Contemporary French Civilization

From the torture chamber to the bedchamber: French soldiers, antiwar activists, and the discourse of sexual deviancy in the Algerian War (1954-1962)

Contemporary French Civilization (2013), 38, (2), 131–153.

Abstract

This article examines French antiwar activists' use of the language of sexual deviancy to condemn the practice of torture by France's military during the Algerian War (1954-1962). Many metropolitan opponents of the conflict charged that Frenchmen who participated in the "intimate" atrocities of the torture chamber were taking perverse pleasure in their brutal work, then returning home to France suffering from a "sexual disorder" or a "militarized sexuality" that rendered them unfit for heteronormative family life. The article traces the distinct forms that the rhetoric of soldierly sexual deviance took in the political writings of various metropolitan activists, including left-wing Catholics, the editorial team of the popular weekly L'Express, and radicalized veteran paratroopers. It also attempts to account for the prevalence of such rhetoric across otherwise very different texts. The charge that torturers would bring diseased, sadistic sexuality "home" to their families functioned as a way of expressing growing anxiety that the violence of the Algerian War was leaking into the French domestic sphere - that is, contaminating the metropolitan body politic. This strategically powerful but ideologically problematic idiom relied on a logic of displacement: it quietly shifted readers' attention away from the suffering of Algerian victims to portray French torturers themselves, their wives, and their families as the ultimate casualties of the torture regime. For French audiences reluctant to be moved to outrage by abuses committed against so-called Muslim "terrorists," activists offered tropes of sadistic bodily intimacy, disrupted family attachments, and perverted domesticity as a means to highlight the damage done to France itself in allowing torture to continue. A final section of the article builds on Frantz Fanon's remarkable contemporary critique of this discourse to consider some of its lasting ethical and political implications.

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Bergner, Gwen. "Politics and Pathologies: On the Subject of Race in Psychoanalysis." Frantz Fanon: Critical Perspectives. Ed. Anthony C. Alessandrini. New York: Routledge, 1999. 219-236. Frantz Fanon: Critical Perspectives 219 236 Google Scholar

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Bonnaud, Robert. "La Paix des Nementchas." Esprit. Apr. 1957: 580-592. La Paix des Nementchas Esprit. 580 592 Google Scholar

Boudot, Pierre. L'Algérie mal enchaînée. Paris: Gallimard, 1961. L'Algérie mal enchaînée Google Scholar

Branche, Raphaëlle. "Des viols pendant la guerre d'Algérie." Vingtième Siècle 75 (2002): 123-132. Des viols pendant la guerre d'Algérie Vingtième Siècle 75 123 132 Google Scholar

Chapeu, Sybille. Des chrétiens dans la guerre d'Algérie: L'action de la Mission de France. Paris: Atelier, 2004. Des chrétiens dans la guerre d'Algérie: L'action de la Mission de France Google Scholar

Clancy-Smith, Julia. "Islam, Gender, and Identities in the Making of French Algeria, 1830-1962." Domesticating the Empire: Race, Gender, and Family Life in French and Dutch Colonialism. Ed. Julia Clancy-Smith and Frances Gouda. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1998. 154-174. Domesticating the Empire: Race, Gender, and Family Life in French and Dutch Colonialism 154 174 Google Scholar

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Dean, Carolyn J. The Frail Social Body: Pornography, Homosexuality, and Other Fantasies in Interwar France. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000. The Frail Social Body: Pornography, Homosexuality, and Other Fantasies in Interwar France Google Scholar

Dine, Philip. Images of the Algerian War: French Fiction and Film, 1954-1992. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. Images of the Algerian War: French Fiction and Film, 1954-1992 Google Scholar

Djebar, Assia. L'Amour, la fantasia. Paris: Jean-Claude Lattès, 1985. L'Amour, la fantasia Google Scholar

Domenach, Jean-Marie. "Démoralisation de la nation." Esprit. Apr. 1957: 577-579. Démoralisation de la nation Esprit. 577 579 Google Scholar

Evans, Martin. The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the Algerian War (1954-1962). Oxford: Berg, 1997. The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the Algerian War (1954-1962) Google Scholar

