International Development Planning Review

Best practice post-disaster housing and livelihood recovery interventions: winners and losers

International Development Planning Review (2015), 37, (2), 165–185.

Abstract

A review of the recent post-disaster recovery interventions in developing countries shows convergent trends in policies and practices. The World Bank has been in a position to exert its influence on post-disaster housing and livelihood recovery interventions, which has resulted in converging policies and practices. This paper focuses on the nexus between housing and livelihood recovery after disasters, highlighting the importance of rethinking the existing sector-based disaster recovery interventions. Focusing on the case studies of the 2001 earthquake in Bhuj, Gujarat, and 2003 earthquake in Bam, Iran, and drawing on subsequent major disasters in Sri Lanka and Pakistan, the article analyses a number of shortcomings in knowledge transfer on post-disaster housing and livelihood recovery. This knowledge transfer has rarely exposed and discussed the limitations of these policies, the gaps in knowledge concerning the impacts of these polices or the lessons learned about recurring problems arising from the interpretation and implementation of these policies. More importantly, the article discusses how the prescriptive nature of best practice housing recovery and the sector-based structure of recovery interventions overlook the needs and priorities of households and impact on their ability to achieve recovery.

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BOLIN, R. and BOLTON, P. (1983), ‘Recovery in Nicaragua and the USA’, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 1, 125–45. Recovery in Nicaragua and the USA International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 1 125 45 Google Scholar

BURNS, T. and TIWARI, D. (2008), ‘Post-disaster land issues: case study of the 2001 earthquake in Gujarat, India’ (case study), Post-Disaster Land case Studies, Global Land Tool Network, available at: http://www.gltn.net/en/general/post-disaster-land-guidelines.html (accessed April 2013). Google Scholar

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DAVIS, I. (2011b), ‘What have we learned from 40 years’ experience of disaster shelter?’, Environmental Hazards, 10, 193–212. What have we learned from 40 years’ experience of disaster shelter? Environmental Hazards 10 193 212 Google Scholar

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FREEMAN, P. K. (2004), ‘Allocation of post-disaster reconstruction financing to housing’, Building Research and Information, 32, 427–37. Allocation of post-disaster reconstruction financing to housing Building Research and Information 32 427 37 Google Scholar

GANAPATI, N. E. and GANAPATI, S. (2008), ‘Enabling participatory planning after disasters: a case study of the World Bank’s housing reconstruction in Turkey’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 75, 41–59. Enabling participatory planning after disasters: a case study of the World Bank’s housing reconstruction in Turkey Journal of the American Planning Association 75 41 59 Google Scholar

GANAPATI, N. E. and MUKHERJI, A. (2014), ‘Out of sync: World Bank funding for housing recovery, post-disaster planning and participation’, Natural Hazards Review, 15, 58–73. Out of sync: World Bank funding for housing recovery, post-disaster planning and participation Natural Hazards Review 15 58 73 Google Scholar

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KARUNASENA, G. (2010), ‘Post-disaster housing reconstruction: comparative study of donor vs owner-driven approaches’, International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 1, 173–91. Post-disaster housing reconstruction: comparative study of donor vs owner-driven approaches International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment 1 173 91 Google Scholar

KHASALAMWA, S. (2009), ‘Is “build back better” a response to vulnerability? Analysis of the post-tsunami humanitarian interventions in Sri Lanka’, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift-Norwegian Journal of Geography, 63, 73–88. Is “build back better” a response to vulnerability? Analysis of the post-tsunami humanitarian interventions in Sri Lanka Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift-Norwegian Journal of Geography 63 73 88 Google Scholar

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McFARLANE, C. (2006), ‘Knowledge, learning and development: a post-rationalist approach’, Progress in Development Studies, 6, 287–305. Knowledge, learning and development: a post-rationalist approach Progress in Development Studies 6 287 305 Google Scholar

MULLIGAN, M. and NADARAJAH, Y. (2012), ‘Rebuilding community in the wake of disaster: lessons from the recovery from the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka and India’, Community Development Journal, 47, 353–68. Rebuilding community in the wake of disaster: lessons from the recovery from the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka and India Community Development Journal 47 353 68 Google Scholar

OMIDVAR, B., ZAFARI, H. and DERAKHSHAN, S. (2010), ‘Reconstruction management policies in residential and commercial sectors after the 2003 Bam earthquake in Iran’, Natural Hazards, 54, 289–306. Reconstruction management policies in residential and commercial sectors after the 2003 Bam earthquake in Iran Natural Hazards 54 289 306 Google Scholar

