Third World Planning Review

Commodity housing construction and intra-urban migration in Beijing

An analysis of survey data

Third World Planning Review (2001), 23, (1), 39–60.

Abstract

Based on a survey of households conducted in 1996, this study analyses the pattern of residential moves resulting from commodity housing development in Beijing. While short-distance moves were important, a large proportion of the moves recorded were of longer distance. A clear suburbanisation trend is discerned. The work units and the housing bureaux to a significant extent still controlled residential location and relocation in the city, even though housing in the primary market had become a commodity. A logistic regression analysis of the data shows that people who relied on the work units for housing were more inclined to end up in the outer city districts, whereas people who depended on the housing bureaux for welfare housing were more likely to be provided with inner city residences. The results also indicate the continued importance of membership of the Chinese Communist Party and its powerful influence on residential location.

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LI, S.-M. and TANG, Y. H. (1998), ‘Market segmentation and consumer characteristics of commodity housing in Guangzhou: an analysis of household survey data’, Asian Geographer, 17, 69-89. ‘Market segmentation and consumer characteristics of commodity housing in Guangzhou: an analysis of household survey data’ Asian Geographer 17 69 89 Google Scholar

LO, C. P. (1980), ‘Shaping socialist Chinese cities: a model of form and land use’ in C. K. Leung and N. Ginsburg (eds), China: Urbanization and National Development, Research Paper no. 196, Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 130-55. China: Urbanization and National Development 130 55 Google Scholar

LOGAN, J. R., BIAN, Y. M. J. and BIAN, F. Q. (1999), ‘Housing inequality in urban China in the 1990s’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23, 7-15. ‘Housing inequality in urban China in the 1990s’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 23 7 15 Google Scholar

LONG, L. (1988), Migration and Residential Mobility in the United States, New York, Russell Sage Foundation. Migration and Residential Mobility in the United States Google Scholar

LU, F. (1989), ‘Work unit: a special form of social organisation’ (‘Danwei: yizhong teshu de shehui zuzhi xingsh’), China Social Sciences (Zhongguo Shehui Keshe), 1, 71-88 (in Chinese). ‘Work unit: a special form of social organisation’ (‘Danwei: yizhong teshu de shehui zuzhi xingsh’) China Social Sciences (Zhongguo Shehui Keshe) 1 71 88 Google Scholar

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TANG, W. S. (1994), ‘Urban development under socialism: China between 1949 and 1979’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 18, 395-415. ‘Urban development under socialism: China between 1949 and 1979’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 18 395 415 Google Scholar

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TEIXEIRA, C. and MURDIE, R. A. (1997), ‘The role of ethnic real estate agents in the residential relocation process: a case study of Portuguese homebuyers in suburban Toronto’, Urban Geography, 18, 497-520. ‘The role of ethnic real estate agents in the residential relocation process: a case study of Portuguese homebuyers in suburban Toronto’ Urban Geography 18 497 520 Google Scholar

WANG, Y. P. and MURIE, A. (1999), ‘Commercial housing development in urban China’, Urban Studies, 26, 1475-94. ‘Commercial housing development in urban China’ Urban Studies 26 1475 94 Google Scholar

WANG, Y. P. and MURIE, A. (2000), ‘Social and spatial implications of housing reform in China’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24, 397-417. ‘Social and spatial implications of housing reform in China’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 24 397 417 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WU, F. L. (1996), ‘Changes in the structure of housing provision in urban China’, Urban Studies, 33, 1601-29. ‘Changes in the structure of housing provision in urban China’ Urban Studies 33 1601 29 Google Scholar

WU, F. L. (1997), ‘Urban restructuring in China's emerging market economy: towards a framework for analysis’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 21, 640-63. ‘Urban restructuring in China's emerging market economy: towards a framework for analysis’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 21 640 63 Google Scholar

