International Development Planning Review

Cyclone, coastal society and migration: empirical evidence from Bangladesh

International Development Planning Review (2012), 34, (3), 217–240.

Abstract

In this study the effectiveness of adaptive coping strategies to reduce the damage cost and its consequences for social structural change are examined. Here, migration is considered as a strategic step to cope with the adverse effect of cyclone Aila of 2009 in Bangladesh. A survey of 288 respondents demonstrated that male members of cyclone victims' family were likely to move nearer cities immediately after the end of relief programme. They live in slum environments to accumulate more money for their dependants, but out-migration from the family creates more social problems for their spouse. It introduces changes in local social structure. Income and asset distribution play a vital role in deciding movement. This study depicts a societal cluster of migration correlating with previous disaster data that introduces a new methodological tool for analysing the disaster-migration nexus.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

AFSAR, R. (2000), Rural Urban Migration in Bangladesh: Causes, Consequences and Challenges, Dhaka, University Press Ltd. Rural Urban Migration in Bangladesh: Causes, Consequences and Challenges Google Scholar

AFSAR, R. (2003), ‘Internal migration and the development nexus: the case of Bangladesh’ (paper presented at the Regional Conference on Migration, Development and Pro-Poor Policy Choices in Asia, jointly organised by the Refugee and Migratory Movements Research Unit, Bangladesh, and the Department for International Development, UK), 22-24 June 2003, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Available online at www.livelihoods.org. www.livelihoods.org ‘Internal migration and the development nexus: the case of Bangladesh’ Google Scholar

ALI, A. (1996), ‘Vulnerability of Bangladesh to climate change and sea level rise through tropical cyclones and storm surges’, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 92, 171-79. ‘Vulnerability of Bangladesh to climate change and sea level rise through tropical cyclones and storm surges’ Water, Air and Soil Pollution 92 171 79 Google Scholar

BATES, D. C. (2002), ‘Environmental refugees? Classifying human migrations caused by environmental change’, Population and Environment, 23, 465-77. ‘Environmental refugees? Classifying human migrations caused by environmental change’ Population and Environment 23 465 77 Google Scholar

BELCHER, J. C. and BATES, F. L. (1983), ‘Aftermath of natural disasters: coping through residential mobility’, Disasters, 7, 118-28. ‘Aftermath of natural disasters: coping through residential mobility’ Disasters 7 118 28 Google Scholar

BROOKS, N., NEILADGER, W. and MICKKELLY, P. (2005), ‘The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation’. Global Environmental Change Part A, 15, 151-63. ‘The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation’ Global Environmental Change Part A 15 151 63 Google Scholar

BROWN, O. (2008), ‘The numbers game’, Forced Migration Review, 31, 8-9. ‘The numbers game’ Forced Migration Review 31 8 9 Google Scholar

CLARKE, J. I. (1993), ‘Education, population, environment and sustainable development’, International Review of Education, 39, 53-61. ‘Education, population, environment and sustainable development’ International Review of Education 39 53 61 Google Scholar

CONWAY, D. and COHEN, J. H. (1994), ‘Consequences of migration and remittances for Mexican transnational communities’, Economic Geography, 9, 454-63. ‘Consequences of migration and remittances for Mexican transnational communities’ Economic Geography 9 454 63 Google Scholar

COULDREY, M., HERSON, M. and EL-MEGRISI, H. (2008), ‘Climate change and displacement’ http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR31/FMR31.pdf Google Scholar

DAS, D. (2010), Analyse der Verteilung des Khas-Landes in ländlichen Bangladesch - Das Beispiel des Dorfes Shovna, Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Analyse der Verteilung des Khas-Landes in ländlichen Bangladesch - Das Beispiel des Dorfes Shovna Google Scholar

DASGUPTA, S., LAPLANTE, B., MURRAY, S. and WHEELER, D. (2009), Sea-Level Rise and Storm Surges A Comparative Analysis of Impacts in Developing Countries, Washington, DC, World Bank. Sea-Level Rise and Storm Surges A Comparative Analysis of Impacts in Developing Countries Google Scholar