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REGNIER, P., NERI, B., SCUTERI, S. and MINIATI, S. (2008), ‘From emergency relief to livelihood recovery: lessons learned from post-tsunami experiences in Indonesia and India’, Disaster Prevention and Management, 17, 410–29. From emergency relief to livelihood recovery: lessons learned from post-tsunami experiences in Indonesia and India Disaster Prevention and Management 17 410 29 Google Scholar

SANDERSON, D. (2001), ‘Urban livelihoods and natural disasters’ (report), London, CARE International, available at: www.radixonline.org/resources/sanderson.doc (accessed March 2012). Google Scholar

SANDERSON, D. and SHARMA, A. (2008), ‘Winners and losers from the 2001 Gujarat earthquake’, Environment and Urbanization, 20, 177-186. Winners and losers from the 2001 Gujarat earthquake Environment and Urbanization 20 177 186 Google Scholar

SCI (STATISTICAL CENTRE OF IRAN) (2011), ‘National population and housing census’ (SCI – provincial data – Kerman Province), available at: http://www.amar.org.ir/Default.aspx?tabid=1536 (accessed May 2013). Google Scholar

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TAHERI TAFTI, M. (2012), ‘Limitations of the owner-driven model in post-disaster housing reconstruction in urban settlements’ (paper presented at the procedings of the International conference on Disaster Management (IIIRR), Kumamoto, 24–26 August). Limitations of the owner-driven model in post-disaster housing reconstruction in urban settlements Google Scholar

TAHERI TAFTI, M. and TOMLINSON, R. (2013), ‘The role of post-disaster public policy responses in housing recovery of tenants’, Habitat International, 40, 218–24. The role of post-disaster public policy responses in housing recovery of tenants Habitat International 40 218 24 Google Scholar

TODD, D. and TODD, H. (2011), ‘Natural disaster response lessons from evaluations of the World Bank and others’ (Evaluation Brief Paper No. 16), Washington, DC, Independent Evaluation Group communications, Learning, and Strategy, The World Bank, available at: http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/6E05ABFAE2ED2cF58525794400774EAE/$file/eval_brief_nat_disaster_response.pdf (accessed June 2014). Google Scholar

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UNISDR (UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION SECRETARIAT) (2010), ‘Guidance note on recovery: livelihood’ (guidance note), Kobe, Japan, International Recovery Platform (IRP), United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Secretariat (UNISDR), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), available at: http://www.unisdr.org/files/16771_16771guidancenoteonrecoveryliv eliho.pdf (accessed December 2012). Google Scholar

VIRMANI, S. (2010), ‘compounding disasters, first natural, then man-made: failed interventions we can learn from’, in S. B. Patel and A. Revi (eds), Recovering From Earthquakes: Response, Reconstruction, and Impact Mitigation in India, New Delhi, New York, NY, Routledge, 142–58. compounding disasters, first natural, then man-made: failed interventions we can learn from Recovering From Earthquakes: Response, Reconstruction, and Impact Mitigation in India 142 58 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2005), ‘Project performance assessment report: Turkey earthquake rehabilitation and reconstruction project, Turkey emergency flood and earthquake recovery project’ (project evaluation report), Washington, DC, Operations Evaluation Department, World Bank, available at: http://ieg.worldbank.org/Data/reports/ppar_32676.pdf (accessed May 2014). Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2007a), ‘Toward a new framework for rapid bank response to crises and emergencies’ (rapid response paper), Washington, DC, Operations Policy and country Services, The World Bank, available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PROJECTS/Resources/40940-1205169918173/Rapidresponseboardpaper.pdf (accessed May 2014). Google Scholar

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WORLD BANK (2009a), ‘Implementation completion and results report - Sri Lanka Tsunami ERL’ (report for the South Asia region), Washington, DC, Sustainable Development Department, Urban and Water Unit, The World Bank, available at: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDScontentServer/WDSP/IB/2009/08/09/000333037_20090809235548/Rendered/PDF/ICR11050P09420101Offcial0Use0Only1.pdf (accessed May 2014). Google Scholar

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WORLD BANK (2014), ‘Projects and operations’ (projects), Washington, DC, The World Bank, available at: http://www.worldbank.org/projects (accessed July 2014). Google Scholar

AHMED, I. (2011), ‘An overview of post-disaster permanent housing reconstruction in developing countries’, International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 2, 148–64. An overview of post-disaster permanent housing reconstruction in developing countries International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment 2 148 64 Google Scholar

