International Development Planning Review

Planning for the Buen Vivir: socialism, decentralisation and urbanisation in rural Ecuador

International Development Planning Review (2019), 41, (4), 473–494.

Abstract

Guided by the Buen Vivir (good living) developmental philosophy, Alianza PAIS, Ecuador’s leftist party in power since 2007, aims to ‘urbanise’ rural areas in order to decentralise economic activity and the population away from the main cities. Through a case study of a poor rural region of Ecuador, our research provides insights into how planning, modernisation goals and Buen Vivir are intertwined and explores the challenges of operationalising state development and planning ideals. This paper is structured into four sections. First, we situate Ecuador’s urbanisation agenda in the context of broader urbancentric poverty reduction strategies, socialist planning ideologies and Latin American decentralisation. Second, we introduce Ecuador’s national urbanisation strategy through the government document, El Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir (PNBV). Third, we critically examine efforts to urbanise a rural canton, focusing particularly on the divergences between the spirit of the PNBV and local urbanisation efforts, and local residents’ responses to urbanisation schemes. Finally, we suggest that despite the state’s official rhetoric about the inherent equity of decentralisation and the transformative potential of Buen Vivir, rural urbanisation practices demonstrate a perpetuation of neo-extractivist priorities and a continuation of state control over rural areas and their resources.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

References

Acosta, A. (2010) ‘El Buen Vivir en el camino del post-desarolllo: una lectura desde la Constitución de Montecristi’ (Policy Paper No. 9), Quito, Ecuador, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/quito/07671.pdf (accessed 10 June 2018). Google Scholar

Andersen, B. and Skrede, J. (2017) ‘Planning for a sustainable Oslo: the challenge of turning urban theory into practice’, Local Environment, 22(5), 581–94. Google Scholar

Boland, P., Bronte, J. and Muir, J. (2017) ‘On the waterfront: neoliberal urbanism and the politics of public benefit’, Cities, 61, 117–27. Google Scholar

Brezzi, M. and Veneri, P. (2014) ‘Assessing polycentric urban systems in the OECD’, OECD Regional Development Working Papers, Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/workingpaper/5jz5mpdkmvnr-en (accessed 2 November 2015). Google Scholar

Burchardt, H.-J. and Dietz, K. (2014) ‘(Neo-)extractivism: a new challenge for development theory from Latin America’, Third World Quarterly, 35(3), 468–86. Google Scholar

Calisto Friant, M. and Langmore, J. (2015) ‘The Buen Vivir: a policy to survive the Anthropocene?’, Global Policy, 6(1), 64–71. Google Scholar

Caria, S. and Domínguez, R. (2014) ‘El porvenir de una ilusión: la ideología del Buen Vivir’, América Latina Hoy, 67, 139–63. Google Scholar

Carmon, N. and Fainstein, S. S. (eds) (2013) Policy, planning, and people: promoting justice in urban development, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. Google Scholar

Chen, M., Zhang, H., Liu, W. and Zhang, W. (2014) ‘The global pattern of urbanization and economic growth: evidence from the last three decades’, PLoS ONE 9(8), e103799. Google Scholar

Chomsky, A. and Striffler, S. (2014) ‘Labor environmentalism in Colombia and Latin America’, WorkingUSA, 17(4), 491–508. Google Scholar

CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) (2015) ‘The world factbook: urbanization’, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/349.html (accessed 10 February 2017). Google Scholar

Correa, R. (2015) Inauguración del parque turístico Nueva Loja, Nueva Loja, Presidencia República del Ecuador, http://www.presidencia.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2015/06/PARQUE-TUR%C3%8DSTICO.pdf (accessed 2 November 2015). Google Scholar

Domínguez, R., Caria, S. and León, M. (2017) ‘Buen Vivir: praise, instrumentalization, and reproductive pathways of good living in Ecuador’, Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies, 12(2), 133–54. Google Scholar

Escobar, A. (2015) ‘Degrowth, postdevelopment, and transitions: a preliminary conversation’, Sustainability Science, 10(3), 451–62. Google Scholar