DASGUPTA, S., HUQ, M., KHAN, Z. H., AHMED, M. M. Z., MUKHERJEE, N., KHAN, M. F., et al. (2010), Vulnerability of Bangladesh to Cyclones in a Changing Climate Potential Damages and Adaptation Cost, Dhaka, World Bank. Vulnerability of Bangladesh to Cyclones in a Changing Climate Potential Damages and Adaptation Cost Google Scholar

EMANUEL, K. (2005), ‘Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years’, Nature, 436, 686-88. ‘Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years’ Nature 436 686 88 Google Scholar

EMANUEL, K., SUNDARARAJAN, R. and WILLIAMS, J. (2008), ‘Hurricanes and global warming: results from downscaling IPCC AR4 simulations’, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89, 347-67. ‘Hurricanes and global warming: results from downscaling IPCC AR4 simulations’ Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 89 347 67 Google Scholar

FREY, W. H. and SINGER, A. (2010), ‘Demographic dynamics and natural disasters: learning from Katrina and Rita’, Population and Environment, 31, 1-2. ‘Demographic dynamics and natural disasters: learning from Katrina and Rita’ Population and Environment 31 1 2 Google Scholar

GEHLICH-SHILLABEER, M. (2008), ‘Poverty alleviation or poverty traps? Microcredits and vulnerability in Bangladesh’, Disaster Prevention and Management, 17, 396-409. ‘Poverty alleviation or poverty traps? Microcredits and vulnerability in Bangladesh’ Disaster Prevention and Management 17 396 409 Google Scholar

GRAY, W. M. (1985), Tropical Cyclone Global Climatology, Geneva, WMO. Tropical Cyclone Global Climatology Google Scholar

HAAS, H. D. (2007), Remittances, Migration and Social Development. A Conceptual Review of the Literature, Geneva, UNRISD. Remittances, Migration and Social Development. A Conceptual Review of the Literature Google Scholar

HARVEY, M. L. and BELL, P. A. (1995), ‘The moderating effect of threat on the relationship between population concern and environmental concern’, Population and Environment, 17, 123-33. ‘The moderating effect of threat on the relationship between population concern and environmental concern’ Population and Environment 17 123 33 Google Scholar

HODDINOTT, J. (1994), ‘A model of migration and remittances applied to Western Kenya’, Oxford Economic Papers, 46, 459-76. ‘A model of migration and remittances applied to Western Kenya’ Oxford Economic Papers 46 459 76 Google Scholar

HUNTER, L. M. (2005), ‘Migration and environmental hazards’, Population and Environment, 26, 273-302. ‘Migration and environmental hazards’ Population and Environment 26 273 302 Google Scholar

JOLLY, C. L. (1994), ‘Four theories of population change and the environment’, Population and Environment, 16, 61-90. ‘Four theories of population change and the environment’ Population and Environment 16 61 90 Google Scholar

KARTIKI, K. (2011), ‘Climate change and migration: a case study from rural Bangladesh’, Gender & Development, 19, 23-38. ‘Climate change and migration: a case study from rural Bangladesh’ Gender & Development 19 23 38 Google Scholar

KHAN, T. M. A., SINGH, O. P. and RAHMAN, M. S. (2000), ‘Recent sea level and sea surface temperature trends along the Bangladesh coast in relation to the frequency of intense cyclones’, Marine Geodesy, 23, 103-16. ‘Recent sea level and sea surface temperature trends along the Bangladesh coast in relation to the frequency of intense cyclones’ Marine Geodesy 23 103 16 Google Scholar

KIRSCHENBAUM, A. (1996), ‘Residential ambiguity and relocation decisions: population and areas at risk’, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 14, 79-96. ‘Residential ambiguity and relocation decisions: population and areas at risk’ International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 14 79 96 Google Scholar

KLEIN, R., NICHOLLS, R. and THOMALLA, F. (2003), ‘Resilience to natural hazards: how useful is this concept?’, Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards, 5, 35-45. ‘Resilience to natural hazards: how useful is this concept?’ Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 5 35 45 Google Scholar

KUMAR, U., BATEN, M. A., MASUD, A. A., OSMAN, K. S. and RAHMAN, M. M. (2010), Cyclone Aila: One Year on Natural Disaster to Human Sufferings, Dhaka, Unnayan Onneshan. Cyclone Aila: One Year on Natural Disaster to Human Sufferings Google Scholar

