International Development Planning Review

Challenges in large-scale government-led sustainable development: the case of the Four Major Rivers Restoration Project

International Development Planning Review (2017), 39, (4), 399–421.

Abstract

The Four Major Rivers Restoration Project (FMRRP) was a large-scale, government-led river restoration project in South Korea. This research documents and analyses the FMRRP to better understand the challenges in planning and implementing such projects. The ‘planner’s triangle’ is the conceptual framework around which we organised the relationships and conflicts between stakeholders, one that acknowledges the environmental, economic and equity aspects of the project. In addition to these three customary aspects of the planners’ triangle, we found that stakeholder (dis)trust in government may be yet another significant dimension in such projects. The data and documentation were obtained from publicly available literature, together with semi-structured stakeholder interviews. We propose a modified framework with which to better understand conflicts and controversies in large-scale, government-led sustainable-development projects.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Baker, S. (2009) ‘In pursuit of sustainable development: a governance perspective’, paper delivered at the 8th International Conference of the European Society for Ecological Economics, 29 June–2 July 2009, www.researchgate.net/publication/254835929_In_Pursuit_of_Sustainable_Development_A_Governance_Perspective (accessed 9 January 2017). Google Scholar

Barnes, P. M. and Hoerber, T. C. (2013) Sustainable development and governance in Europe: the evolution of the discourse on sustainability, Routledge Advances in European Politics, Routledge, London and New York. Sustainable development and governance in Europe: the evolution of the discourse on sustainability Google Scholar

Beierle, T. C. and Konisky, D. M. (2000) ‘Values, conflict, and trust in participatory environmental planning’, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 19(4), 587–602. Values, conflict, and trust in participatory environmental planning Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 19 587 602 Google Scholar

Campbell, S. (1996) ‘Green cities, growing cities, just cities? Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development’, Journal of American Planning Association, 62(3), 296–312. Green cities, growing cities, just cities? Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development Journal of American Planning Association 62 296 312 Google Scholar

Card, J. (2009) ‘Korea’s FMRRP: economic boost or boondoggle?’, Yale Environment 360, http://e360.yale.edu/content/feature.msp?id=2188 (accessed 1 November 2011). Google Scholar

Cha, Y. J., Shim, M. P. and Kim, S. K. (2011) ‘The Four Major Rivers Restoration Project’, paper delivered to the UN–Water International Conference: Water in the Green Economy in Practice: Towards Rio+ 20, New York, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). The Four Major Rivers Restoration Project Google Scholar

Chae, K. H. (2009) ‘A collective action among NGO and religious organizations for opposing the Four Major Rivers Restoration Project’, Hangyre News, www.hani.co.kr/arti/society/society_general/375917.html (accessed 3 January 2017). Google Scholar

Chen, Y. (2009) ‘The environmental impact assessment of four rivers project should be reexamined’, Busan News, http://news20.busan.com/controller/newsController.jsp?newsId=20090910000086 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Chifos, C. (2007) ‘The sustainable communities experiment in the United States: insights from three federal-level initiatives’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 26(4), 435–49. The sustainable communities experiment in the United States: insights from three federal-level initiatives Journal of Planning Education and Research 26 435 49 Google Scholar

Chou, R. J. (2012) ‘The problems of watercourse redevelopment: disseminating new knowledge about flood risk perception in Taiwan’s densely populated, typhoon-affected urban areas’, International Development Planning Review, 34(3), 241–67. The problems of watercourse redevelopment: disseminating new knowledge about flood risk perception in Taiwan’s densely populated, typhoon-affected urban areas International Development Planning Review 34 241 67 Google Scholar

Conroy, M. M. and Berke, P. R. (2004) ‘What makes a good sustainable development plan? An analysis of factors that influence principles of sustainable development’, Environment and Planning A, 36, 1381–96. What makes a good sustainable development plan? An analysis of factors that influence principles of sustainable development Environment and Planning A 36 1381 96 Google Scholar

Cooper, C. A., Knotts, H. G. and Brennan, K. M. (2008) ‘The importance of trust in government for public administration: the case of zoning’, Public Administration Review, 68(3), 459–68. The importance of trust in government for public administration: the case of zoning Public Administration Review 68 459 68 Google Scholar

Currents (2010) ‘Ep. 4: South Korea’, www.youtube.com/watch?v=1faB0zpUFsE (accessed September 2011). Google Scholar

deWitt, P. and deWitt C. A. (2008) ‘How long does it take to prepare an environmental impact statement?’, Environmental Practice, 10(4), 164–74. How long does it take to prepare an environmental impact statement? Environmental Practice 10 164 74 Google Scholar