GAD Aguas Fuertes (2012) Plan de desarrollo y ordenamiento territorial, confidential source. Google Scholar

Gallegos, D. (2015) ‘Vicepresidente inauguró la comunidad del milenio de bajo alto’, Radio Huancavilca 830AM, https://radiohuancavilca.com.ec/politica/2015/02/24/vicepresidente-inauguro-la-comunidad-del-milenio-de-bajo-alto/ (accessed 3 April 2019). Google Scholar

García-Álvarez, S. (2014) ‘Sumak kawsay o buen vivir como alternativa al desarollo en Ecuador: Aplicación y resultados en el gobierno de Rafael Correa (2007–2011)’ (PhD thesis), Madrid, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Google Scholar

Gregor Barié, C. (2014) ‘Nuevas narrativas constitucionales en Bolivia y Ecuador: el buen vivir y los derechos de la naturaleza’, Latinoamérica. Revista de Estudios Latinoamericanos, 59, 9–40. Google Scholar

Gudynas, E. (2011) ‘Buen Vivir: Today’s tomorrow’, Development, 54(4), 441–47. Google Scholar

Guevara, F. (2013) ‘Desarrollo urbano sostenible’, presented to MIDUVI – Ministerio de Desarrolloy Vivienda, http://cimaecuador.com/presentaciones/ciudades/09h45FelipeGuevara.pdf. Google Scholar

Hidalgo-Capitán, A. L. and Cubillo-Guevara, A. P. (2017) ‘Deconstruction and genealogy of Latin American good living (buen vivir): the (triune) good living and its diverse intellectual wellsprings’, International Development Policy/Revue internationale de politique de développement, 9(9), 23–50. Google Scholar

Hinderink, J. and Titus, M. (2002) ‘Small towns and regional development: major findings and policy implications from comparative research’, Urban Studies, 39(3), 379–91. Google Scholar

Hirt, S. and Stanilov, K. (2009) Revisiting urban planning in the transitional countries (Regional study prepared for Planning Sustainable Cities: Global Report on Human Settlements), Nairobi, UN Habitat. Google Scholar

Indrawati, S. M. (2014) Urbanization and urban-rural integrated development, World Bank, http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/speech/2014/03/23/urbanization-and-urban-rural-integrated-development (accessed 28 September 2017). Google Scholar

Irazabál, C. (2009) ‘Revisiting urban planning in Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional study prepared for revisiting urban planning: global report on human settlements 2009’, http://www.unhabitat.org/grhs/2009 (accessed 10 August 2017). Google Scholar

Klaufus, C. (2012) Urban residence: housing and social transformations in globalizing Ecuador, L. K. Mitzman (trans.), Amsterdam, Berghahn Books. Google Scholar

Lefebvre, H. (1976) The survival of capitalism: reproduction of the relations of production, London, Allison & Busby. Google Scholar

Lefebvre, H. (2003) The urban revolution, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. Google Scholar

Lerch, L. (2014) ‘The geopolitics of land: population, security and territory viewed from the international financing of the land survey in Bolivia (1996 – 2013)’, Journal of Latin American Geography, 13(1), 137–68. Google Scholar

Li, Tania Murray (2007) The will to improve: governmentality, development, and the practice of politics, London, Duke University Press. Google Scholar

Liu, S., Zhang, P., Jiang, X. and Lo, K. (2012) ‘Measuring sustainable urbanization in China: a case study of the coastal Liaoning area’, Sustainability Science, 8(4), 585–94. Google Scholar

López, M. F. (2015) ‘El sistema de planificación y el ordenamiento territorial para Buen Vivir en el Ecuador’, Geousp – Espaço e Tempo, 19(2), 296–311. Google Scholar

Lyall, A., Colloredo-Mansfeld, R. and Rousseau, M. (2018) ‘Development, citizenship, and everyday appropriations of Buen Vivir: Ecuadorian engagement with the changing rhetoric of improvement’, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 37(4), 403–16. Google Scholar