WU, J. (1990), Zhongguo Chengshi Xingtai: Jiegou, Tezheng ji Yanbian (China's Urban Morphology: Structure, Characteristics and Change), Nanjing, Jiangsu Keshe Jishu Chubanshe. Zhongguo Chengshi Xingtai: Jiegou, Tezheng ji Yanbian (China's Urban Morphology: Structure, Characteristics and Change) Google Scholar

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YAN, X. P. (1994), ‘New progress in China's urban geography’, Acta Geographica Sinica, 49, 533-40. ‘New progress in China's urban geography’ Acta Geographica Sinica 49 533 40 Google Scholar

YEH, A. G. O., XU, X. Q. and HU, H. Y. (1995), ‘The social space of Guangzhou City, China’, Urban Geography, 16, 595-621. ‘The social space of Guangzhou City, China’ Urban Geography 16 595 621 Google Scholar

ZHAO, F. L. (2000), ‘Policy to give real benefits to the ordinary citizens’ (‘Yong zengce gei baixing zichang shihui’), China Real Estate Information (Zhongguo Fangdichang Xinxi), 167, 1 (in Chinese). ‘Policy to give real benefits to the ordinary citizens’ (‘Yong zengce gei baixing zichang shihui’), China Real Estate Information (Zhongguo Fangdichang Xinxi) 167 1 Google Scholar

ZHOU, C. S. (1996), A Study on Population Distribution and Mobility in Large Cities Since Reform: The Case of Guangzhou City (Gaige Kaifang yilai Dadushi Renkou Renbu yu Qianyi Yanjiu: Yi Guangzhou Shi Weili), Guangzhou, Guangdong Shen Gaodeng Jiaoyu Chubanshe (in Chinese). A Study on Population Distribution and Mobility in Large Cities Since Reform: The Case of Guangzhou City (Gaige Kaifang yilai Dadushi Renkou Renbu yu Qianyi Yanjiu: Yi Guangzhou Shi Weili) Google Scholar

ZHOU, Y. X. (1996), ‘Beijing de jiaoquhua ji yinfa de sikao’ (‘Thoughts on suburbanisation in Beijing’), Acta Geographica Sinica, 16, 198-206. ‘Beijing de jiaoquhua ji yinfa de sikao’ (‘Thoughts on suburbanisation in Beijing’) Acta Geographica Sinica 16 198 206 Google Scholar

ZHOU, Y. X. and MENG, Y. C. (1997), ‘Shenyang's suburbanization’ (‘Shenyang de jiaoquhua’), Acta Geographica Sinica, 52, 289-99. ‘Shenyang's suburbanization’ (‘Shenyang de jiaoquhua’) Acta Geographica Sinica 52 289 99 Google Scholar

ZHOU, Y. X. and MENG, Y. C. (2000), Suburbanisation in Beijing and Policy Response (Beijing de Jiaoquhua ji qi Duice), Beijing, Keshui Chubanshe. Suburbanisation in Beijing and Policy Response (Beijing de Jiaoquhua ji qi Duice) Google Scholar

ZHU, J. M. (1999), ‘Local growth coalition: the context and implications of China's gradualist urban land reforms’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23, 534-48. ‘Local growth coalition: the context and implications of China's gradualist urban land reforms’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 23 534 48 Google Scholar

ALONSO, W. (1964), Location and Land Use, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Location and Land Use Google Scholar

BROWN, L. A. and MOORE, E. G. (1970), ‘The intraurban migration process: a perspective’, Geografiska Annaler, Series B, 52, 1-13. ‘The intraurban migration process: a perspective’ Geografiska Annaler, Series B 52 1 13 Google Scholar

CADWALLADER, M. (1992), Migration and Residential Mobility: Macro and Micro Approaches, Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin Press. Migration and Residential Mobility: Macro and Micro Approaches Google Scholar

CAI, Y. (1999), ‘Internal migration in Tianjin: characteristics and processes at work’ (paper presented at the International Conference on Urban Development in China in the Past Half Century: Retrospect and Prospect), Zhongshan, 6-9 December. ‘Internal migration in Tianjin: characteristics and processes at work’ Google Scholar