Doherty, C., Kiley, J., Tyson, A. and Jameson, B. (2015) ‘Beyond distrust: how Americans view their government’ (Working Paper, 23 November 2015), Pew Research Center, http://www.people-press.org/2015/11/23/beyond-distrust-how-americans-view-their-government/ (accessed 26 September 2017). Google Scholar

Downs, T. J. (2001) ‘Making sustainable development operational: integrated capacity building for the water supply and sanitation sector in Mexico’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 44(4), 525–44. Making sustainable development operational: integrated capacity building for the water supply and sanitation sector in Mexico Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 44 525 44 Google Scholar

Feshbach, M. and Friendly, A. (1992) Ecocide in the USSR: health and nature under siege, New York, Basic Books. Ecocide in the USSR: health and nature under siege Google Scholar

George, C. (2007) ‘Sustainable development and global governance’, Journal of Environment & Development, 16(1), 102–25. Sustainable development and global governance Journal of Environment & Development 16 102 25 Google Scholar

Geun, S. (2010) ‘The opposition on the four rivers began’, Hankyoreh, http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=100&oid=028&aid=0002046369 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Go, H. (2010) ‘Four rivers project might be cancelled at the national level?’, Asia-Economy, www.asiae.co.kr/news/view.htm?idxno=2010100409442116198 at (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Godschalk, D. R. (2004) ‘Land use planning challenge’, Journal of American Planning Association, 70(1), 5–13. Land use planning challenge Journal of American Planning Association 70 5 13 Google Scholar

Gwon, S. (2010) ‘The Four Rivers Project is a challenge to God’, Media News, www.mediaus.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=12606 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Hajer, M. A. (1995) The politics of environmental discourse: ecological modernization and the policy process, Oxford, Oxford University Press. The politics of environmental discourse: ecological modernization and the policy process Google Scholar

Hawkins, C. V. and Wang, X. (2011) ‘Sustainable development governance: citizen participation and support networks in local sustainability initiatives’, Public Works Management & Policy, 17(1), 7–29. Sustainable development governance: citizen participation and support networks in local sustainability initiatives Public Works Management & Policy 17 7 29 Google Scholar

Hein, L., Van Koppen, K., De Groot, R. S. and van Ierland, E. C. (2006) ‘Spatial scales, stakeholders and the valuation of ecosystem services’, Ecological Economics, 57(2), 209–28. Spatial scales, stakeholders and the valuation of ecosystem services Ecological Economics 57 209 28 Google Scholar

The Independent (1 May 2010) ‘South Korea completes world’s longest seawall’, www.independent.co.uk/environment/skorea-completes-worlds-longest-seawall-5538362.html (accessed 26 July 2017). Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Jepson, E. J. (2004) ‘Human nature and sustainable development: a strategic challenge for planners’, Journal of Planning Literature, 19(1), 3–15. Human nature and sustainable development: a strategic challenge for planners Journal of Planning Literature 19 3 15 Google Scholar

Jordan, A. (2008) ‘The governance of sustainable development: taking stock and looking forwards’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 26(1), 17–33. The governance of sustainable development: taking stock and looking forwards Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 26 17 33 Google Scholar

Joss, S. (2010) ‘Accountable governance, accountable sustainability? A case study of accountability in the governance for sustainability’, Environmental Policy and Governance, 20(6), 408–42. Accountable governance, accountable sustainability? A case study of accountability in the governance for sustainability Environmental Policy and Governance 20 408 42 Google Scholar

Jun, M. H. and Shriar, A. J. (2013) ‘Linking environmental citizenship and civic engagement to public trust and environmental sacrifice in the Asian context’, Environmental Policy and Governance, 23(4), 259–73. Linking environmental citizenship and civic engagement to public trust and environmental sacrifice in the Asian context Environmental Policy and Governance 23 259 73 Google Scholar

Jung, Yeon-Mi (2015) ‘Is South Korea’s green job policy sustainable?’, Sustainability, 7, 8748–67. Is South Korea’s green job policy sustainable? Sustainability 7 8748 67 Google Scholar

Kameal, C. L., Grazi, F., Joo, J., and Plouin, M. (2011) ‘The implementation of the Korean green growth strategy in urban areas’ (Working Paper no. 2011/02), OECD Regional Development. The implementation of the Korean green growth strategy in urban areas Google Scholar

Kang, B. S. (2010) ‘Four Major Rivers Restoration Project is recognized as a tool for economic recovery’, Donga News, http://weekly.donga.com/List/3/all/11/90215/1 (accessed 19 September 2017). Google Scholar

Kemp, R., Parto, S. and Gibson, R. B. (2005) ‘Governance for sustainable development: moving from theory to practice’, International Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(1), 12–19. Governance for sustainable development: moving from theory to practice International Journal of Sustainable Development 8 12 19 Google Scholar

