policy Review 15 115 40 Google Scholar

MANSURI, G. and RAO, V. (2004), ‘Community-based and -driven development: a critical review’, The World Bank Research Observer, 19, 1-39. ‘Community-based and -driven development: a critical review’ The World Bank Research Observer 19 1 39 Google Scholar

MARKS, S. and DAVIS, J. (2012), ‘Does user participation lead to sense of ownership of rural water systems? Evidence from Kenya’, World Development, 40, 1569-76. ‘Does user participation lead to sense of ownership of rural water systems? Evidence from Kenya’ World Development 40 1569 76 Google Scholar

MATTA, J. R. and ALAVALAPATI, J. R. R. (2006), ‘Perceptions of collective action and its success in community based natural resource management: an empirical analysis’, Forest Policy and Economics, 9, 274-84. ‘Perceptions of collective action and its success in community based natural resource management: an empirical analysis’ Forest Policy and Economics 9 274 84 Google Scholar

MAYO, M. and CRAIG, G. (eds) (1995), Community Empowerment, London, Zed Books. Community Empowerment Google Scholar

MAYOUX, L. (1995), ‘Beyond naivety: women, gender inequality and participatory development’, Development and Change, 26, 235-58. ‘Beyond naivety: women, gender inequality and participatory development’ Development and Change 26 235 58 Google Scholar

MCCOMMON, C., WARNER, D. and YOHALEM, D. (1990), Community Management of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Services, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Community Management of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Services Google Scholar

MEINZEN-DICK, R. and ZWARTEVEEN, M. (1998), ‘Gendered participation in water management: issues and illustrations from water users' associations in South Asia’, Agriculture and Human Values, 15, 337-45. ‘Gendered participation in water management: issues and illustrations from water users' associations in South Asia’ Agriculture and Human Values 15 337 45 Google Scholar

NAIK, G. (1997), ‘Joint forest management: factors influencing household participation’, Economic and Political Weekly, 32, 3084-89. ‘Joint forest management: factors influencing household participation’ Economic and Political Weekly 32 3084 89 Google Scholar

NARAYAN, D. (1995), The Contribution of People's Participation: Evidence from 121 Rural Water Supply Projects, Washington, DC, The World Bank. The Contribution of People's Participation: Evidence from 121 Rural Water Supply Projects Google Scholar

OAKLEY, P. (1991), Projects with People: The Practice of Participation in Rural Development, Geneva, International Labor Office. Projects with People: The Practice of Participation in Rural Development Google Scholar

O'REILLY, K. (2004), ‘Developing contradictions: women's participation as a site for struggle within an Indian NGO’, The Professional Geographer, 56, 174-184. ‘Developing contradictions: women's participation as a site for struggle within an Indian NGO’ The Professional Geographer 56 174 184 Google Scholar

POTEETE, A. and OSTROM, E. (2004), ‘Heterogeneity, group size and collective action: the role of institutions in forest management’, Development and Change, 35, 435-61. ‘Heterogeneity, group size and collective action: the role of institutions in forest management’ Development and Change 35 435 61 Google Scholar

PROKOPY, L. S. (2005), ‘The relationship between participation and project outcomes: evidence from rural water supply projects in India’, World Development, 33, 1801-19. ‘The relationship between participation and project outcomes: evidence from rural water supply projects in India’ World Development 33 1801 19 Google Scholar

RAVALLION, M. and DATT, G. (2002), ‘Why has economic growth been more pro-poor in some states of India than others?’, Journal of Development Economics, 68, 381-400. ‘Why has economic growth been more pro-poor in some states of India than others?’ Journal of Development Economics 68 381 400 Google Scholar

SALAM, M. A., NOGUCHI, T. and KOIKE, M. (2005), ‘Factors influencing the sustained participation of farmers in participatory forestry: a case study in central Sal forests in Bangladesh’, Journal of Environmental Management, 74, 43-51. ‘Factors influencing the sustained participation of farmers in participatory forestry: a case study in central Sal forests in Bangladesh’ Journal of Environmental Management 74 43 51 Google Scholar

SANSOM, K., FRANCEYS, R., NJIRU, C., KAYAGA, S., COATES, S. and CHARY, S. (2004), Serving All Urban Consumers, Loughborough, WEDC. Serving All Urban Consumers Google Scholar