MIDUVI (Ministerio de Desarrollo Urbano y Vivienda) (2011) Intervención urbana integral en la zona de expansión del noroeste de la ciudad de Guayaquil, Ecuador, Programa Nacional de Desarrollo Urbano, Fase 1, Gobierno de La República del Ecuador, Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Google Scholar

Ministerio del Ambiente (2010) Guayaquil Ecologico: Generacion y Restauracion de Areas Verdes Para la Ciudad de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ministerio del Ambiente, http://simce.ambiente.gob.ec/sites/default/files/documentos/anny/PROYECTO%20GUAYAQUIL%20ECOLOGICO%20Fpdf (accessed 1 December 2016). Google Scholar

Moser, S. (2015) ‘New cities: old wine in new bottles?’, Dialogues in Human Geography, 5(1), 31–35. Google Scholar

Neira, M. ‘Yachay, la nueva rica, y la pobre Universidad Central’, 18 January 2016, Plan V, http://www.planv.com.ec/ideas/ideas/yachay-la-nueva-rica-y-la-pobre-universidad-central (accessed 5 June 2017). Google Scholar

Pickard White, M. (2012) ‘The ABC of the “sustainable rural cities”’, Radio Zapatista, http://radiozapatista.org/pdf/The_ABC_of_Sustainable_Rural_Cities.pdf (accessed 7 June 2017). Google Scholar

Prada-Trigo, J. (2014) ‘Planning for integral development: public policies, economic growth and social improvements in Santa Rosa (Ecuador)’, Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, 2(4), 307–17. Google Scholar

Presidencia De La República (2010) ‘Código orgánigo de organización territorial autonomía y descentralización’, Registro Oficial Organo del Gobierno del Ecuador, http://www.amevirtual.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/08-CODIGO-ORGANICO-DE-ORGANIZACION-TERRITORIAL-COOTAD.pdf (accessed 3 June 2016). Google Scholar

Radcliffe, S. A. (2012) ‘Development for a postneoliberal era? Sumak kawsay, living well and the limits to decolonisation in Ecuador’, Geoforum, 43(2), 240–49. Google Scholar

Rafael Correa (Entrevista TELEsur) (2015) ‘Cumbre de las Americas 2015’, Panama, https://www.telesurtv.net/news/Correa-Acciones-de-Obama-en-America-Latina-son-incoherentes-20150412-0010.html. Google Scholar

Ramírez-Cendrero, J., Garcia Alvarez, S. and Santillán, A. (2017) ‘Sumak kawsay in Ecuador: the role of communitarian economy and the experience of the rural communities in Sarayaku (Ecuadorian Amazonia)’, Journal of Rural Studies, 53, 111–21. Google Scholar

Rodgers, D., Beall, J. and Kanbur, R. (2011) ‘Latin American urban development into the 21st century: towards a renewed perspective on the city’ (Working Paper), UNU-WIDER, https://www.wider.unu.edu/publication/latin-american-urban-development-21st-century (accessed 3 June 2016). Google Scholar

Sandoval Vásquez, J. C. (2015) ‘La Planificación en el Ecuador, del Letargo a la Recolución Territorial. Una Aproximación desde la Práctica’, in C. Bellet, E. S. Melazzo, M. E. B. Sposito and J. M. Llop (eds) Urbanización, producción y consumo en ciudades medias/intermedias, Sáo Paulo, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 417–39. Google Scholar

SENPLADES (Secretaría Nacional de Planificación y Desarrollo) (2009) Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir 2009–2013, Quito, http://buenvivir.gob.ec/versiones-plan-nacional#tabsi (accessed 3 May 2018). Google Scholar

SENPLADES (Secretaría Nacional de Planificación y Desarrollo) (2013) Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir 2013–2017, Quito, http://buenvivir.gob.ec/versiones-plan-nacional#tabsi (accessed 3 May 2018). Google Scholar

SENPLADES (Secretaría Nacional de Planificación y Desarrollo) (2014) ‘Sistema nacional de información’, Sistema Nacional de Información, http://sni.gob.ec/inicio (accessed 10 February 2017). Google Scholar