KEPB (Korea Environmental Institute, Republic of Korea) (2009) ‘Korea environmental policy’ (Bulletin 3(3)), Korea Environment Institute, Republic of Korea. Korea environmental policy Google Scholar

Keysar, E. (2005) ‘Procedural integration in support of environmental policy objectives: implementing sustainability’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 48(4), 549–69. Procedural integration in support of environmental policy objectives: implementing sustainability Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 48 549 69 Google Scholar

Kim, J. (2009) ‘Four Rivers Project will provide to upgrade high technologies regarding water management system’, SEGYE, http://www.segye.com/Articles/NEWS/ECONOMY/Article.asp?aid=20090722003344&subctg1=&subctg2 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Kim, S. (2005) ‘The role of trust in the modern administrative state’, Administration and Society, 37(5), 611–35. The role of trust in the modern administrative state Administration and Society 37 611 35 Google Scholar

Koontz, T. M. (1999) ‘Citizen participation: conflicting interests in state and national agency policy making’, Social Science Journal, 36(3), 441–58. Citizen participation: conflicting interests in state and national agency policy making Social Science Journal 36 441 58 Google Scholar

Križnik, B. (2013) ‘Changing approaches to urban development in South Korea: from “clean and attractive global cities” towards “hopeful communities”’, International Development Planning Review, 35(4), 395–418. Changing approaches to urban development in South Korea: from “clean and attractive global cities” towards “hopeful communities” International Development Planning Review 35 395 418 Google Scholar

Kyen, S. (2010) ‘Four Rivers now: Han river restoration project’, Yonhapnews, http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=100&oid=001&aid=0004585907 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Lafferty, W. M. (2004) Governance for sustainable development: the challenges of adapting form to function, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Press. Governance for sustainable development: the challenges of adapting form to function Google Scholar

Lah, T. J., Park, Y. and Cho, Y. J. (2015) ‘The Four Major Rivers Restoration Project of South Korea: an assessment of its process, program, and political dimensions’, Journal of Environment & Development, 24(4), 375–94. The Four Major Rivers Restoration Project of South Korea: an assessment of its process, program, and political dimensions Journal of Environment & Development 24 375 94 Google Scholar

Lewicki, R., Gray, B. and Elliott, M. (2003) Making sense of intractable environmental conflicts: concepts and cases, Washington, DC, Island Press. Making sense of intractable environmental conflicts: concepts and cases Google Scholar

McDaniel, R. J. and Lanham, H. J. (2010) ‘Sustainable development: complexity and the problem of balance’, in S. A. Moore (ed.), Pragmatic sustainability: theoretical and practical tools, New York, Routledge. Sustainable development: complexity and the problem of balance Pragmatic sustainability: theoretical and practical tools Google Scholar

Meadowcroft, J. (1997) ‘Planning for sustainable development: insights from the literatures of political science’, European Journal of Development Research, 31(4), 427–54. Planning for sustainable development: insights from the literatures of political science European Journal of Development Research 31 427 54 Google Scholar

Meadowcroft, J. (2002) ‘Politics and scale: some implications for environmental governance’, Landscape and Urban Planning, 61(2), 169–79. Politics and scale: some implications for environmental governance Landscape and Urban Planning 61 169 79 Google Scholar

Meadowcroft, J. (2007) ‘Who is in charge here? Governance for sustainable development in a complex world’, Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 9(3–4), 299–314. Who is in charge here? Governance for sustainable development in a complex world Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 9 299 314 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

MLTM (Ministry of Land, Transport, and Marine Affairs) (2012b) ‘The River Revitalization of Korea’ (Working Paper), Ministry of Land, Transport, and Marine Affairs. The River Revitalization of Korea Google Scholar

Paavola, J. (2007) ‘Institutions and environmental governance: A reconceptualization’, Ecological Economics, 63(1), 93–103. Institutions and environmental governance: A reconceptualization Ecological Economics 63 93 103 Google Scholar

Park, H. B., Lee, H. C. and Cho, Y. S. (2003) ‘The characteristics of Korean government trust and its affected factors’, Korean Public Administration Review, 37(3), 45–66. The characteristics of Korean government trust and its affected factors Korean Public Administration Review 37 45 66 Google Scholar

Park, K. (2010) ‘The farmers around four rivers, who consist of 25,000 people, lost their workplace’, Hankyoreh, http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=102&oid=028&aid=0002035360 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Peterson, D. and Bielke, E. (2001) ‘The reorganization of Russia’s environmental bureaucracy: implications and prospects’, Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, 42, 65–76. The reorganization of Russia’s environmental bureaucracy: implications and prospects Post-Soviet Geography and Economics 42 65 76 Google Scholar