SARA, J. and KATZ, T. (1998), Making Rural Water Supply Sustainable: Report on the Impact of Project Rules, Washington, DC, UNDP-World Bank Water and Sanitation Program. Making Rural Water Supply Sustainable: Report on the Impact of Project Rules Google Scholar

SCHOUTEN, T. and MORIARTY, P. (2003), Community Water, Community Management: From System to Service in Rural Areas, London, ITDG Publishing. Community Water, Community Management: From System to Service in Rural Areas Google Scholar

TOURNÉE, J. and VAN ESCH, W. (2001), Community Contracts in Urban Infrastructure Works: Practical Lessons from Experience, Geneva, International Labour Office. Community Contracts in Urban Infrastructure Works: Practical Lessons from Experience Google Scholar

TREIMAN, D. J. (2009), Quantitative Data Analysis: Doing Social Research to Test Ideas, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass/Wiley. Quantitative Data Analysis: Doing Social Research to Test Ideas Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2005), Proceedings of the Workshop on Pro-poor Water and Sanitation Governance, Bhopal, India, 18-19 March, Nairobi, Kenya, UN-Habitat, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2006), Navigating Gender in Development of Water and Sanitation in Urban Areas: A Rapid Gender Assessment of the Cities of Bhopal, Gwalior, Indore and Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh, India, Nairobi, Kenya, UN-Habitat, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. Google Scholar

WEGELIN-SCHURINGA, M. (1998), Community Management Models For Small Scale Water Supply Systems, Paper for Discussion Workshop on Public-Private Partnerships in Service Provision for Community Managed Water Supply Schemes, Kakamega, Kenya, 7-10 December. Google Scholar

WEINBERGER, K. and JUTTING, J. P. (2001), ‘Women's participation in local organizations: conditions and constraints’, World Development, 29, 1391-1404. ‘Women's participation in local organizations: conditions and constraints’ World Development 29 1391 1404 Google Scholar

WHITE, A. T. and RUNGE, F. C. (1995), ‘The emergence and evolution of collective action: lessons from watershed management in Haiti’, World Development, 23, 1683-98. ‘The emergence and evolution of collective action: lessons from watershed management in Haiti’ World Development 23 1683 98 Google Scholar

WOOLCOCK, M. and NARAYAN, D. (2000), ‘Social capital: implications for development theory, research, and policy’, The World Bank Research Observer, 15, 225-49. ‘Social capital: implications for development theory, research, and policy’ The World Bank Research Observer 15 225 49 Google Scholar

ADHIKARI, B., DI FALCO, S. and LOVETT, J. C. (2004), ‘Household characteristics and forest dependency: evidence from common property forest management in Nepal’, Ecological Economics, 48, 245-57. ‘Household characteristics and forest dependency: evidence from common property forest management in Nepal’ Ecological Economics 48 245 57 Google Scholar

AGARWAL, A. and GUPTA, K. (2005), ‘Decentralization and participation: the governance of common pool resources in Nepal's Terai’, World Development, 33, 1101-14. ‘Decentralization and participation: the governance of common pool resources in Nepal's Terai’ World Development 33 1101 14 Google Scholar

BAKKER, K. (2008), ‘The ambiguity of community: debating the alternatives to private sector provision of urban water supply’, Water Alternatives, 1, 236-52. ‘The ambiguity of community: debating the alternatives to private sector provision of urban water supply’ Water Alternatives 1 236 52 Google Scholar

BALCHAND, K. (2012), ‘Now, Planning Commission lowers the poverty line’, The Hindu, http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/now-planning-commission-lowers-the-poverty-line/article3013870.ece (accessed 8 October 2012). http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/now-planning-commission-lowers-the-poverty-line/article3013870.ece ‘Now, Planning Commission lowers the poverty line’ The Hindu Google Scholar

BOLAND, J. and WHITTINGTON, D. (2000), ‘The political economy of water tariff design: increasing block tariffs versus uniform price with rebate’, in A. Dinar (ed.), Political economy of water pricing reforms, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Political economy of water pricing reforms Google Scholar

BEARD, V. A. and CARTMILL, R. S. (2007), ‘Gender, collective action and participatory development in Indonesia’, International Development Planning Review, 29, 185-213. ‘Gender, collective action and participatory development in Indonesia’ International Development Planning Review 29 185 213 Google Scholar

BEARD, V. A. (2007), ‘Household contributions to community development in Indonesia’, World Development, 35, 607-25. ‘Household contributions to community development in Indonesia’ World Development 35 607 25 Google Scholar