LEIN, H. (2000), ‘Hazards and "forced" migration in Bangladesh’, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography, 54, 122-27. ‘Hazards and "forced" migration in Bangladesh’ Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography 54 122 27 Google Scholar

LUHMANN, N. (1995), ‘Inklusion und Exklusion’, in N. Luhmann (ed.), Soziologische Aufklärung 6: Die Soziologie und der Mensch, Opladen, Westdeutscher Verlag, pp. 237-65. Soziologische Aufklärung 6: Die Soziologie und der Mensch 237 65 Google Scholar

MALLICK, B., DAS, U. K., ISLAM, S. S., DAS, S. K. and ISKAM, M. N. (2010), Living with Cyclone Aila, Khulna, Coastal Research Foundation (CRF). Living with Cyclone Aila Google Scholar

MALLICK, B., RAHAMAN, K. R. and VOGT, J. (2011), Coastal livelihood and physical infrastructure in Bangladesh after cyclone Aila', Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 16, 629. Coastal livelihood and physical infrastructure in Bangladesh after cyclone Aila' Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 16 629 Google Scholar

MCLEMAN, R. (2009), ‘Impacts of population change on vulnerability and the capacity to adapt to climate change and variability: a typology based on lessons from "a hard country"’, Population and Environment, 31, 286-316. ‘Impacts of population change on vulnerability and the capacity to adapt to climate change and variability: a typology based on lessons from "a hard country"’ Population and Environment 31 286 316 Google Scholar

MOEF (MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS) (2008), Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan 2008. Strategy. Dhaka, Bangladesh, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, p. xvi + 68. Google Scholar

MOMEN, M. A. (1996), Land Reform and Landless in Bangladesh, London, University of East London. Land Reform and Landless in Bangladesh Google Scholar

MYERS, N. (1997), ‘Environmental refugees’, Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 19, 167-83. ‘Environmental refugees’ Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 19 167 83 Google Scholar

MYERS, N. (2002), ‘Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 357(1420), 609-13. ‘Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century’ Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 357 609 13 Google Scholar

NAJAM, A. (1996), ‘A developing countries perspective on population, environment, and development’, Population Research and Policy Review, 15, 1-19. ‘A developing countries perspective on population, environment, and development’ Population Research and Policy Review 15 1 19 Google Scholar

ÖZDEN, C. and SCHIFF, M. (2006), International Migration, Remittances & The Brain Drain. Library, Washington, DC, A Copublication of the World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan, p. 292. International Migration, Remittances & The Brain Drain. Library 292 Google Scholar

QIN, H. (2010), ‘Rural-to-urban labor migration, household livelihoods, and the rural environment in Chongqing Municipality, southwest China’, Human Ecology, 38, 675-90. ‘Rural-to-urban labor migration, household livelihoods, and the rural environment in Chongqing Municipality, southwest China’ Human Ecology 38 675 90 Google Scholar

RAWAL, N. (2007), ‘Social inclusion and exclusion: a review’, Dhaulguri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2, 161-80. ‘Social inclusion and exclusion: a review’ Dhaulguri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2 161 80 Google Scholar

SAVAGE, K. and HARVEY, P. (2007), ‘Remittances during crises: implications for humanitarian response’ (Humanitarian Policy Group Briefing Paper 26), May 2007, London, Overseas Development Institute, www.odi.org.uk. www.odi.org.uk ‘Remittances during crises: implications for humanitarian response’ Google Scholar

SEN, A. (2000), ‘Social exclusion: concept, application, and scrutiny’ (Social Development Paper No. 1), Manila, Philippines, Asian Development Bank. ‘Social exclusion: concept, application, and scrutiny’ Google Scholar

SINGH, O. P., MASOOD, T., KHAN, A. and RAHMAN, S. (2001), ‘Has the frequency of intense tropical cyclones increased in the north Indian Ocean?’ Current Science, 80, 575-80. ‘Has the frequency of intense tropical cyclones increased in the north Indian Ocean?’ Current Science 80 575 80 Google Scholar

SMALL, C. and NICHOLLS, R. J. (2003), ‘A global analysis of human settlement in coastal zones’, Journal of Coastal Research, 19, 584-99. ‘A global analysis of human settlement in coastal zones’ Journal of Coastal Research 19 584 99 Google Scholar

