International Development Planning Review

Does Shanghai have slums?

International Development Planning Review (2012), 34, (2), 0

Abstract

The origin of this Viewpoint lies in years of teaching slum upgrading and being asked, if there are not slums in Shanghai, why this is the case, and whether Shanghai is likely to have slums in the future. The questions are addressed in relation to access to improved water and sanitation, the lack of either being used by UN-HABITAT to identify a slum. The Viewpoint has three parts. The first explains the focus on household formation and household services connections. The second discusses the scale, rate, timing and projections of increased demand for services connections. The third explores the urban fringe and inner suburbs for slums and the potential for slum formation. I conclude that the foremost explanation for the absence of slums are the pace and scale of urban redevelopment together with the incorporation of urban villages, both set against Shanghai^s slow increase in household formation.

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CHEN, L. (2009), ‘Financing for urban development of Shanghai’ (unpublished draft paper, October). Shanghai Municipal Finance Bureau. http://www.afdc.org.cn/afdc/Upload-File/2009112335459533.pdf Google Scholar

CHINA TIMES (11 February 2011), ‘Shanghai Woos Migrant Workers as It Faces Workforce Shortage’. http://www.wantchinatimes.com/news-subclass-cnt.aspx?cid=1102&MainCatID=11&id=20110211000017 Google Scholar

CITIES ALLIANCE (2011), ‘Slum Upgrading’ http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/slum_upgrading Google Scholar

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FANG, C. and YANG, D. (eds) (2009), The China Population and Labor Yearbook, Volume 1. The Approaching Lewis Turning Point and Its Policy Implications. The Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences Yearbooks: Population and Labor. Leiden: Brill. The China Population and Labor Yearbook, Volume 1. The Approaching Lewis Turning Point and Its Policy Implications. The Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences Yearbooks: Population and Labor Google Scholar

GILBERT, A. (2007), ‘The return of the slum: does language matter?’, International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, 31, 697-713. ‘The return of the slum: does language matter?’ International Journal of Urban & Regional Research 31 697 713 Google Scholar

HAO, O., SIUZAS, R. and GEERTMAN, S. (2009), ‘The development and redevelopment of urban villages in Shenzhen’, Habitat International, 35, 246-55. ‘The development and redevelopment of urban villages in Shenzhen’ Habitat International 35 246 55 Google Scholar

LEE, S. (2007), ‘Public-private partnership in the urban water sector of Shanghai’, in F. Wu (ed.), China^s emerging cities: the making of new urbanism, New York, NY, Routledge Contemporary China Series, 44-65. China^s emerging cities: the making of new urbanism 44 65 Google Scholar

JIANG, L. (2006), ‘Living conditions of the floating population in urban China’, Housing Studies, 21, 719-44. ‘Living conditions of the floating population in urban China’ Housing Studies 21 719 44 Google Scholar

JING, FU (2010), ‘Urban-rural income gap widest since opening-up’, China Daily, 2 March, 2 2010 http://www.cdeclips.com/en/nation/fullstory.html?id=40254 Google Scholar

LIU, Y., HE, S., WU, F. and WEBSTER, C. (2010), ‘Urban villages under China^s rapid urbanization: unregulated assets and transitional neighbourhoods’, Habitat International, 34, 135-44. ‘Urban villages under China^s rapid urbanization: unregulated assets and transitional neighbourhoods’ Habitat International 34 135 44 Google Scholar

MEN, K., ZHOU, P., LIU, J. and JIANG, L. (2009), ‘Research on prediction of Shanghai^s population development: from 2008 to 2050’, Journal of Sustainable Development, 1, 34-40. ‘Research on prediction of Shanghai^s population development: from 2008 to 2050’ Journal of Sustainable Development 1 34 40 Google Scholar

SINGH, P. (2010), ‘Employment situation in Mumbai: an analysis’ (paper delivered at the Global Labour Conference, Berlin, 14-16 September). ‘Employment situation in Mumbai: an analysis’ Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

THE WORLD BANK (2006), Brazil: inputs for a strategy for cities a contribution with a focus on cities and municipalities (in volume I: Main Report, Report No. 35749-BR) http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/12/05/000090341_20061205145849/Rendered/PDF/357490v1.pdf Google Scholar

TIAN, L. (2008), ‘The Chengzhongcun land market in China: Boon or bane? A perspective on property rights’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 32, 282-304. ‘The Chengzhongcun land market in China: Boon or bane? A perspective on property rights’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 32 282 304 Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2003), Slums of the World: The Face of Urban Poverty in the New Millennium? Nairobi. http://www.unhabitat.org/pmss/listItemDetails.aspx?publicationID=1124 Google Scholar

WONG, T., YEOW, M. and ZHU, X. (2005), ‘Building a global city: negotiating the massive influx of floating population in Shanghai’, Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 20, 21-50. ‘Building a global city: negotiating the massive influx of floating population in Shanghai’ Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 20 21 50 Google Scholar

WU, F. (2004), ‘Urban poverty and marginalization under market transition: the case of Chinese cities’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28, 401-23. ‘Urban poverty and marginalization under market transition: the case of Chinese cities’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 28 401 23 Google Scholar

WU, F. (2007), ‘Beyond gradualism: China^s urban revolution and emerging cities’, in Wu, F. (ed.), China^s Emerging Cities: The Making of New Urbanism, New York, NY, Routledge Contemporary China Series, 3-25 China^s Emerging Cities: The Making of New Urbanism 3 25 Google Scholar

WU, F., HE, S. and WEBSTER, C. (2010), ‘Path dependency and the neighbourhood effect: urban poverty in impoverished neighbourhoods in Chinese cities’, Environment and Planning A, 42, 134-52. ‘Path dependency and the neighbourhood effect: urban poverty in impoverished neighbourhoods in Chinese cities’ Environment and Planning A 42 134 52 Google Scholar

WU, W. (2004), ‘Sources of migrant housing disadvantage in urban China’, Environment and Planning A, 36, 1285-304. ‘Sources of migrant housing disadvantage in urban China’ Environment and Planning A 36 1285 304 Google Scholar

WU, W. (2008), ‘Migrant settlement and spatial distribution in Shanghai’, The Professional Geographer, 60, 101-20. ‘Migrant settlement and spatial distribution in Shanghai’ The Professional Geographer 60 101 20 Google Scholar

XU, Y., TANG, B. and CHAN, E. (2011), ‘State-led land requisition and transformation of rural villages in transitional China’, Habitat International, 35, 57-65. ‘State-led land requisition and transformation of rural villages in transitional China’ Habitat International 35 57 65 Google Scholar

YUSUF, S. (2008), ‘China urbanizes: consequences, strategies and policies’, China Urban Development Quarterly, 5, 8-10. ‘China urbanizes: consequences, strategies and policies’ China Urban Development Quarterly 5 8 10 Google Scholar

YUSUF, S. and NABESHIMA, K. (2006), China^s Development Priorities. Washington, DC, The World Bank. China^s Development Priorities Google Scholar

YUSUF, S. and SAICH, T. (eds) (2008), China urbanizes: consequences, strategies and policies. Washington, DC, The World Bank. China urbanizes: consequences, strategies and policies Google Scholar

ZHANG, H. and JIA, J. (2006), ‘The latent pressure from the urban "slums" in China and the mechanism for its elimination’, Journal of Yunnan Normal University (Humanities and Social Sciences), 38, 4, 35-38. ‘The latent pressure from the urban "slums" in China and the mechanism for its elimination’ Journal of Yunnan Normal University (Humanities and Social Sciences) 38 35 38 Google Scholar

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Tomlinson, Richard