Reed, M. S., Graves, A., Dandy, N., Posthumus, H., Hubacek, K., Morris, J., Prell, C., Quinn, C. H. and Stringer, L. C. (2009) ‘Who’s in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management’, Journal of Environmental Management, 90(5), 1933–49. Who’s in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management Journal of Environmental Management 90 1933 49 Google Scholar

Sabatier, P. A. and Jenkins-Smith, H. C. (1999) ‘The advocacy coalition framework: an assessment’, in P. A. Sabatier (ed.), Theories of the policy process, Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 117–66. The advocacy coalition framework: an assessment Theories of the policy process 117 66 Google Scholar

Sajor, E. E. and Ongsakul, R. (2007) ‘Mixed land use and equity in water governance in periurban Bangkok’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 31(4), 782–801 Mixed land use and equity in water governance in periurban Bangkok International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 31 782 801 Google Scholar

Schmitter, P. C. (2002) ‘Participation in governance arrangement: is there any reason to expect it will achieve “sustainable and innovative policies in a multi-level context”?’, in J. R. Grote and B. Gbipki (eds), Participatory governance: political and societal implications, Opladen, Leske & Budrich, 51–69. Participation in governance arrangement: is there any reason to expect it will achieve “sustainable and innovative policies in a multi-level context”? Participatory governance: political and societal implications 51 69 Google Scholar

Schön, D. A. and Rein, M. (1994) Frame reflection: toward the resolution of intractable policy controversies, New York, Basic Books. Frame reflection: toward the resolution of intractable policy controversies Google Scholar

Sim, Y. and Yi, E. (2009) ‘Four Rivers Project must proceed’, Daily Economy, http://news.mk.co.kr/newsRead.php?year=2009&no=358429 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Simeonova, V. and van der Valk, A. (2009) ‘The need for a communicative approach to improve environmental policy integration in urban land use planning’, Journal of Planning Literature, 23(3), 241–61 The need for a communicative approach to improve environmental policy integration in urban land use planning Journal of Planning Literature 23 241 61 Google Scholar

Snow, D. A. and Benford, R. D. (1988) ‘Ideology, frame resonance, and participant mobilization’, in B. Klandermans, H. Kriesi and S. Tarrow (eds), From structure to action: social movement participation across cultures, Greenwich, CT, JAI Press, 197–217. Ideology, frame resonance, and participant mobilization From structure to action: social movement participation across cultures 197 217 Google Scholar

Storey, D. (2012) ‘Incompatible partners? Urban poor communities and river systems in Bangkok, Thailand’, International Development Planning Review, 34(2), 109–28. Incompatible partners? Urban poor communities and river systems in Bangkok, Thailand International Development Planning Review 34 109 28 Google Scholar

Sun, M. (2010) ‘Population of 300,000 started a signature collecting movement for opposing Four Rivers’, Pressian Daily, www.pressian.com/article/article.asp?article_num=10100518174101&Section=03; (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Taylor, D. (2000) ‘Advances in environmental justice: research, theory and methodology’, American Behavioral Scientist, 43(4), 504–80. Advances in environmental justice: research, theory and methodology American Behavioral Scientist 43 504 80 Google Scholar

Tsang, S., Burnett, M., Hills, P. and Welford, R. (2009) ‘Trust, public participation and environmental governance in Hong Kong’, Environmental Policy and Governance, 19(2), 99–114. Trust, public participation and environmental governance in Hong Kong Environmental Policy and Governance 19 99 114 Google Scholar

Tynkkynen, V. P. (2010) ‘From mute to reflective: changing governmentality in St Petersburg and the priorities of Russian environmental planning’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 53(2), 241–56. From mute to reflective: changing governmentality in St Petersburg and the priorities of Russian environmental planning Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 53 241 56 Google Scholar

Walker, R. M. and Hills, P. (2014) ‘Changing dimensions of trust in government: exploration in environmental policy in Hong Kong’, Public Administration and Development 34, 123–36. Changing dimensions of trust in government: exploration in environmental policy in Hong Kong Public Administration and Development 34 123 36 Google Scholar

Wang, M. S., Fang, J. K. and Bowen, W. M. (2000) ‘An integrated framework for public sector environmental management in developing countries’, Environmental Management, 25(5), 463–76. An integrated framework for public sector environmental management in developing countries Environmental Management 25 463 76 Google Scholar

Wang, X. (2001) ‘Assessing public participation in U.S. cities’, Public Performance & Management Review, 24, 322–36. Assessing public participation in U.S. cities Public Performance & Management Review 24 322 36 Google Scholar

Weiss, T. (2000) ‘Governance, good governance, global governance: conceptual and actual challenges’, Third World Quarterly, 21(5), 795–814. Governance, good governance, global governance: conceptual and actual challenges Third World Quarterly 21 795 814 Google Scholar