SENPLADES (Secretaría Nacional de Planificación y Desarrollo) (2017) Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir 2017–2021, Quito, https://www.gobiernoelectronico.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2017/09/Plan-Nacional-para-el-Buen-Vivir-2017-2021.pdf. Google Scholar

Shepard, W. (2015) Ghost cities of China, London, Zed Books. Google Scholar

Soto, V. and Banister, J. M. (2016) ‘Building cities, constructing citizens: sustainable rural cities in Chiapas, Mexico’, Journal of Latin American Geography, 15(1), 110–31. Google Scholar

Stanilov, K. and Sýkora, L. (2014) ‘Postsocialist suburbanization patterns and dynamics’, in K. Stanilov and L. Sýkora (eds) Confronting suburbanization, Malden, MA, Wiley, 256–95. Google Scholar

Sugranyes, A. (2010) ‘El derecho a la ciudad: Praxis de la utopía’, Habitat y Sociedad, 1, 71–79. Google Scholar

United Nations Human Settlements Programme (2004) The state of the world’s cities 2004/2005: globalization and urban culture, London, United Nations. Google Scholar

Vanhulst, J. and Beling, A. (2014) ‘Buen vivir: emergent discourse within or beyond sustainable development?’, Ecological Economics, 101, 54–63. Google Scholar

Villalba, U. (2013) ‘Buen Vivir vs development: a paradigm shift in the Andes?’, Third World Quarterly, 34(8), 1427–42. Google Scholar

Villalba-Eguiluz, U. and Etxano, I. (2017) ‘Buen Vivir vs development (II): the limits of (neo-)extractivism’, Ecological Economics, 138, 1–11. Google Scholar

Villavicencio, A. ‘Yachay: la costosa promesa redentora’, 25 May 2016, Plan V, http://www.planv.com.ec/investigacion/investigacion/yachay-la-costosa-promesa-redentora (accessed 10 July 2017). Google Scholar

Walsh, C. (2010) ‘Development as Buen Vivir: institutional arrangements and (de)colonial entanglements’, Development, 53(1), 15–21. Google Scholar

Wilson, J. (2013) ‘The urbanization of the countryside: depoliticization and the production of space in Chiapas’, Latin American Perspectives, 40(2), 218–36. Google Scholar

Wilson, J. (2014) ‘The violence of abstract space: contested regional developments in southern Mexico’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(2), 516–38. Google Scholar

Wilson, J., and Bayón, M. (2018) ‘Potemkin revolution: utopian jungle cities of 21st century socialism’, Antipode, 50(1), 233–54. Google Scholar

World Bank (2013) Global monitoring report 2013: rural-urban dynamics and the millennium development goals, Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

World Bank (2014) ‘Ecuador’, World Bank, http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/ecuador (accessed 2 November 2016). Google Scholar

Acosta, A. (2010) ‘El Buen Vivir en el camino del post-desarolllo: una lectura desde la Constitución de Montecristi’ (Policy Paper No. 9), Quito, Ecuador, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/quito/07671.pdf (accessed 10 June 2018). Google Scholar

Andersen, B. and Skrede, J. (2017) ‘Planning for a sustainable Oslo: the challenge of turning urban theory into practice’, Local Environment, 22(5), 581–94. Google Scholar

Boland, P., Bronte, J. and Muir, J. (2017) ‘On the waterfront: neoliberal urbanism and the politics of public benefit’, Cities, 61, 117–27. Google Scholar

Brezzi, M. and Veneri, P. (2014) ‘Assessing polycentric urban systems in the OECD’, OECD Regional Development Working Papers, Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/workingpaper/5jz5mpdkmvnr-en (accessed 2 November 2015). Google Scholar

Burchardt, H.-J. and Dietz, K. (2014) ‘(Neo-)extractivism: a new challenge for development theory from Latin America’, Third World Quarterly, 35(3), 468–86. Google Scholar

Calisto Friant, M. and Langmore, J. (2015) ‘The Buen Vivir: a policy to survive the Anthropocene?’, Global Policy, 6(1), 64–71. Google Scholar

Caria, S. and Domínguez, R. (2014) ‘El porvenir de una ilusión: la ideología del Buen Vivir’, América Latina Hoy, 67, 139–63. Google Scholar