Fanon, Frantz. Les Damnés de la terre. 1961. Paris: Maspero, 1970. Les Damnés de la terre Google Scholar

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Giroud, Françoise. "La lettre de l'Express." L'Express 16 Aug. 1957. La lettre de l'Express L'Express Google Scholar

"La guerre fait autant de mal à ceux qui la font qu'à ceux qui la subissent." Témoignage Chrétien 16 Sept. 1960: 1. Google Scholar

Haddour, Azzedine. "Torture Unveiled." Theory, Culture & Society 27.7-8 (2011): 66-90. Torture Unveiled Theory, Culture & Society 27 66 90 Google Scholar

Harrison, Martin. "Government and Press in France during the Algerian War." American Political Science Review 58.2 (1964): 273-285. Government and Press in France during the Algerian War American Political Science Review 58 273 285 Google Scholar

Hewitt, Andrew. Political Inversions: Homosexuality, Fascism, and the Modernist Imaginary. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1996. Political Inversions: Homosexuality, Fascism, and the Modernist Imaginary Google Scholar

Jauffret, Jean-Charles. Soldats en Algérie, 1954-1962: Expériences contrastées des hommes du contingent. Paris: Éditions Autrement, 2000. Soldats en Algérie, 1954-1962: Expériences contrastées des hommes du contingent Google Scholar

Jobs, Richard I. Riding the New Wave: Youth and the Rejuvenation of France after the Second World War. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009. Riding the New Wave: Youth and the Rejuvenation of France after the Second World War Google Scholar

Kaplan, Alice. The Collaborator: The Trial and Execution of Robert Brasillach. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. The Collaborator: The Trial and Execution of Robert Brasillach Google Scholar

Kawash, Samira. "Terrorists and Vampires: Fanon's Spectral Violence of Decolonization." Frantz Fanon: Critical Perspectives. Ed. Anthony C. Alessandrini. New York: Routledge, 1999. 237-260. Frantz Fanon: Critical Perspectives 237 260 Google Scholar

Kelly, Tobias. This Side of Silence: Human Rights, Torture, and the Recognition of Cruelty. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. This Side of Silence: Human Rights, Torture, and the Recognition of Cruelty Google Scholar

Khanna, Ranjana. Algeria Cuts: Women and Representation, 1830 to the Present. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008. Algeria Cuts: Women and Representation, 1830 to the Present Google Scholar

LaCapra, Dominick. Writing History, Writing Trauma. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001. Writing History, Writing Trauma Google Scholar

Lazreg, Marnia. Torture and the Twilight of Empire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008. Torture and the Twilight of Empire Google Scholar

Le Sueur, James. Uncivil War: Intellectuals and Identity Politics During the Decolonization of Algeria. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. Uncivil War: Intellectuals and Identity Politics During the Decolonization of Algeria Google Scholar

Leulliette, Pierre. Saint Michel et le dragon: Souvenirs d'un parachutiste. Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1961. Saint Michel et le dragon: Souvenirs d'un parachutiste Google Scholar

MacMaster, Neil. Burning the Veil: The Algerian War and the "Emancipation" of Algerian Women. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Burning the Veil: The Algerian War and the "Emancipation" of Algerian Women Google Scholar

Martelet, Gustave. "Réflexions pastorales sur le problème de la torture et les fins de la guerre." Témoignages et documents 4 (1958): 4-5. Réflexions pastorales sur le problème de la torture et les fins de la guerre Témoignages et documents 4 4 5 Google Scholar

Martin-Chauffier, Louis. Algérie an VII. L'Examen des consciences. Paris: Julliard, 1961. Algérie an VII. L'Examen des consciences Google Scholar

Martin-Chauffier, Louis. "Journal de voyage en marge d'une enquěte (III)" Saturne 17 (1958): 8-23. Journal de voyage en marge d'une enquěte (III) Saturne 17 8 23 Google Scholar

Mattei, Georges-Mathieu. "La Génération algérienne." Esprit May 1958: 818-824. La Génération algérienne Esprit 818 824 Google Scholar

Meyers, Mark. "Feminizing Fascist Men: Crowd Psychology, Gender, and Sexuality in French Antifascism, 1929-1945." French Historical Studies 29.1 (2006): 109-142. Feminizing Fascist Men: Crowd Psychology, Gender, and Sexuality in French Antifascism, 1929-1945 French Historical Studies 29 109 142 Google Scholar