CAI, Y., HU, Z. and WU, Z. (1999), ‘Analysis of the characteristics and mechanisms of internal migration in Tianjin City’ (‘Tianjin chengshi neibu renkou qianju tezheng ji jizhi fenxi’) (paper presented at the International Conference on Urban Development in China in the Past Half Century: Retrospect and Prospect), Zhongshan, 6-9 December (in Chinese). ‘Analysis of the characteristics and mechanisms of internal migration in Tianjin City’ (‘Tianjin chengshi neibu renkou qianju tezheng ji jizhi fenxi’) Google Scholar

CAO, G. and CAI, Y. (1998), ‘Transformation of inner districts and suburanization in Dalian City’ (‘Dalian Shi neibu diyu zhuanxing yu jiaoquhua’), Geographical Science (Dili Keshui), 18, 234-41 (in Chinese). ‘Transformation of inner districts and suburanization in Dalian City’ (‘Dalian Shi neibu diyu zhuanxing yu jiaoquhua’) Geographical Science (Dili Keshui) 18 234 41 Google Scholar

CHIU, R. L. H. (1993), ‘China's housing reform: the experiment in Shenzhen Special Economic Zone’, Asian Geographer, 12, 47-56. ‘China's housing reform: the experiment in Shenzhen Special Economic Zone’ Asian Geographer 12 47 56 Google Scholar

CHOW, T. K. (1999), ‘China's housing provident fund: a comparative study of Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou’, (BSSc Honours Project), Department of Geography, Hong Kong Baptist University. ‘China's housing provident fund: a comparative study of Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou’ Google Scholar

CLARK, W. A. V. (1982), ‘Recent research on migration and mobility: a review and interpretation’, Progress in Planning, 18, 1-56. ‘Recent research on migration and mobility: a review and interpretation’ Progress in Planning 18 1 56 Google Scholar

DOWALL, D. E. (1993), ‘Establishing urban land markets in the People's Republic of China’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 59, 183-92. ‘Establishing urban land markets in the People's Republic of China’ Journal of the American Planning Association 59 183 92 Google Scholar

LI, S.-M. (1994), ‘The changing distribution of Hong Kong's population: an analysis of the 1991 population census’, Asian Geographer, 13, 1-16. ‘The changing distribution of Hong Kong's population: an analysis of the 1991 population census’ Asian Geographer 13 1 16 Google Scholar

LI, S.-M. (2000a), ‘Housing consumption in urban China: a comparative study of Beijing and Guangzhou’, Environment and Planning A, 22, 1115-34. ‘Housing consumption in urban China: a comparative study of Beijing and Guangzhou’ Environment and Planning A 22 1115 34 Google Scholar

LI, S.-M. (2000b), ‘The housing market and tenure decisions in Chinese cities: a multivariate analysis of the case of Guangzhou’, Housing Studies, 15, 213-36. ‘The housing market and tenure decisions in Chinese cities: a multivariate analysis of the case of Guangzhou’ Housing Studies 15 213 36 Google Scholar

LI, S.-M. and SIU, Y.-M. (1997), ‘Commodity housing in Guangzhou: an analysis of spatial development patterns and price and rent distributions’ in M. Chang et al. (eds), Economic Reforms and Social Development in Contemporary China (Dangdai Zhongguo Jingji Gaige yu Shehui Fazhan), Beijing, Tsinghua University Press, 158-76 (in Chinese). Economic Reforms and Social Development in Contemporary China (Dangdai Zhongguo Jingji Gaige yu Shehui Fazhan) 158 76 Google Scholar

LI, S.-M. and SIU, Y.-M. (2001), ‘Residential mobility and urban restructuring under market transition: a study of Guangzhou, China’, Professional Geographer, 52, 219-29. ‘Residential mobility and urban restructuring under market transition: a study of Guangzhou, China’ Professional Geographer 52 219 29 Google Scholar