Carmon, N. and Fainstein, S. S. (eds) (2013) Policy, planning, and people: promoting justice in urban development, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. Google Scholar

Chen, M., Zhang, H., Liu, W. and Zhang, W. (2014) ‘The global pattern of urbanization and economic growth: evidence from the last three decades’, PLoS ONE 9(8), e103799. Google Scholar

Chomsky, A. and Striffler, S. (2014) ‘Labor environmentalism in Colombia and Latin America’, WorkingUSA, 17(4), 491–508. Google Scholar

CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) (2015) ‘The world factbook: urbanization’, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/349.html (accessed 10 February 2017). Google Scholar

Correa, R. (2015) Inauguración del parque turístico Nueva Loja, Nueva Loja, Presidencia República del Ecuador, http://www.presidencia.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2015/06/PARQUE-TUR%C3%8DSTICO.pdf (accessed 2 November 2015). Google Scholar

Domínguez, R., Caria, S. and León, M. (2017) ‘Buen Vivir: praise, instrumentalization, and reproductive pathways of good living in Ecuador’, Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies, 12(2), 133–54. Google Scholar

Escobar, A. (2015) ‘Degrowth, postdevelopment, and transitions: a preliminary conversation’, Sustainability Science, 10(3), 451–62. Google Scholar

GAD Aguas Fuertes (2012) Plan de desarrollo y ordenamiento territorial, confidential source. Google Scholar

Gallegos, D. (2015) ‘Vicepresidente inauguró la comunidad del milenio de bajo alto’, Radio Huancavilca 830AM, https://radiohuancavilca.com.ec/politica/2015/02/24/vicepresidente-inauguro-la-comunidad-del-milenio-de-bajo-alto/ (accessed 3 April 2019). Google Scholar

García-Álvarez, S. (2014) ‘Sumak kawsay o buen vivir como alternativa al desarollo en Ecuador: Aplicación y resultados en el gobierno de Rafael Correa (2007–2011)’ (PhD thesis), Madrid, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Google Scholar

Gregor Barié, C. (2014) ‘Nuevas narrativas constitucionales en Bolivia y Ecuador: el buen vivir y los derechos de la naturaleza’, Latinoamérica. Revista de Estudios Latinoamericanos, 59, 9–40. Google Scholar

Gudynas, E. (2011) ‘Buen Vivir: Today’s tomorrow’, Development, 54(4), 441–47. Google Scholar

Guevara, F. (2013) ‘Desarrollo urbano sostenible’, presented to MIDUVI – Ministerio de Desarrolloy Vivienda, http://cimaecuador.com/presentaciones/ciudades/09h45FelipeGuevara.pdf. Google Scholar

Hidalgo-Capitán, A. L. and Cubillo-Guevara, A. P. (2017) ‘Deconstruction and genealogy of Latin American good living (buen vivir): the (triune) good living and its diverse intellectual wellsprings’, International Development Policy/Revue internationale de politique de développement, 9(9), 23–50. Google Scholar

Hinderink, J. and Titus, M. (2002) ‘Small towns and regional development: major findings and policy implications from comparative research’, Urban Studies, 39(3), 379–91. Google Scholar

Hirt, S. and Stanilov, K. (2009) Revisiting urban planning in the transitional countries (Regional study prepared for Planning Sustainable Cities: Global Report on Human Settlements), Nairobi, UN Habitat. Google Scholar

Indrawati, S. M. (2014) Urbanization and urban-rural integrated development, World Bank, http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/speech/2014/03/23/urbanization-and-urban-rural-integrated-development (accessed 28 September 2017). Google Scholar

Irazabál, C. (2009) ‘Revisiting urban planning in Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional study prepared for revisiting urban planning: global report on human settlements 2009’, http://www.unhabitat.org/grhs/2009 (accessed 10 August 2017). Google Scholar

Klaufus, C. (2012) Urban residence: housing and social transformations in globalizing Ecuador, L. K. Mitzman (trans.), Amsterdam, Berghahn Books. Google Scholar