BARAKAT, S. (2003), ‘Housing reconstruction after conflict and disaster’ (Network Paper No. 43), London, HPN (Humanitarian Practice Network), available at: http://www.odihpn.org/documents/networkpaper043.pdf (accessed May 2010). Google Scholar

BARENSTEIN, J. D. (2010), ‘Who governs reconsrtuction? changes and continuity in policies, practices and outcomes’, in G. Lizarralde, c. Johnson and c. Davidson (eds), Rebuilding After Disasters: From Emergency to Sustainability, New York, NY, Spon Press, 149–76. Who governs reconsrtuction? changes and continuity in policies, practices and outcomes Rebuilding After Disasters: From Emergency to Sustainability 149 76 Google Scholar

BARENSTEIN, J. D. and IYENGAR, S. (2010), ‘India: from a culture of housing to a phylosophy of reconstruction’, in M. Lyons and T. Schilderman (eds), Building Back Better: Delivering People-Centred Housing Reconstruction at Scale, Warwickshire, Practical Action, 163–88. India: from a culture of housing to a phylosophy of reconstruction Building Back Better: Delivering People-Centred Housing Reconstruction at Scale 163 88 Google Scholar

BATES, F. L. and PEACOCK, W. G. (1993), Living Conditions, Disasters, and Development: An Approach to Cross-Cultural Comparisons, Athens, GA, University of Georgia Press. Living Conditions, Disasters, and Development: An Approach to Cross-Cultural Comparisons Google Scholar

BOLIN, R. (1982), Long-Term Family Recovery From Disaster, Colorado, CO, University of Colorado Press. Long-Term Family Recovery From Disaster Google Scholar

BOLIN, R. and BOLTON, P. (1983), ‘Recovery in Nicaragua and the USA’, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 1, 125–45. Recovery in Nicaragua and the USA International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 1 125 45 Google Scholar

BURNS, T. and TIWARI, D. (2008), ‘Post-disaster land issues: case study of the 2001 earthquake in Gujarat, India’ (case study), Post-Disaster Land case Studies, Global Land Tool Network, available at: http://www.gltn.net/en/general/post-disaster-land-guidelines.html (accessed April 2013). Google Scholar

DAVIS, I. (2011a), ‘Reducing disaster risks 1980–2010: some reflections and speculations’, Environmental Hazards, 10, 80–92. Reducing disaster risks 1980–2010: some reflections and speculations Environmental Hazards 10 80 92 Google Scholar

DAVIS, I. (2011b), ‘What have we learned from 40 years’ experience of disaster shelter?’, Environmental Hazards, 10, 193–212. What have we learned from 40 years’ experience of disaster shelter? Environmental Hazards 10 193 212 Google Scholar

DHARMAVARAM, S. (2013), ‘Land Value capture in Urban DRM Programs’ (DRM knowledge notes, Working Paper Series No. 26), Washington, DC, The World Bank, available at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/16113/805830Brief0260Box0379807B00PUBLIc0.txt?sequence=2 (accessed 26 June 2014). Google Scholar

ELLERMAN, D. P. (2005), Helping People Help Themselves: From the World Bank to an Alternative Philosophy of Development Assistance, Ann Arbor, MI, University of Michigan Press. Helping People Help Themselves: From the World Bank to an Alternative Philosophy of Development Assistance Google Scholar

FREEMAN, P. K. (2004), ‘Allocation of post-disaster reconstruction financing to housing’, Building Research and Information, 32, 427–37. Allocation of post-disaster reconstruction financing to housing Building Research and Information 32 427 37 Google Scholar

GANAPATI, N. E. and GANAPATI, S. (2008), ‘Enabling participatory planning after disasters: a case study of the World Bank’s housing reconstruction in Turkey’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 75, 41–59. Enabling participatory planning after disasters: a case study of the World Bank’s housing reconstruction in Turkey Journal of the American Planning Association 75 41 59 Google Scholar

GANAPATI, N. E. and MUKHERJI, A. (2014), ‘Out of sync: World Bank funding for housing recovery, post-disaster planning and participation’, Natural Hazards Review, 15, 58–73. Out of sync: World Bank funding for housing recovery, post-disaster planning and participation Natural Hazards Review 15 58 73 Google Scholar

GHARAATI-KOPAEI, M. (2009), ‘Knowledge transfer in post-disaster reconstruction: the problem of post-post-disaster reconstruction’ (Doctor of Philosophy in Architecture thesis), Montreal, McGill University. Knowledge transfer in post-disaster reconstruction: the problem of post-post-disaster reconstruction Google Scholar