SPEAK, S. (2010), ‘Point of no return: exploring the issues which trap migrants in a state of homelessness in the city’, International Development Planning Review, 32, 225-43. ‘Point of no return: exploring the issues which trap migrants in a state of homelessness in the city’ International Development Planning Review 32 225 43 Google Scholar

STARK, O. and LUCAS, R. E. B. (1988), ‘Migration, remittances, and the family’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 36, 465. ‘Migration, remittances, and the family’ Economic Development and Cultural Change 36 465 Google Scholar

STRINGFIELD, J. D. (2009), ‘Higher ground: an exploratory analysis of characteristics affecting returning populations after Hurricane Katrina’, Population and Environment, 31, 43-63. ‘Higher ground: an exploratory analysis of characteristics affecting returning populations after Hurricane Katrina’ Population and Environment 31 43 63 Google Scholar

TACOLI, C. (2009), ‘Crisis or adaptation? Migration and climate change in a context of high mobility’, in J. M. Guzman, G. Martine, G. McGranahan, D. Schensul and C. Tacoli (eds), Population Dynamics and Climate Change, New York, NY, UNFPA; London, IIED, 104-18. Population Dynamics and Climate Change 104 18 Google Scholar

VOGT, J., MALLICK, B. and MAHBOOB, A. S. (2009), ‘Social supremacy and location of cyclone center: a determinant of social vulnerability analysis in a coastal union of Bangladesh’, in M. S. A. Khan, M. S. Mondol, M. A. Rahman, S. A. Shoaib and M. H. Sarker (eds), 2nd International Conference on Water and Flood Management, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Institute of Water and Flood Management, BUET. ‘Social supremacy and location of cyclone center: a determinant of social vulnerability analysis in a coastal union of Bangladesh’ Google Scholar

WILLIS, K. (2010), ‘Introduction: mobility, migration and development’, International Development Planning Review, 32, i-xiv. ‘Introduction: mobility, migration and development’ International Development Planning Review 32 i xiv Google Scholar

WISNER, B. and LUCE, H. R. (1993), ‘Disaster vulnerability: scale, power and daily life’, GeoJournal, 30, 127-40. ‘Disaster vulnerability: scale, power and daily life’ GeoJournal 30 127 40 Google Scholar

WISNER, B., BLAIKIE, P., CANNON, T. and DAVIS, I. (2004), At Risk (1st edn), London, Routledge and Chapman & Hall, p. 496. At Risk 496 Google Scholar

AFSAR, R. (2000), Rural Urban Migration in Bangladesh: Causes, Consequences and Challenges, Dhaka, University Press Ltd. Rural Urban Migration in Bangladesh: Causes, Consequences and Challenges Google Scholar

AFSAR, R. (2003), ‘Internal migration and the development nexus: the case of Bangladesh’ (paper presented at the Regional Conference on Migration, Development and Pro-Poor Policy Choices in Asia, jointly organised by the Refugee and Migratory Movements Research Unit, Bangladesh, and the Department for International Development, UK), 22-24 June 2003, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Available online at www.livelihoods.org. www.livelihoods.org ‘Internal migration and the development nexus: the case of Bangladesh’ Google Scholar

ALI, A. (1996), ‘Vulnerability of Bangladesh to climate change and sea level rise through tropical cyclones and storm surges’, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 92, 171-79. ‘Vulnerability of Bangladesh to climate change and sea level rise through tropical cyclones and storm surges’ Water, Air and Soil Pollution 92 171 79 Google Scholar

BATES, D. C. (2002), ‘Environmental refugees? Classifying human migrations caused by environmental change’, Population and Environment, 23, 465-77. ‘Environmental refugees? Classifying human migrations caused by environmental change’ Population and Environment 23 465 77 Google Scholar

BELCHER, J. C. and BATES, F. L. (1983), ‘Aftermath of natural disasters: coping through residential mobility’, Disasters, 7, 118-28. ‘Aftermath of natural disasters: coping through residential mobility’ Disasters 7 118 28 Google Scholar

BROOKS, N., NEILADGER, W. and MICKKELLY, P. (2005), ‘The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation’. Global Environmental Change Part A, 15, 151-63. ‘The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation’ Global Environmental Change Part A 15 151 63 Google Scholar