Wood, R., Handley, J. and Kidd, S. (1999) ‘Sustainable development and institutional design: the example of the Mersey Basin campaign’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 42(3), 341–54. Sustainable development and institutional design: the example of the Mersey Basin campaign Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 42 341 54 Google Scholar

Yun, S. (2010) ‘The collective action between religions and non-profit organizations for opposing the Four Rivers Project related to Nakdong’, OhMYNews, www.ohmynews.com/NWS_Web/view/at_pg.aspx?CNTN_CD=A0001247043 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Baker, S. (2009) ‘In pursuit of sustainable development: a governance perspective’, paper delivered at the 8th International Conference of the European Society for Ecological Economics, 29 June–2 July 2009, www.researchgate.net/publication/254835929_In_Pursuit_of_Sustainable_Development_A_Governance_Perspective (accessed 9 January 2017). Google Scholar

Barnes, P. M. and Hoerber, T. C. (2013) Sustainable development and governance in Europe: the evolution of the discourse on sustainability, Routledge Advances in European Politics, Routledge, London and New York. Sustainable development and governance in Europe: the evolution of the discourse on sustainability Google Scholar

Beierle, T. C. and Konisky, D. M. (2000) ‘Values, conflict, and trust in participatory environmental planning’, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 19(4), 587–602. Values, conflict, and trust in participatory environmental planning Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 19 587 602 Google Scholar

Campbell, S. (1996) ‘Green cities, growing cities, just cities? Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development’, Journal of American Planning Association, 62(3), 296–312. Green cities, growing cities, just cities? Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development Journal of American Planning Association 62 296 312 Google Scholar

Card, J. (2009) ‘Korea’s FMRRP: economic boost or boondoggle?’, Yale Environment 360, http://e360.yale.edu/content/feature.msp?id=2188 (accessed 1 November 2011). Google Scholar

Cha, Y. J., Shim, M. P. and Kim, S. K. (2011) ‘The Four Major Rivers Restoration Project’, paper delivered to the UN–Water International Conference: Water in the Green Economy in Practice: Towards Rio+ 20, New York, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). The Four Major Rivers Restoration Project Google Scholar

Chae, K. H. (2009) ‘A collective action among NGO and religious organizations for opposing the Four Major Rivers Restoration Project’, Hangyre News, www.hani.co.kr/arti/society/society_general/375917.html (accessed 3 January 2017). Google Scholar

Chen, Y. (2009) ‘The environmental impact assessment of four rivers project should be reexamined’, Busan News, http://news20.busan.com/controller/newsController.jsp?newsId=20090910000086 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Chifos, C. (2007) ‘The sustainable communities experiment in the United States: insights from three federal-level initiatives’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 26(4), 435–49. The sustainable communities experiment in the United States: insights from three federal-level initiatives Journal of Planning Education and Research 26 435 49 Google Scholar

Chou, R. J. (2012) ‘The problems of watercourse redevelopment: disseminating new knowledge about flood risk perception in Taiwan’s densely populated, typhoon-affected urban areas’, International Development Planning Review, 34(3), 241–67. The problems of watercourse redevelopment: disseminating new knowledge about flood risk perception in Taiwan’s densely populated, typhoon-affected urban areas International Development Planning Review 34 241 67 Google Scholar

Conroy, M. M. and Berke, P. R. (2004) ‘What makes a good sustainable development plan? An analysis of factors that influence principles of sustainable development’, Environment and Planning A, 36, 1381–96. What makes a good sustainable development plan? An analysis of factors that influence principles of sustainable development Environment and Planning A 36 1381 96 Google Scholar

Cooper, C. A., Knotts, H. G. and Brennan, K. M. (2008) ‘The importance of trust in government for public administration: the case of zoning’, Public Administration Review, 68(3), 459–68. The importance of trust in government for public administration: the case of zoning Public Administration Review 68 459 68 Google Scholar

Currents (2010) ‘Ep. 4: South Korea’, www.youtube.com/watch?v=1faB0zpUFsE (accessed September 2011). Google Scholar

deWitt, P. and deWitt C. A. (2008) ‘How long does it take to prepare an environmental impact statement?’, Environmental Practice, 10(4), 164–74. How long does it take to prepare an environmental impact statement? Environmental Practice 10 164 74 Google Scholar

Doherty, C., Kiley, J., Tyson, A. and Jameson, B. (2015) ‘Beyond distrust: how Americans view their government’ (Working Paper, 23 November 2015), Pew Research Center, http://www.people-press.org/2015/11/23/beyond-distrust-how-americans-view-their-government/ (accessed 26 September 2017). Google Scholar

Downs, T. J. (2001) ‘Making sustainable development operational: integrated capacity building for the water supply and sanitation sector in Mexico’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 44(4), 525–44. Making sustainable development operational: integrated capacity building for the water supply and sanitation sector in Mexico Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 44 525 44 Google Scholar