Miquel, Léonce. "Sondages sur la guerre d'Algérie." Témoignages et documents 4 (1958): 2. Sondages sur la guerre d'Algérie Témoignages et documents 4 2 Google Scholar

Mission de France. "Conclusions de la session des 21 et 22 janvier 1958 sur les problèmes posés par la guerre d'Algérie." Lettre aux communautés, Mar. 1958: 44-52. Google Scholar

Mossuz-Lavau, Janine. Les Lois de l'amour: Les politiques de la sexualité en France (1950-2002). Paris: Payot, 2002. Les Lois de l'amour: Les politiques de la sexualité en France (1950-2002) Google Scholar

Perrault, Gilles. Les Parachutistes. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1961. Les Parachutistes Google Scholar

Ross, Kristin. Fast Cars, Clean Bodies: Decolonization and the Reordering of French Culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. Fast Cars, Clean Bodies: Decolonization and the Reordering of French Culture Google Scholar

Saint-Laurent, Cecil [Jacques Laurent]. Passagers pour Alger. Paris: Presses de la Cité, 1960. Passagers pour Alger Google Scholar

Sambron, Diane. Femmes musulmanes: Guerre d'Algérie 1954-1962. Paris: Éditions Autrement, 2007. Femmes musulmanes: Guerre d'Algérie 1954-1962 Google Scholar

Sartre, Jean-Paul. "Qu'est-ce qu'un collaborateur?" Situations III. Paris: Gallimard, 1949. 43-61. Situations III 43 61 Google Scholar

Sartre, Jean-Paul. "Une victoire." Afterword. La Question. By Henri Alleg. Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1958. 97-122. La Question 97 122 Google Scholar

Scott, Joan. The Politics of the Veil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007. The Politics of the Veil Google Scholar

Servan-Schreiber, Jean-Jacques. Lieutenant en Algérie. Paris: Julliard, 1957. Lieutenant en Algérie Google Scholar

Shepard, Todd. The Invention of Decolonization: The Algerian War and the Remaking of France. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006. The Invention of Decolonization: The Algerian War and the Remaking of France Google Scholar

Sigg, Bernard. Le Silence et la honte: Névroses de la guerre d'Algérie. Paris: Messidor/Éditions Sociales, 1989. Le Silence et la honte: Névroses de la guerre d'Algérie Google Scholar

Sironi, Françoise and Raphaëlle Branche. "Torture and the Borders of Humanity." International Social Science Journal 54.174 (2008): 539-547. Torture and the Borders of Humanity International Social Science Journal 54 539 547 Google Scholar

Stora, Benjamin. "Une censure de guerre qui ne dit pas son nom: Algérie, années 1960." Censures: De la Bible aux larmes d'Eros. Ed. Bibliothèque Publique d'Information. Paris: Éditions du Centre Pompidou, 1987. 46-58. Censures: De la Bible aux larmes d'Eros 46 58 Google Scholar

Surkis, Judith. "Ethics and Violence: Simone de Beauvoir, Djamila Boupacha, and the Algerian War." French Politics, Culture & Society 28.2 (2010): 38-55. Ethics and Violence: Simone de Beauvoir, Djamila Boupacha, and the Algerian War French Politics, Culture & Society 28 38 55 Google Scholar

Surkis, Judith. Sexing the Citizen: Morality and Masculinity in France, 1870-1920. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006. Sexing the Citizen: Morality and Masculinity in France, 1870-1920 Google Scholar

Talbott, John. "The Myth and Reality of the Paratrooper in the Algerian War." Armed Forces and Society 3.1 (1976): 69-86. The Myth and Reality of the Paratrooper in the Algerian War Armed Forces and Society 3 69 86 Google Scholar

Thieuloy, J.-J. "L'Esprit Para." L'Express 10 July 1958: 14-15. L'Esprit Para L'Express 14 15 Google Scholar

