Europe's metropolitan city-regions face considerable challenges from China's rapid economic growth.
This article first reviews the development of metropolitan concentration, spacial specialisation and
fragmentation and polarisation in Europe. It then considers the nature of specific Chinese challenges
to these metropolitan areas (such as the implications for the labour market, motor vehicle production
location and tourism), before exploring three scenarios: 'China after the Olympics', 'Slowpark Europe'
and 'Chinese–European partnership'. The article ends with some policy conclusions, including the need
for better understanding, the development of risk-minimising strategies to balance local, regional and
global concerns, and exploring new paths to a socially as well as economically sustainable future through
the European 'social model'.