Feshbach, M. and Friendly, A. (1992) Ecocide in the USSR: health and nature under siege, New York, Basic Books. Ecocide in the USSR: health and nature under siege Google Scholar

George, C. (2007) ‘Sustainable development and global governance’, Journal of Environment & Development, 16(1), 102–25. Sustainable development and global governance Journal of Environment & Development 16 102 25 Google Scholar

Geun, S. (2010) ‘The opposition on the four rivers began’, Hankyoreh, http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=100&oid=028&aid=0002046369 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Go, H. (2010) ‘Four rivers project might be cancelled at the national level?’, Asia-Economy, www.asiae.co.kr/news/view.htm?idxno=2010100409442116198 at (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Godschalk, D. R. (2004) ‘Land use planning challenge’, Journal of American Planning Association, 70(1), 5–13. Land use planning challenge Journal of American Planning Association 70 5 13 Google Scholar

Gwon, S. (2010) ‘The Four Rivers Project is a challenge to God’, Media News, www.mediaus.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=12606 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Hajer, M. A. (1995) The politics of environmental discourse: ecological modernization and the policy process, Oxford, Oxford University Press. The politics of environmental discourse: ecological modernization and the policy process Google Scholar

Hawkins, C. V. and Wang, X. (2011) ‘Sustainable development governance: citizen participation and support networks in local sustainability initiatives’, Public Works Management & Policy, 17(1), 7–29. Sustainable development governance: citizen participation and support networks in local sustainability initiatives Public Works Management & Policy 17 7 29 Google Scholar

Hein, L., Van Koppen, K., De Groot, R. S. and van Ierland, E. C. (2006) ‘Spatial scales, stakeholders and the valuation of ecosystem services’, Ecological Economics, 57(2), 209–28. Spatial scales, stakeholders and the valuation of ecosystem services Ecological Economics 57 209 28 Google Scholar

The Independent (1 May 2010) ‘South Korea completes world’s longest seawall’, www.independent.co.uk/environment/skorea-completes-worlds-longest-seawall-5538362.html (accessed 26 July 2017). Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Jepson, E. J. (2004) ‘Human nature and sustainable development: a strategic challenge for planners’, Journal of Planning Literature, 19(1), 3–15. Human nature and sustainable development: a strategic challenge for planners Journal of Planning Literature 19 3 15 Google Scholar

Jordan, A. (2008) ‘The governance of sustainable development: taking stock and looking forwards’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 26(1), 17–33. The governance of sustainable development: taking stock and looking forwards Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 26 17 33 Google Scholar

Joss, S. (2010) ‘Accountable governance, accountable sustainability? A case study of accountability in the governance for sustainability’, Environmental Policy and Governance, 20(6), 408–42. Accountable governance, accountable sustainability? A case study of accountability in the governance for sustainability Environmental Policy and Governance 20 408 42 Google Scholar

Jun, M. H. and Shriar, A. J. (2013) ‘Linking environmental citizenship and civic engagement to public trust and environmental sacrifice in the Asian context’, Environmental Policy and Governance, 23(4), 259–73. Linking environmental citizenship and civic engagement to public trust and environmental sacrifice in the Asian context Environmental Policy and Governance 23 259 73 Google Scholar

Jung, Yeon-Mi (2015) ‘Is South Korea’s green job policy sustainable?’, Sustainability, 7, 8748–67. Is South Korea’s green job policy sustainable? Sustainability 7 8748 67 Google Scholar

Kameal, C. L., Grazi, F., Joo, J., and Plouin, M. (2011) ‘The implementation of the Korean green growth strategy in urban areas’ (Working Paper no. 2011/02), OECD Regional Development. The implementation of the Korean green growth strategy in urban areas Google Scholar

Kang, B. S. (2010) ‘Four Major Rivers Restoration Project is recognized as a tool for economic recovery’, Donga News, http://weekly.donga.com/List/3/all/11/90215/1 (accessed 19 September 2017). Google Scholar

Kemp, R., Parto, S. and Gibson, R. B. (2005) ‘Governance for sustainable development: moving from theory to practice’, International Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(1), 12–19. Governance for sustainable development: moving from theory to practice International Journal of Sustainable Development 8 12 19 Google Scholar

KEPB (Korea Environmental Institute, Republic of Korea) (2009) ‘Korea environmental policy’ (Bulletin 3(3)), Korea Environment Institute, Republic of Korea. Korea environmental policy Google Scholar

Keysar, E. (2005) ‘Procedural integration in support of environmental policy objectives: implementing sustainability’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 48(4), 549–69. Procedural integration in support of environmental policy objectives: implementing sustainability Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 48 549 69 Google Scholar