Lefebvre, H. (1976) The survival of capitalism: reproduction of the relations of production, London, Allison & Busby. Google Scholar

Lefebvre, H. (2003) The urban revolution, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. Google Scholar

Lerch, L. (2014) ‘The geopolitics of land: population, security and territory viewed from the international financing of the land survey in Bolivia (1996 – 2013)’, Journal of Latin American Geography, 13(1), 137–68. Google Scholar

Li, Tania Murray (2007) The will to improve: governmentality, development, and the practice of politics, London, Duke University Press. Google Scholar

Liu, S., Zhang, P., Jiang, X. and Lo, K. (2012) ‘Measuring sustainable urbanization in China: a case study of the coastal Liaoning area’, Sustainability Science, 8(4), 585–94. Google Scholar

López, M. F. (2015) ‘El sistema de planificación y el ordenamiento territorial para Buen Vivir en el Ecuador’, Geousp – Espaço e Tempo, 19(2), 296–311. Google Scholar

Lyall, A., Colloredo-Mansfeld, R. and Rousseau, M. (2018) ‘Development, citizenship, and everyday appropriations of Buen Vivir: Ecuadorian engagement with the changing rhetoric of improvement’, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 37(4), 403–16. Google Scholar

MIDUVI (Ministerio de Desarrollo Urbano y Vivienda) (2011) Intervención urbana integral en la zona de expansión del noroeste de la ciudad de Guayaquil, Ecuador, Programa Nacional de Desarrollo Urbano, Fase 1, Gobierno de La República del Ecuador, Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Google Scholar

Ministerio del Ambiente (2010) Guayaquil Ecologico: Generacion y Restauracion de Areas Verdes Para la Ciudad de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ministerio del Ambiente, http://simce.ambiente.gob.ec/sites/default/files/documentos/anny/PROYECTO%20GUAYAQUIL%20ECOLOGICO%20Fpdf (accessed 1 December 2016). Google Scholar

Moser, S. (2015) ‘New cities: old wine in new bottles?’, Dialogues in Human Geography, 5(1), 31–35. Google Scholar

Neira, M. ‘Yachay, la nueva rica, y la pobre Universidad Central’, 18 January 2016, Plan V, http://www.planv.com.ec/ideas/ideas/yachay-la-nueva-rica-y-la-pobre-universidad-central (accessed 5 June 2017). Google Scholar

Pickard White, M. (2012) ‘The ABC of the “sustainable rural cities”’, Radio Zapatista, http://radiozapatista.org/pdf/The_ABC_of_Sustainable_Rural_Cities.pdf (accessed 7 June 2017). Google Scholar

Prada-Trigo, J. (2014) ‘Planning for integral development: public policies, economic growth and social improvements in Santa Rosa (Ecuador)’, Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, 2(4), 307–17. Google Scholar

Presidencia De La República (2010) ‘Código orgánigo de organización territorial autonomía y descentralización’, Registro Oficial Organo del Gobierno del Ecuador, http://www.amevirtual.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/08-CODIGO-ORGANICO-DE-ORGANIZACION-TERRITORIAL-COOTAD.pdf (accessed 3 June 2016). Google Scholar

Radcliffe, S. A. (2012) ‘Development for a postneoliberal era? Sumak kawsay, living well and the limits to decolonisation in Ecuador’, Geoforum, 43(2), 240–49. Google Scholar

Rafael Correa (Entrevista TELEsur) (2015) ‘Cumbre de las Americas 2015’, Panama, https://www.telesurtv.net/news/Correa-Acciones-de-Obama-en-America-Latina-son-incoherentes-20150412-0010.html. Google Scholar

Ramírez-Cendrero, J., Garcia Alvarez, S. and Santillán, A. (2017) ‘Sumak kawsay in Ecuador: the role of communitarian economy and the experience of the rural communities in Sarayaku (Ecuadorian Amazonia)’, Journal of Rural Studies, 53, 111–21. Google Scholar

Rodgers, D., Beall, J. and Kanbur, R. (2011) ‘Latin American urban development into the 21st century: towards a renewed perspective on the city’ (Working Paper), UNU-WIDER, https://www.wider.unu.edu/publication/latin-american-urban-development-21st-century (accessed 3 June 2016). Google Scholar