BROWN, O. (2008), ‘The numbers game’, Forced Migration Review, 31, 8-9. ‘The numbers game’ Forced Migration Review 31 8 9 Google Scholar

CLARKE, J. I. (1993), ‘Education, population, environment and sustainable development’, International Review of Education, 39, 53-61. ‘Education, population, environment and sustainable development’ International Review of Education 39 53 61 Google Scholar

CONWAY, D. and COHEN, J. H. (1994), ‘Consequences of migration and remittances for Mexican transnational communities’, Economic Geography, 9, 454-63. ‘Consequences of migration and remittances for Mexican transnational communities’ Economic Geography 9 454 63 Google Scholar

COULDREY, M., HERSON, M. and EL-MEGRISI, H. (2008), ‘Climate change and displacement’ http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR31/FMR31.pdf Google Scholar

DAS, D. (2010), Analyse der Verteilung des Khas-Landes in ländlichen Bangladesch - Das Beispiel des Dorfes Shovna, Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Analyse der Verteilung des Khas-Landes in ländlichen Bangladesch - Das Beispiel des Dorfes Shovna Google Scholar

DASGUPTA, S., LAPLANTE, B., MURRAY, S. and WHEELER, D. (2009), Sea-Level Rise and Storm Surges A Comparative Analysis of Impacts in Developing Countries, Washington, DC, World Bank. Sea-Level Rise and Storm Surges A Comparative Analysis of Impacts in Developing Countries Google Scholar

DASGUPTA, S., HUQ, M., KHAN, Z. H., AHMED, M. M. Z., MUKHERJEE, N., KHAN, M. F., et al. (2010), Vulnerability of Bangladesh to Cyclones in a Changing Climate Potential Damages and Adaptation Cost, Dhaka, World Bank. Vulnerability of Bangladesh to Cyclones in a Changing Climate Potential Damages and Adaptation Cost Google Scholar

EMANUEL, K. (2005), ‘Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years’, Nature, 436, 686-88. ‘Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years’ Nature 436 686 88 Google Scholar

EMANUEL, K., SUNDARARAJAN, R. and WILLIAMS, J. (2008), ‘Hurricanes and global warming: results from downscaling IPCC AR4 simulations’, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89, 347-67. ‘Hurricanes and global warming: results from downscaling IPCC AR4 simulations’ Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 89 347 67 Google Scholar

FREY, W. H. and SINGER, A. (2010), ‘Demographic dynamics and natural disasters: learning from Katrina and Rita’, Population and Environment, 31, 1-2. ‘Demographic dynamics and natural disasters: learning from Katrina and Rita’ Population and Environment 31 1 2 Google Scholar

GEHLICH-SHILLABEER, M. (2008), ‘Poverty alleviation or poverty traps? Microcredits and vulnerability in Bangladesh’, Disaster Prevention and Management, 17, 396-409. ‘Poverty alleviation or poverty traps? Microcredits and vulnerability in Bangladesh’ Disaster Prevention and Management 17 396 409 Google Scholar

GRAY, W. M. (1985), Tropical Cyclone Global Climatology, Geneva, WMO. Tropical Cyclone Global Climatology Google Scholar

HAAS, H. D. (2007), Remittances, Migration and Social Development. A Conceptual Review of the Literature, Geneva, UNRISD. Remittances, Migration and Social Development. A Conceptual Review of the Literature Google Scholar

HARVEY, M. L. and BELL, P. A. (1995), ‘The moderating effect of threat on the relationship between population concern and environmental concern’, Population and Environment, 17, 123-33. ‘The moderating effect of threat on the relationship between population concern and environmental concern’ Population and Environment 17 123 33 Google Scholar

HODDINOTT, J. (1994), ‘A model of migration and remittances applied to Western Kenya’, Oxford Economic Papers, 46, 459-76. ‘A model of migration and remittances applied to Western Kenya’ Oxford Economic Papers 46 459 76 Google Scholar

HUNTER, L. M. (2005), ‘Migration and environmental hazards’, Population and Environment, 26, 273-302. ‘Migration and environmental hazards’ Population and Environment 26 273 302 Google Scholar