HARVEY, P. (2005), ‘cash and vouchers in emergencies’ (HPG Discussion Paper), London, ODI (Overseas Development Institute), available at: http://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/432.pdf (accessed 14 February 2014). Google Scholar

HELTBERG, R. (2007), ‘Helping South Asia cope better with natural disasters: the role of social protection’, Development Policy Review, 25, 681–98. Helping South Asia cope better with natural disasters: the role of social protection Development Policy Review 25 681 98 Google Scholar

IEG (INDEPENDENT EVALUATION GROUP) (2006), ‘Hazards of nature, risks to development: an IEG evaluation of World Bank assitance for natural disasters’ (IEG evaluation), Washington, DC, The World Bank, available at: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDScontentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/06/29/000160016_20060629133433/Rendered/PDF/366150Hazards0and0risks01PUBLIc1.pdf (accessed May 2012). Google Scholar

JHA, A. K., BARENSTEIN, J. D., PHELPS, P. M., PITTET, D. and SENA, S. (2010), Safer Homes, Stronger Communities: A Handbook for Reconstructing After Natural Disasters, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Safer Homes, Stronger Communities: A Handbook for Reconstructing After Natural Disasters Google Scholar

KARUNASENA, G. (2010), ‘Post-disaster housing reconstruction: comparative study of donor vs owner-driven approaches’, International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 1, 173–91. Post-disaster housing reconstruction: comparative study of donor vs owner-driven approaches International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment 1 173 91 Google Scholar

KHASALAMWA, S. (2009), ‘Is “build back better” a response to vulnerability? Analysis of the post-tsunami humanitarian interventions in Sri Lanka’, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift-Norwegian Journal of Geography, 63, 73–88. Is “build back better” a response to vulnerability? Analysis of the post-tsunami humanitarian interventions in Sri Lanka Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift-Norwegian Journal of Geography 63 73 88 Google Scholar

LESTER, R. (2003), ‘Applicability of corporate risk management techniques to catastrophe risk management at the country level’ (paper presented at the conference, Financing the Risks of Natural Disasters: A New Perspective on country Risk Management, Washington, DC, 2–3 June 2003), available at: http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/158277/natdisaster/agenda.html (accessed 12 February 2014). Google Scholar

LYONS, M. (2009), ‘Building back better: the large-scale impact of small-scale approaches to reconstruction’, World Development, 37, 358–98. Building back better: the large-scale impact of small-scale approaches to reconstruction World Development 37 358 98 Google Scholar

McFARLANE, C. (2006), ‘Knowledge, learning and development: a post-rationalist approach’, Progress in Development Studies, 6, 287–305. Knowledge, learning and development: a post-rationalist approach Progress in Development Studies 6 287 305 Google Scholar

MULLIGAN, M. and NADARAJAH, Y. (2012), ‘Rebuilding community in the wake of disaster: lessons from the recovery from the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka and India’, Community Development Journal, 47, 353–68. Rebuilding community in the wake of disaster: lessons from the recovery from the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka and India Community Development Journal 47 353 68 Google Scholar

OMIDVAR, B., ZAFARI, H. and DERAKHSHAN, S. (2010), ‘Reconstruction management policies in residential and commercial sectors after the 2003 Bam earthquake in Iran’, Natural Hazards, 54, 289–306. Reconstruction management policies in residential and commercial sectors after the 2003 Bam earthquake in Iran Natural Hazards 54 289 306 Google Scholar

QUARANTELLI, E. L. (1999), ‘The disaster recovery process: what we know and do not know from research’ (Working Paper), Disaster Research center, The University of Delaware, Disaster Research center, Ohio State University, available at: http://udspace.udel.edu/handle/19716/309 (accessed May 2010). Google Scholar

REGNIER, P., NERI, B., SCUTERI, S. and MINIATI, S. (2008), ‘From emergency relief to livelihood recovery: lessons learned from post-tsunami experiences in Indonesia and India’, Disaster Prevention and Management, 17, 410–29. From emergency relief to livelihood recovery: lessons learned from post-tsunami experiences in Indonesia and India Disaster Prevention and Management 17 410 29 Google Scholar

SANDERSON, D. (2001), ‘Urban livelihoods and natural disasters’ (report), London, CARE International, available at: www.radixonline.org/resources/sanderson.doc (accessed March 2012). Google Scholar

SANDERSON, D. and SHARMA, A. (2008), ‘Winners and losers from the 2001 Gujarat earthquake’, Environment and Urbanization, 20, 177-186. Winners and losers from the 2001 Gujarat earthquake Environment and Urbanization 20 177 186 Google Scholar