CARPENTER, J. P., DANIERE, A. G. and TAKAHASHI, L. M. (2004), ‘Social capital and trust in Southeast Asian cities’, Urban Studies, 41, 853-74. ‘Social capital and trust in Southeast Asian cities’ Urban Studies 41 853 74 Google Scholar

CHATTERJEE, P. (2004), The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics in Most of the World, New York, Columbia University Press. The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics in Most of the World Google Scholar

CHHIBBER, P. (2002), ‘Why are some women politically active? The household, public space, and political participation in India’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 43, 409-29. ‘Why are some women politically active? The household, public space, and political participation in India’ International Journal of Comparative Sociology 43 409 29 Google Scholar

COHEN, J. M. and UPHOFF, N. T. (1980), ‘Participation's place in rural development: seeking clarity through specificity’, World Development, 8, 213-35. ‘Participation's place in rural development: seeking clarity through specificity’ World Development 8 213 35 Google Scholar

COOKE, B. and KOTHARI, U. (eds) (2001), Participation: The New Tyranny, New York, Zed Books. Participation: The New Tyranny Google Scholar

CORNWALL, A. (2008), ‘Unpacking ‘participation’: models, meanings, and practices’, Community Development Journal, 43, 269-83. ‘Unpacking ‘participation’: models, meanings, and practices’ Community Development Journal 43 269 83 Google Scholar

DANIERE, A., TAKAHASHI, L. A., NARANONG, A. and NGOC LAN, V. T. (2005), ‘Social capital and urban environments in Southeast Asia: lessons from settlements in Bangkok and Ho Chi Minh City’, International Development Planning Review, 27, 21-58. ‘Social capital and urban environments in Southeast Asia: lessons from settlements in Bangkok and Ho Chi Minh City’ International Development Planning Review 27 21 58 Google Scholar

DASGUPTA, A. and BEARD, V. A. (2007), ‘Community driven development, collective action and elite capture in Indonesia’, Development and Change, 38, 229-49. ‘Community driven development, collective action and elite capture in Indonesia’ Development and Change 38 229 49 Google Scholar

DOE, S. R. and KHAN, M. S. (2004), ‘The boundaries and limits of community management: lessons from the water sector in Ghana’, Community Development Journal, 39, 360-71. ‘The boundaries and limits of community management: lessons from the water sector in Ghana’ Community Development Journal 39 360 71 Google Scholar

FRANCEYS, R. and WEITZ, A. (2003), ‘Public-private community partnerships in infrastructure for the poor’, Journal of International Development, 15, 1083-98. ‘Public-private community partnerships in infrastructure for the poor’ Journal of International Development 15 1083 98 Google Scholar

FRANCEYS, R. and GERLACH, E. (eds) (2008), Regulating Water and Sanitation for the Poor, London, Earthscan. Regulating Water and Sanitation for the Poor Google Scholar

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA (2001a). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Basic Data Sheet 2304, 2326, 2339. Census of India, 2001. Retrieved May 2, 2014. http://censusindia.gov.in/Dist_File/datasheet-2304.pdf http://censusindia.gov.in/Dist_File/datasheet-2326.pdf http://censusindia.gov.in/Dist_File/datasheet-2339.pdf Google Scholar

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA (2001b). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. List of Towns. Census of India, 2001. Retrieved May 2, 2014. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/towns/mp_towns.pdf Google Scholar

GROSS, B., VAN WIJK, C. and MUKHERJEE, N. (2001), Linking Sustainability with Demand, Gender and Poverty, Delft, IRC International Water and Sanitation Center. Linking Sustainability with Demand, Gender and Poverty Google Scholar

GUIJT, I. and KAUL SHAH, M. (eds) (1998), The Myth of Community: Gender Issues in Participatory Development, New Delhi, Sage Publications. The Myth of Community: Gender Issues in Participatory Development Google Scholar

HARVEY, P. A. and REED, R. A. (2006), ‘Community-managed water supplies in Africa: sustainable or dispensable?’, Community Development Journal, 42, 365-78. ‘Community-managed water supplies in Africa: sustainable or dispensable?’ Community Development Journal 42 365 78 Google Scholar

ISHAM, J., NARAYAN, D. and PRITCHETT, L. (1995), ‘Does participation improve performance? Establishing causality with subjective data’, World Bank Economic Review, 9, 175-200. ‘Does participation improve performance? Establishing causality with subjective data’ World Bank Economic Review 9 175 200 Google Scholar