JOLLY, C. L. (1994), ‘Four theories of population change and the environment’, Population and Environment, 16, 61-90. ‘Four theories of population change and the environment’ Population and Environment 16 61 90 Google Scholar

KARTIKI, K. (2011), ‘Climate change and migration: a case study from rural Bangladesh’, Gender & Development, 19, 23-38. ‘Climate change and migration: a case study from rural Bangladesh’ Gender & Development 19 23 38 Google Scholar

KHAN, T. M. A., SINGH, O. P. and RAHMAN, M. S. (2000), ‘Recent sea level and sea surface temperature trends along the Bangladesh coast in relation to the frequency of intense cyclones’, Marine Geodesy, 23, 103-16. ‘Recent sea level and sea surface temperature trends along the Bangladesh coast in relation to the frequency of intense cyclones’ Marine Geodesy 23 103 16 Google Scholar

KIRSCHENBAUM, A. (1996), ‘Residential ambiguity and relocation decisions: population and areas at risk’, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 14, 79-96. ‘Residential ambiguity and relocation decisions: population and areas at risk’ International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 14 79 96 Google Scholar

KLEIN, R., NICHOLLS, R. and THOMALLA, F. (2003), ‘Resilience to natural hazards: how useful is this concept?’, Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards, 5, 35-45. ‘Resilience to natural hazards: how useful is this concept?’ Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 5 35 45 Google Scholar

KUMAR, U., BATEN, M. A., MASUD, A. A., OSMAN, K. S. and RAHMAN, M. M. (2010), Cyclone Aila: One Year on Natural Disaster to Human Sufferings, Dhaka, Unnayan Onneshan. Cyclone Aila: One Year on Natural Disaster to Human Sufferings Google Scholar

LEIN, H. (2000), ‘Hazards and "forced" migration in Bangladesh’, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography, 54, 122-27. ‘Hazards and "forced" migration in Bangladesh’ Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography 54 122 27 Google Scholar

LUHMANN, N. (1995), ‘Inklusion und Exklusion’, in N. Luhmann (ed.), Soziologische Aufklärung 6: Die Soziologie und der Mensch, Opladen, Westdeutscher Verlag, pp. 237-65. Soziologische Aufklärung 6: Die Soziologie und der Mensch 237 65 Google Scholar

MALLICK, B., DAS, U. K., ISLAM, S. S., DAS, S. K. and ISKAM, M. N. (2010), Living with Cyclone Aila, Khulna, Coastal Research Foundation (CRF). Living with Cyclone Aila Google Scholar

MALLICK, B., RAHAMAN, K. R. and VOGT, J. (2011), Coastal livelihood and physical infrastructure in Bangladesh after cyclone Aila', Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 16, 629. Coastal livelihood and physical infrastructure in Bangladesh after cyclone Aila' Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 16 629 Google Scholar

MCLEMAN, R. (2009), ‘Impacts of population change on vulnerability and the capacity to adapt to climate change and variability: a typology based on lessons from "a hard country"’, Population and Environment, 31, 286-316. ‘Impacts of population change on vulnerability and the capacity to adapt to climate change and variability: a typology based on lessons from "a hard country"’ Population and Environment 31 286 316 Google Scholar

MOEF (MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS) (2008), Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan 2008. Strategy. Dhaka, Bangladesh, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, p. xvi + 68. Google Scholar

MOMEN, M. A. (1996), Land Reform and Landless in Bangladesh, London, University of East London. Land Reform and Landless in Bangladesh Google Scholar

MYERS, N. (1997), ‘Environmental refugees’, Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 19, 167-83. ‘Environmental refugees’ Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 19 167 83 Google Scholar

MYERS, N. (2002), ‘Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 357(1420), 609-13. ‘Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century’ Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 357 609 13 Google Scholar

NAJAM, A. (1996), ‘A developing countries perspective on population, environment, and development’, Population Research and Policy Review, 15, 1-19. ‘A developing countries perspective on population, environment, and development’ Population Research and Policy Review 15 1 19 Google Scholar

ÖZDEN, C. and SCHIFF, M. (2006), International Migration, Remittances & The Brain Drain. Library, Washington, DC, A Copublication of the World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan, p. 292. International Migration, Remittances & The Brain Drain. Library 292 Google Scholar