LI, S.-M. and TANG, W. S. (eds) (2000), China's Regions, Polity and Economy: A Study of Spatial Transformation in the Post-Reform Era, Hong Kong, Chinese University Press. China's Regions, Polity and Economy: A Study of Spatial Transformation in the Post-Reform Era Google Scholar

LI, S.-M. and TANG, Y. H. (1998), ‘Market segmentation and consumer characteristics of commodity housing in Guangzhou: an analysis of household survey data’, Asian Geographer, 17, 69-89. ‘Market segmentation and consumer characteristics of commodity housing in Guangzhou: an analysis of household survey data’ Asian Geographer 17 69 89 Google Scholar

LO, C. P. (1980), ‘Shaping socialist Chinese cities: a model of form and land use’ in C. K. Leung and N. Ginsburg (eds), China: Urbanization and National Development, Research Paper no. 196, Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 130-55. China: Urbanization and National Development 130 55 Google Scholar

LOGAN, J. R., BIAN, Y. M. J. and BIAN, F. Q. (1999), ‘Housing inequality in urban China in the 1990s’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23, 7-15. ‘Housing inequality in urban China in the 1990s’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 23 7 15 Google Scholar

LONG, L. (1988), Migration and Residential Mobility in the United States, New York, Russell Sage Foundation. Migration and Residential Mobility in the United States Google Scholar

LU, F. (1989), ‘Work unit: a special form of social organisation’ (‘Danwei: yizhong teshu de shehui zuzhi xingsh’), China Social Sciences (Zhongguo Shehui Keshe), 1, 71-88 (in Chinese). ‘Work unit: a special form of social organisation’ (‘Danwei: yizhong teshu de shehui zuzhi xingsh’) China Social Sciences (Zhongguo Shehui Keshe) 1 71 88 Google Scholar

MUTH, R. (1969), Cities and Housing, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Cities and Housing Google Scholar

TANG, W. S. (1994), ‘Urban development under socialism: China between 1949 and 1979’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 18, 395-415. ‘Urban development under socialism: China between 1949 and 1979’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 18 395 415 Google Scholar

TANG, W. S. (1998), ‘An inquiry into urban land system reforms in Shenzhen’ in Y.-M. Yeung (ed.), Urban Development in Asia: Retrospect and Prospect, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 307-40. Urban Development in Asia: Retrospect and Prospect 307 40 Google Scholar

TEIXEIRA, C. and MURDIE, R. A. (1997), ‘The role of ethnic real estate agents in the residential relocation process: a case study of Portuguese homebuyers in suburban Toronto’, Urban Geography, 18, 497-520. ‘The role of ethnic real estate agents in the residential relocation process: a case study of Portuguese homebuyers in suburban Toronto’ Urban Geography 18 497 520 Google Scholar

WANG, Y. P. and MURIE, A. (1999), ‘Commercial housing development in urban China’, Urban Studies, 26, 1475-94. ‘Commercial housing development in urban China’ Urban Studies 26 1475 94 Google Scholar

WANG, Y. P. and MURIE, A. (2000), ‘Social and spatial implications of housing reform in China’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24, 397-417. ‘Social and spatial implications of housing reform in China’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 24 397 417 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WU, F. L. (1996), ‘Changes in the structure of housing provision in urban China’, Urban Studies, 33, 1601-29. ‘Changes in the structure of housing provision in urban China’ Urban Studies 33 1601 29 Google Scholar

WU, F. L. (1997), ‘Urban restructuring in China's emerging market economy: towards a framework for analysis’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 21, 640-63. ‘Urban restructuring in China's emerging market economy: towards a framework for analysis’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 21 640 63 Google Scholar

WU, J. (1990), Zhongguo Chengshi Xingtai: Jiegou, Tezheng ji Yanbian (China's Urban Morphology: Structure, Characteristics and Change), Nanjing, Jiangsu Keshe Jishu Chubanshe. Zhongguo Chengshi Xingtai: Jiegou, Tezheng ji Yanbian (China's Urban Morphology: Structure, Characteristics and Change) Google Scholar