Kim, J. (2009) ‘Four Rivers Project will provide to upgrade high technologies regarding water management system’, SEGYE, http://www.segye.com/Articles/NEWS/ECONOMY/Article.asp?aid=20090722003344&subctg1=&subctg2 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Kim, S. (2005) ‘The role of trust in the modern administrative state’, Administration and Society, 37(5), 611–35. The role of trust in the modern administrative state Administration and Society 37 611 35 Google Scholar

Koontz, T. M. (1999) ‘Citizen participation: conflicting interests in state and national agency policy making’, Social Science Journal, 36(3), 441–58. Citizen participation: conflicting interests in state and national agency policy making Social Science Journal 36 441 58 Google Scholar

Križnik, B. (2013) ‘Changing approaches to urban development in South Korea: from “clean and attractive global cities” towards “hopeful communities”’, International Development Planning Review, 35(4), 395–418. Changing approaches to urban development in South Korea: from “clean and attractive global cities” towards “hopeful communities” International Development Planning Review 35 395 418 Google Scholar

Kyen, S. (2010) ‘Four Rivers now: Han river restoration project’, Yonhapnews, http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=100&oid=001&aid=0004585907 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Lafferty, W. M. (2004) Governance for sustainable development: the challenges of adapting form to function, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Press. Governance for sustainable development: the challenges of adapting form to function Google Scholar

Lah, T. J., Park, Y. and Cho, Y. J. (2015) ‘The Four Major Rivers Restoration Project of South Korea: an assessment of its process, program, and political dimensions’, Journal of Environment & Development, 24(4), 375–94. The Four Major Rivers Restoration Project of South Korea: an assessment of its process, program, and political dimensions Journal of Environment & Development 24 375 94 Google Scholar

Lewicki, R., Gray, B. and Elliott, M. (2003) Making sense of intractable environmental conflicts: concepts and cases, Washington, DC, Island Press. Making sense of intractable environmental conflicts: concepts and cases Google Scholar

McDaniel, R. J. and Lanham, H. J. (2010) ‘Sustainable development: complexity and the problem of balance’, in S. A. Moore (ed.), Pragmatic sustainability: theoretical and practical tools, New York, Routledge. Sustainable development: complexity and the problem of balance Pragmatic sustainability: theoretical and practical tools Google Scholar

Meadowcroft, J. (1997) ‘Planning for sustainable development: insights from the literatures of political science’, European Journal of Development Research, 31(4), 427–54. Planning for sustainable development: insights from the literatures of political science European Journal of Development Research 31 427 54 Google Scholar

Meadowcroft, J. (2002) ‘Politics and scale: some implications for environmental governance’, Landscape and Urban Planning, 61(2), 169–79. Politics and scale: some implications for environmental governance Landscape and Urban Planning 61 169 79 Google Scholar

Meadowcroft, J. (2007) ‘Who is in charge here? Governance for sustainable development in a complex world’, Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 9(3–4), 299–314. Who is in charge here? Governance for sustainable development in a complex world Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 9 299 314 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

MLTM (Ministry of Land, Transport, and Marine Affairs) (2012b) ‘The River Revitalization of Korea’ (Working Paper), Ministry of Land, Transport, and Marine Affairs. The River Revitalization of Korea Google Scholar

Paavola, J. (2007) ‘Institutions and environmental governance: A reconceptualization’, Ecological Economics, 63(1), 93–103. Institutions and environmental governance: A reconceptualization Ecological Economics 63 93 103 Google Scholar

Park, H. B., Lee, H. C. and Cho, Y. S. (2003) ‘The characteristics of Korean government trust and its affected factors’, Korean Public Administration Review, 37(3), 45–66. The characteristics of Korean government trust and its affected factors Korean Public Administration Review 37 45 66 Google Scholar

Park, K. (2010) ‘The farmers around four rivers, who consist of 25,000 people, lost their workplace’, Hankyoreh, http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=102&oid=028&aid=0002035360 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Peterson, D. and Bielke, E. (2001) ‘The reorganization of Russia’s environmental bureaucracy: implications and prospects’, Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, 42, 65–76. The reorganization of Russia’s environmental bureaucracy: implications and prospects Post-Soviet Geography and Economics 42 65 76 Google Scholar

Reed, M. S., Graves, A., Dandy, N., Posthumus, H., Hubacek, K., Morris, J., Prell, C., Quinn, C. H. and Stringer, L. C. (2009) ‘Who’s in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management’, Journal of Environmental Management, 90(5), 1933–49. Who’s in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management Journal of Environmental Management 90 1933 49 Google Scholar

Sabatier, P. A. and Jenkins-Smith, H. C. (1999) ‘The advocacy coalition framework: an assessment’, in P. A. Sabatier (ed.), Theories of the policy process, Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 117–66. The advocacy coalition framework: an assessment Theories of the policy process 117 66 Google Scholar