QIN, H. (2010), ‘Rural-to-urban labor migration, household livelihoods, and the rural environment in Chongqing Municipality, southwest China’, Human Ecology, 38, 675-90. ‘Rural-to-urban labor migration, household livelihoods, and the rural environment in Chongqing Municipality, southwest China’ Human Ecology 38 675 90 Google Scholar

RAWAL, N. (2007), ‘Social inclusion and exclusion: a review’, Dhaulguri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2, 161-80. ‘Social inclusion and exclusion: a review’ Dhaulguri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2 161 80 Google Scholar

SAVAGE, K. and HARVEY, P. (2007), ‘Remittances during crises: implications for humanitarian response’ (Humanitarian Policy Group Briefing Paper 26), May 2007, London, Overseas Development Institute, www.odi.org.uk. www.odi.org.uk ‘Remittances during crises: implications for humanitarian response’ Google Scholar

SEN, A. (2000), ‘Social exclusion: concept, application, and scrutiny’ (Social Development Paper No. 1), Manila, Philippines, Asian Development Bank. ‘Social exclusion: concept, application, and scrutiny’ Google Scholar

SINGH, O. P., MASOOD, T., KHAN, A. and RAHMAN, S. (2001), ‘Has the frequency of intense tropical cyclones increased in the north Indian Ocean?’ Current Science, 80, 575-80. ‘Has the frequency of intense tropical cyclones increased in the north Indian Ocean?’ Current Science 80 575 80 Google Scholar

SMALL, C. and NICHOLLS, R. J. (2003), ‘A global analysis of human settlement in coastal zones’, Journal of Coastal Research, 19, 584-99. ‘A global analysis of human settlement in coastal zones’ Journal of Coastal Research 19 584 99 Google Scholar

SPEAK, S. (2010), ‘Point of no return: exploring the issues which trap migrants in a state of homelessness in the city’, International Development Planning Review, 32, 225-43. ‘Point of no return: exploring the issues which trap migrants in a state of homelessness in the city’ International Development Planning Review 32 225 43 Google Scholar

STARK, O. and LUCAS, R. E. B. (1988), ‘Migration, remittances, and the family’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 36, 465. ‘Migration, remittances, and the family’ Economic Development and Cultural Change 36 465 Google Scholar

STRINGFIELD, J. D. (2009), ‘Higher ground: an exploratory analysis of characteristics affecting returning populations after Hurricane Katrina’, Population and Environment, 31, 43-63. ‘Higher ground: an exploratory analysis of characteristics affecting returning populations after Hurricane Katrina’ Population and Environment 31 43 63 Google Scholar

TACOLI, C. (2009), ‘Crisis or adaptation? Migration and climate change in a context of high mobility’, in J. M. Guzman, G. Martine, G. McGranahan, D. Schensul and C. Tacoli (eds), Population Dynamics and Climate Change, New York, NY, UNFPA; London, IIED, 104-18. Population Dynamics and Climate Change 104 18 Google Scholar

VOGT, J., MALLICK, B. and MAHBOOB, A. S. (2009), ‘Social supremacy and location of cyclone center: a determinant of social vulnerability analysis in a coastal union of Bangladesh’, in M. S. A. Khan, M. S. Mondol, M. A. Rahman, S. A. Shoaib and M. H. Sarker (eds), 2nd International Conference on Water and Flood Management, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Institute of Water and Flood Management, BUET. ‘Social supremacy and location of cyclone center: a determinant of social vulnerability analysis in a coastal union of Bangladesh’ Google Scholar

WILLIS, K. (2010), ‘Introduction: mobility, migration and development’, International Development Planning Review, 32, i-xiv. ‘Introduction: mobility, migration and development’ International Development Planning Review 32 i xiv Google Scholar

WISNER, B. and LUCE, H. R. (1993), ‘Disaster vulnerability: scale, power and daily life’, GeoJournal, 30, 127-40. ‘Disaster vulnerability: scale, power and daily life’ GeoJournal 30 127 40 Google Scholar

WISNER, B., BLAIKIE, P., CANNON, T. and DAVIS, I. (2004), At Risk (1st edn), London, Routledge and Chapman & Hall, p. 496. At Risk 496 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Mallick, Bishawjit

Vogt, Joachim