JAGLIN, S. (2002), ‘The right to water versus cost recovery: participation, urban water supply and the poor in sub-Saharan Africa’, Environment and Urbanization, 14, 231-45. ‘The right to water versus cost recovery: participation, urban water supply and the poor in sub-Saharan Africa’ Environment and Urbanization 14 231 45 Google Scholar

KHWAJA, A. I. (2004), ‘Is increasing community participation always a good thing?’, Journal of the European Economic Association, 2, 427-36. ‘Is increasing community participation always a good thing?’ Journal of the European Economic Association 2 427 36 Google Scholar

KLEEMEIER, L. (1995), ‘From supply-driven to demand-driven rural drinking water - a Tanzanian case study of the arguments of a transition’, Working Paper, Center for Development Research, Denmark. Google Scholar

KORTEN, D. C. (1980), ‘Community organization and rural development: a learning process approach’, Public Administration Review, 40, 480-511. ‘Community organization and rural development: a learning process approach’ Public Administration Review 40 480 511 Google Scholar

LALL, S. V., DEICHMANN, UWE, LUNDBERG, MATTIAS K. A. and CHAUDHURY, N. (2002), ‘Tenure, diversity, and commitment: community participation for urban service provision’ (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2862, June 2002), available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=636226 Google Scholar

LISE, W. (2000), ‘Factors influencing people's participation in forest management in India’, Ecological Economics, 34, 379-92. ‘Factors influencing people's participation in forest management in India’ Ecological Economics 34 379 92 Google Scholar

MANIKUTTY, S. (1997), ‘Community participation: so what? Evidence from a comparative study of two rural water supply and sanitation projects in India’, Development Policy Review, 15, 115-40. ‘Community participation: so what? Evidence from a comparative study of two rural water supply and sanitation projects in India’ Development Policy Review 15 115 40 Google Scholar

MANSURI, G. and RAO, V. (2004), ‘Community-based and -driven development: a critical review’, The World Bank Research Observer, 19, 1-39. ‘Community-based and -driven development: a critical review’ The World Bank Research Observer 19 1 39 Google Scholar

MARKS, S. and DAVIS, J. (2012), ‘Does user participation lead to sense of ownership of rural water systems? Evidence from Kenya’, World Development, 40, 1569-76. ‘Does user participation lead to sense of ownership of rural water systems? Evidence from Kenya’ World Development 40 1569 76 Google Scholar

MATTA, J. R. and ALAVALAPATI, J. R. R. (2006), ‘Perceptions of collective action and its success in community based natural resource management: an empirical analysis’, Forest Policy and Economics, 9, 274-84. ‘Perceptions of collective action and its success in community based natural resource management: an empirical analysis’ Forest Policy and Economics 9 274 84 Google Scholar

MAYO, M. and CRAIG, G. (eds) (1995), Community Empowerment, London, Zed Books. Community Empowerment Google Scholar

MAYOUX, L. (1995), ‘Beyond naivety: women, gender inequality and participatory development’, Development and Change, 26, 235-58. ‘Beyond naivety: women, gender inequality and participatory development’ Development and Change 26 235 58 Google Scholar

MCCOMMON, C., WARNER, D. and YOHALEM, D. (1990), Community Management of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Services, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Community Management of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Services Google Scholar

MEINZEN-DICK, R. and ZWARTEVEEN, M. (1998), ‘Gendered participation in water management: issues and illustrations from water users' associations in South Asia’, Agriculture and Human Values, 15, 337-45. ‘Gendered participation in water management: issues and illustrations from water users' associations in South Asia’ Agriculture and Human Values 15 337 45 Google Scholar

NAIK, G. (1997), ‘Joint forest management: factors influencing household participation’, Economic and Political Weekly, 32, 3084-89. ‘Joint forest management: factors influencing household participation’ Economic and Political Weekly 32 3084 89 Google Scholar

NARAYAN, D. (1995), The Contribution of People's Participation: Evidence from 121 Rural Water Supply Projects, Washington, DC, The World Bank. The Contribution of People's Participation: Evidence from 121 Rural Water Supply Projects Google Scholar

OAKLEY, P. (1991), Projects with People: The Practice of Participation in Rural Development, Geneva, International Labor Office. Projects with People: The Practice of Participation in Rural Development Google Scholar