XIE, J. J. (1998), ‘Accelerate housing construction and let it be a new economic growth point’ (‘Jiasu tuidong zhufang jianshe chengwei xin jingji zengzhang dian’), China Real Estate Information (Zhongguo Fangdichang Xinxi), 144, 4-6. ‘Accelerate housing construction and let it be a new economic growth point’ (‘Jiasu tuidong zhufang jianshe chengwei xin jingji zengzhang dian’) China Real Estate Information (Zhongguo Fangdichang Xinxi) 144 4 6 Google Scholar

XIE, J. J. (2000), ‘Housing system reform in China: past and future’ (paper delivered at the International Conference on Housing Policy and Practice in the Asia-Pacific), University of Hong Kong, 13-15 July. ‘Housing system reform in China: past and future’ Google Scholar

YAN, X. P. (1994), ‘New progress in China's urban geography’, Acta Geographica Sinica, 49, 533-40. ‘New progress in China's urban geography’ Acta Geographica Sinica 49 533 40 Google Scholar

YEH, A. G. O., XU, X. Q. and HU, H. Y. (1995), ‘The social space of Guangzhou City, China’, Urban Geography, 16, 595-621. ‘The social space of Guangzhou City, China’ Urban Geography 16 595 621 Google Scholar

ZHAO, F. L. (2000), ‘Policy to give real benefits to the ordinary citizens’ (‘Yong zengce gei baixing zichang shihui’), China Real Estate Information (Zhongguo Fangdichang Xinxi), 167, 1 (in Chinese). ‘Policy to give real benefits to the ordinary citizens’ (‘Yong zengce gei baixing zichang shihui’), China Real Estate Information (Zhongguo Fangdichang Xinxi) 167 1 Google Scholar

ZHOU, C. S. (1996), A Study on Population Distribution and Mobility in Large Cities Since Reform: The Case of Guangzhou City (Gaige Kaifang yilai Dadushi Renkou Renbu yu Qianyi Yanjiu: Yi Guangzhou Shi Weili), Guangzhou, Guangdong Shen Gaodeng Jiaoyu Chubanshe (in Chinese). A Study on Population Distribution and Mobility in Large Cities Since Reform: The Case of Guangzhou City (Gaige Kaifang yilai Dadushi Renkou Renbu yu Qianyi Yanjiu: Yi Guangzhou Shi Weili) Google Scholar

ZHOU, Y. X. (1996), ‘Beijing de jiaoquhua ji yinfa de sikao’ (‘Thoughts on suburbanisation in Beijing’), Acta Geographica Sinica, 16, 198-206. ‘Beijing de jiaoquhua ji yinfa de sikao’ (‘Thoughts on suburbanisation in Beijing’) Acta Geographica Sinica 16 198 206 Google Scholar

ZHOU, Y. X. and MENG, Y. C. (1997), ‘Shenyang's suburbanization’ (‘Shenyang de jiaoquhua’), Acta Geographica Sinica, 52, 289-99. ‘Shenyang's suburbanization’ (‘Shenyang de jiaoquhua’) Acta Geographica Sinica 52 289 99 Google Scholar

ZHOU, Y. X. and MENG, Y. C. (2000), Suburbanisation in Beijing and Policy Response (Beijing de Jiaoquhua ji qi Duice), Beijing, Keshui Chubanshe. Suburbanisation in Beijing and Policy Response (Beijing de Jiaoquhua ji qi Duice) Google Scholar

ZHU, J. M. (1999), ‘Local growth coalition: the context and implications of China's gradualist urban land reforms’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23, 534-48. ‘Local growth coalition: the context and implications of China's gradualist urban land reforms’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 23 534 48 Google Scholar

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Li, Si-Ming

Siu, Yat-Ming