Sajor, E. E. and Ongsakul, R. (2007) ‘Mixed land use and equity in water governance in periurban Bangkok’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 31(4), 782–801 Mixed land use and equity in water governance in periurban Bangkok International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 31 782 801 Google Scholar

Schmitter, P. C. (2002) ‘Participation in governance arrangement: is there any reason to expect it will achieve “sustainable and innovative policies in a multi-level context”?’, in J. R. Grote and B. Gbipki (eds), Participatory governance: political and societal implications, Opladen, Leske & Budrich, 51–69. Participation in governance arrangement: is there any reason to expect it will achieve “sustainable and innovative policies in a multi-level context”? Participatory governance: political and societal implications 51 69 Google Scholar

Schön, D. A. and Rein, M. (1994) Frame reflection: toward the resolution of intractable policy controversies, New York, Basic Books. Frame reflection: toward the resolution of intractable policy controversies Google Scholar

Sim, Y. and Yi, E. (2009) ‘Four Rivers Project must proceed’, Daily Economy, http://news.mk.co.kr/newsRead.php?year=2009&no=358429 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Simeonova, V. and van der Valk, A. (2009) ‘The need for a communicative approach to improve environmental policy integration in urban land use planning’, Journal of Planning Literature, 23(3), 241–61 The need for a communicative approach to improve environmental policy integration in urban land use planning Journal of Planning Literature 23 241 61 Google Scholar

Snow, D. A. and Benford, R. D. (1988) ‘Ideology, frame resonance, and participant mobilization’, in B. Klandermans, H. Kriesi and S. Tarrow (eds), From structure to action: social movement participation across cultures, Greenwich, CT, JAI Press, 197–217. Ideology, frame resonance, and participant mobilization From structure to action: social movement participation across cultures 197 217 Google Scholar

Storey, D. (2012) ‘Incompatible partners? Urban poor communities and river systems in Bangkok, Thailand’, International Development Planning Review, 34(2), 109–28. Incompatible partners? Urban poor communities and river systems in Bangkok, Thailand International Development Planning Review 34 109 28 Google Scholar

Sun, M. (2010) ‘Population of 300,000 started a signature collecting movement for opposing Four Rivers’, Pressian Daily, www.pressian.com/article/article.asp?article_num=10100518174101&Section=03; (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

Taylor, D. (2000) ‘Advances in environmental justice: research, theory and methodology’, American Behavioral Scientist, 43(4), 504–80. Advances in environmental justice: research, theory and methodology American Behavioral Scientist 43 504 80 Google Scholar

Tsang, S., Burnett, M., Hills, P. and Welford, R. (2009) ‘Trust, public participation and environmental governance in Hong Kong’, Environmental Policy and Governance, 19(2), 99–114. Trust, public participation and environmental governance in Hong Kong Environmental Policy and Governance 19 99 114 Google Scholar

Tynkkynen, V. P. (2010) ‘From mute to reflective: changing governmentality in St Petersburg and the priorities of Russian environmental planning’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 53(2), 241–56. From mute to reflective: changing governmentality in St Petersburg and the priorities of Russian environmental planning Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 53 241 56 Google Scholar

Walker, R. M. and Hills, P. (2014) ‘Changing dimensions of trust in government: exploration in environmental policy in Hong Kong’, Public Administration and Development 34, 123–36. Changing dimensions of trust in government: exploration in environmental policy in Hong Kong Public Administration and Development 34 123 36 Google Scholar

Wang, M. S., Fang, J. K. and Bowen, W. M. (2000) ‘An integrated framework for public sector environmental management in developing countries’, Environmental Management, 25(5), 463–76. An integrated framework for public sector environmental management in developing countries Environmental Management 25 463 76 Google Scholar

Wang, X. (2001) ‘Assessing public participation in U.S. cities’, Public Performance & Management Review, 24, 322–36. Assessing public participation in U.S. cities Public Performance & Management Review 24 322 36 Google Scholar

Weiss, T. (2000) ‘Governance, good governance, global governance: conceptual and actual challenges’, Third World Quarterly, 21(5), 795–814. Governance, good governance, global governance: conceptual and actual challenges Third World Quarterly 21 795 814 Google Scholar

Wood, R., Handley, J. and Kidd, S. (1999) ‘Sustainable development and institutional design: the example of the Mersey Basin campaign’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 42(3), 341–54. Sustainable development and institutional design: the example of the Mersey Basin campaign Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 42 341 54 Google Scholar

Yun, S. (2010) ‘The collective action between religions and non-profit organizations for opposing the Four Rivers Project related to Nakdong’, OhMYNews, www.ohmynews.com/NWS_Web/view/at_pg.aspx?CNTN_CD=A0001247043 (accessed 15 October 2015). Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here