Sandoval Vásquez, J. C. (2015) ‘La Planificación en el Ecuador, del Letargo a la Recolución Territorial. Una Aproximación desde la Práctica’, in C. Bellet, E. S. Melazzo, M. E. B. Sposito and J. M. Llop (eds) Urbanización, producción y consumo en ciudades medias/intermedias, Sáo Paulo, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 417–39. Google Scholar

SENPLADES (Secretaría Nacional de Planificación y Desarrollo) (2009) Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir 2009–2013, Quito, http://buenvivir.gob.ec/versiones-plan-nacional#tabsi (accessed 3 May 2018). Google Scholar

SENPLADES (Secretaría Nacional de Planificación y Desarrollo) (2013) Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir 2013–2017, Quito, http://buenvivir.gob.ec/versiones-plan-nacional#tabsi (accessed 3 May 2018). Google Scholar

SENPLADES (Secretaría Nacional de Planificación y Desarrollo) (2014) ‘Sistema nacional de información’, Sistema Nacional de Información, http://sni.gob.ec/inicio (accessed 10 February 2017). Google Scholar

SENPLADES (Secretaría Nacional de Planificación y Desarrollo) (2017) Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir 2017–2021, Quito, https://www.gobiernoelectronico.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2017/09/Plan-Nacional-para-el-Buen-Vivir-2017-2021.pdf. Google Scholar

Shepard, W. (2015) Ghost cities of China, London, Zed Books. Google Scholar

Soto, V. and Banister, J. M. (2016) ‘Building cities, constructing citizens: sustainable rural cities in Chiapas, Mexico’, Journal of Latin American Geography, 15(1), 110–31. Google Scholar

Stanilov, K. and Sýkora, L. (2014) ‘Postsocialist suburbanization patterns and dynamics’, in K. Stanilov and L. Sýkora (eds) Confronting suburbanization, Malden, MA, Wiley, 256–95. Google Scholar

Sugranyes, A. (2010) ‘El derecho a la ciudad: Praxis de la utopía’, Habitat y Sociedad, 1, 71–79. Google Scholar

United Nations Human Settlements Programme (2004) The state of the world’s cities 2004/2005: globalization and urban culture, London, United Nations. Google Scholar

Vanhulst, J. and Beling, A. (2014) ‘Buen vivir: emergent discourse within or beyond sustainable development?’, Ecological Economics, 101, 54–63. Google Scholar

Villalba, U. (2013) ‘Buen Vivir vs development: a paradigm shift in the Andes?’, Third World Quarterly, 34(8), 1427–42. Google Scholar

Villalba-Eguiluz, U. and Etxano, I. (2017) ‘Buen Vivir vs development (II): the limits of (neo-)extractivism’, Ecological Economics, 138, 1–11. Google Scholar

Villavicencio, A. ‘Yachay: la costosa promesa redentora’, 25 May 2016, Plan V, http://www.planv.com.ec/investigacion/investigacion/yachay-la-costosa-promesa-redentora (accessed 10 July 2017). Google Scholar

Walsh, C. (2010) ‘Development as Buen Vivir: institutional arrangements and (de)colonial entanglements’, Development, 53(1), 15–21. Google Scholar

Wilson, J. (2013) ‘The urbanization of the countryside: depoliticization and the production of space in Chiapas’, Latin American Perspectives, 40(2), 218–36. Google Scholar

Wilson, J. (2014) ‘The violence of abstract space: contested regional developments in southern Mexico’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(2), 516–38. Google Scholar

Wilson, J., and Bayón, M. (2018) ‘Potemkin revolution: utopian jungle cities of 21st century socialism’, Antipode, 50(1), 233–54. Google Scholar

World Bank (2013) Global monitoring report 2013: rural-urban dynamics and the millennium development goals, Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

World Bank (2014) ‘Ecuador’, World Bank, http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/ecuador (accessed 2 November 2016). Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Shebell, Elizabeth

Moser, Sarah