O'REILLY, K. (2004), ‘Developing contradictions: women's participation as a site for struggle within an Indian NGO’, The Professional Geographer, 56, 174-184. ‘Developing contradictions: women's participation as a site for struggle within an Indian NGO’ The Professional Geographer 56 174 184 Google Scholar

POTEETE, A. and OSTROM, E. (2004), ‘Heterogeneity, group size and collective action: the role of institutions in forest management’, Development and Change, 35, 435-61. ‘Heterogeneity, group size and collective action: the role of institutions in forest management’ Development and Change 35 435 61 Google Scholar

PROKOPY, L. S. (2005), ‘The relationship between participation and project outcomes: evidence from rural water supply projects in India’, World Development, 33, 1801-19. ‘The relationship between participation and project outcomes: evidence from rural water supply projects in India’ World Development 33 1801 19 Google Scholar

RAVALLION, M. and DATT, G. (2002), ‘Why has economic growth been more pro-poor in some states of India than others?’, Journal of Development Economics, 68, 381-400. ‘Why has economic growth been more pro-poor in some states of India than others?’ Journal of Development Economics 68 381 400 Google Scholar

SALAM, M. A., NOGUCHI, T. and KOIKE, M. (2005), ‘Factors influencing the sustained participation of farmers in participatory forestry: a case study in central Sal forests in Bangladesh’, Journal of Environmental Management, 74, 43-51. ‘Factors influencing the sustained participation of farmers in participatory forestry: a case study in central Sal forests in Bangladesh’ Journal of Environmental Management 74 43 51 Google Scholar

SANSOM, K., FRANCEYS, R., NJIRU, C., KAYAGA, S., COATES, S. and CHARY, S. (2004), Serving All Urban Consumers, Loughborough, WEDC. Serving All Urban Consumers Google Scholar

SARA, J. and KATZ, T. (1998), Making Rural Water Supply Sustainable: Report on the Impact of Project Rules, Washington, DC, UNDP-World Bank Water and Sanitation Program. Making Rural Water Supply Sustainable: Report on the Impact of Project Rules Google Scholar

SCHOUTEN, T. and MORIARTY, P. (2003), Community Water, Community Management: From System to Service in Rural Areas, London, ITDG Publishing. Community Water, Community Management: From System to Service in Rural Areas Google Scholar

TOURNÉE, J. and VAN ESCH, W. (2001), Community Contracts in Urban Infrastructure Works: Practical Lessons from Experience, Geneva, International Labour Office. Community Contracts in Urban Infrastructure Works: Practical Lessons from Experience Google Scholar

TREIMAN, D. J. (2009), Quantitative Data Analysis: Doing Social Research to Test Ideas, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass/Wiley. Quantitative Data Analysis: Doing Social Research to Test Ideas Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2005), Proceedings of the Workshop on Pro-poor Water and Sanitation Governance, Bhopal, India, 18-19 March, Nairobi, Kenya, UN-Habitat, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2006), Navigating Gender in Development of Water and Sanitation in Urban Areas: A Rapid Gender Assessment of the Cities of Bhopal, Gwalior, Indore and Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh, India, Nairobi, Kenya, UN-Habitat, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. Google Scholar

WEGELIN-SCHURINGA, M. (1998), Community Management Models For Small Scale Water Supply Systems, Paper for Discussion Workshop on Public-Private Partnerships in Service Provision for Community Managed Water Supply Schemes, Kakamega, Kenya, 7-10 December. Google Scholar

WEINBERGER, K. and JUTTING, J. P. (2001), ‘Women's participation in local organizations: conditions and constraints’, World Development, 29, 1391-1404. ‘Women's participation in local organizations: conditions and constraints’ World Development 29 1391 1404 Google Scholar

WHITE, A. T. and RUNGE, F. C. (1995), ‘The emergence and evolution of collective action: lessons from watershed management in Haiti’, World Development, 23, 1683-98. ‘The emergence and evolution of collective action: lessons from watershed management in Haiti’ World Development 23 1683 98 Google Scholar

WOOLCOCK, M. and NARAYAN, D. (2000), ‘Social capital: implications for development theory, research, and policy’, The World Bank Research Observer, 15, 225-49. ‘Social capital: implications for development theory, research, and policy’ The World Bank Research Observer 15 225 49 Google Scholar

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Author details

Das, Priyam

Takahashi, Lois

Das, Priyam

Takahashi, Lois