SCI (STATISTICAL CENTRE OF IRAN) (2011), ‘National population and housing census’ (SCI – provincial data – Kerman Province), available at: http://www.amar.org.ir/Default.aspx?tabid=1536 (accessed May 2013). Google Scholar

STRAND, A. and BORCHGREVINK, K. (2006), ‘Review of Norwegian earthquake assistance to Pakistan 2005 and 2006’ (cMI reports), Bergen, CMI chR, Michelsen Institute, available at: http://bora.cmi.no/dspace/bitstream/10202/86/1/Report%20R%202006-18.pdf (accessed June 2014). Google Scholar

TAHERI TAFTI, M. (2012), ‘Limitations of the owner-driven model in post-disaster housing reconstruction in urban settlements’ (paper presented at the procedings of the International conference on Disaster Management (IIIRR), Kumamoto, 24–26 August). Limitations of the owner-driven model in post-disaster housing reconstruction in urban settlements Google Scholar

TAHERI TAFTI, M. and TOMLINSON, R. (2013), ‘The role of post-disaster public policy responses in housing recovery of tenants’, Habitat International, 40, 218–24. The role of post-disaster public policy responses in housing recovery of tenants Habitat International 40 218 24 Google Scholar

TODD, D. and TODD, H. (2011), ‘Natural disaster response lessons from evaluations of the World Bank and others’ (Evaluation Brief Paper No. 16), Washington, DC, Independent Evaluation Group communications, Learning, and Strategy, The World Bank, available at: http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/6E05ABFAE2ED2cF58525794400774EAE/$file/eval_brief_nat_disaster_response.pdf (accessed June 2014). Google Scholar

TOMLINSON, R. (2015), ‘Introduction: “best practice” in development planning: products, processes and networks’, International Development Planning Review, 37, 119–28. Introduction: “best practice” in development planning: products, processes and networks International Development Planning Review 37 119 28 Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2007), ‘Building back better in Pakistan’ (paper presented at the twenty-first session of the governing council, Nairobi, UN-Habitat, 16–20 April), available at: http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/4627_75789_Gc%2021%20Financing%20Field%20Report%20Pakistan.pdf (accessed April 2012). Google Scholar

UNISDR (UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION SECRETARIAT) (2010), ‘Guidance note on recovery: livelihood’ (guidance note), Kobe, Japan, International Recovery Platform (IRP), United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Secretariat (UNISDR), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), available at: http://www.unisdr.org/files/16771_16771guidancenoteonrecoveryliv eliho.pdf (accessed December 2012). Google Scholar

VIRMANI, S. (2010), ‘compounding disasters, first natural, then man-made: failed interventions we can learn from’, in S. B. Patel and A. Revi (eds), Recovering From Earthquakes: Response, Reconstruction, and Impact Mitigation in India, New Delhi, New York, NY, Routledge, 142–58. compounding disasters, first natural, then man-made: failed interventions we can learn from Recovering From Earthquakes: Response, Reconstruction, and Impact Mitigation in India 142 58 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2005), ‘Project performance assessment report: Turkey earthquake rehabilitation and reconstruction project, Turkey emergency flood and earthquake recovery project’ (project evaluation report), Washington, DC, Operations Evaluation Department, World Bank, available at: http://ieg.worldbank.org/Data/reports/ppar_32676.pdf (accessed May 2014). Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2007a), ‘Toward a new framework for rapid bank response to crises and emergencies’ (rapid response paper), Washington, DC, Operations Policy and country Services, The World Bank, available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PROJECTS/Resources/40940-1205169918173/Rapidresponseboardpaper.pdf (accessed May 2014). Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2007b), ‘The World Bank operation manual - emergency recovery assistance (revised in 2013)’ (operation manual), Washington, DC, The World Bank, available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/OPSMANUAL/Resources/EntireOM_External.pdf (accessed May 2014). Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2009a), ‘Implementation completion and results report - Sri Lanka Tsunami ERL’ (report for the South Asia region), Washington, DC, Sustainable Development Department, Urban and Water Unit, The World Bank, available at: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDScontentServer/WDSP/IB/2009/08/09/000333037_20090809235548/Rendered/PDF/ICR11050P09420101Offcial0Use0Only1.pdf (accessed May 2014). Google Scholar

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Author details

Tafti, Mojgan Taheri

Tomlinson, Richard

Tafti, Mojgan Taheri

Tomlinson, Richard