Vidal-Naquet, Pierre. "Une fidelité tětue: La Résistance Française à la guerre d'Algérie." Vingtième Siècle 10 (1986): 3-19. Une fidelité tětue: La Résistance Française à la guerre d'Algérie Vingtième Siècle 10 3 19 Google Scholar

Vince, Natalya. "Trangressing Boundaries: Gender, Race, Religion, and ‘Françaises Musulmanes’ during the Algerian War of Independence." French Historical Studies 33.3 (2010): 446-474. Trangressing Boundaries: Gender, Race, Religion, and ‘Françaises Musulmanes’ during the Algerian War of Independence French Historical Studies 33 446 474 Google Scholar

Alleg, Henri. La Question. Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1958. La Question Google Scholar

Amrane-Minne, Danièle Djamila. "Les femmes face à la violence dans la guerre de libération." Confluences Méditerranée 17 (.1996): 87-97. Les femmes face à la violence dans la guerre de libération Confluences Méditerranée 17 87 97 Google Scholar

Barrat, Robert. "Bilan et perspectives." Témoignages et documents 1 (1958): 6. Bilan et perspectives Témoignages et documents 1 6 Google Scholar

Bergner, Gwen. "Politics and Pathologies: On the Subject of Race in Psychoanalysis." Frantz Fanon: Critical Perspectives. Ed. Anthony C. Alessandrini. New York: Routledge, 1999. 219-236. Frantz Fanon: Critical Perspectives 219 236 Google Scholar

Bonnaud, Robert. Letter to Jean-Marie Domenach. 16 Apr. 1957. Esprit Papers ESP2.C18-01.02. Institut Mémoires de l'édition contemporaine, Caen, France. Google Scholar

Bonnaud, Robert. "La Paix des Nementchas." Esprit. Apr. 1957: 580-592. La Paix des Nementchas Esprit. 580 592 Google Scholar

Boudot, Pierre. L'Algérie mal enchaînée. Paris: Gallimard, 1961. L'Algérie mal enchaînée Google Scholar

Branche, Raphaëlle. "Des viols pendant la guerre d'Algérie." Vingtième Siècle 75 (2002): 123-132. Des viols pendant la guerre d'Algérie Vingtième Siècle 75 123 132 Google Scholar

Chapeu, Sybille. Des chrétiens dans la guerre d'Algérie: L'action de la Mission de France. Paris: Atelier, 2004. Des chrétiens dans la guerre d'Algérie: L'action de la Mission de France Google Scholar

Clancy-Smith, Julia. "Islam, Gender, and Identities in the Making of French Algeria, 1830-1962." Domesticating the Empire: Race, Gender, and Family Life in French and Dutch Colonialism. Ed. Julia Clancy-Smith and Frances Gouda. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1998. 154-174. Domesticating the Empire: Race, Gender, and Family Life in French and Dutch Colonialism 154 174 Google Scholar

Cole, Joshua. "Intimate Acts and Unspeakable Relations: Remembering Torture and the War for Algerian Independence." Memory, Empire and Postcolonialism. Ed. Alec Hargreaves Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2005. 125-141. Memory, Empire and Postcolonialism 125 141 Google Scholar

Copelon, Rhonda. "Intimate Terror: Understanding Domestic Violence as Torture." Human Rights of Women: National and International Perspectives. Ed. Rebecca J. Cook. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994. 116-152. Human Rights of Women: National and International Perspectives 116 152 Google Scholar

Copley, Antony. Sexual Moralities in France, 1780-1980: New Ideas on the Family, Divorce, and Homosexuality. Routledge: New York, 1989. Sexual Moralities in France, 1780-1980: New Ideas on the Family, Divorce, and Homosexuality Google Scholar

Dean, Carolyn J. The Fragility of Empathy After the Holocaust. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005. The Fragility of Empathy After the Holocaust Google Scholar

Dean, Carolyn J. The Frail Social Body: Pornography, Homosexuality, and Other Fantasies in Interwar France. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000. The Frail Social Body: Pornography, Homosexuality, and Other Fantasies in Interwar France Google Scholar

Dine, Philip. Images of the Algerian War: French Fiction and Film, 1954-1992. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. Images of the Algerian War: French Fiction and Film, 1954-1992 Google Scholar

Djebar, Assia. L'Amour, la fantasia. Paris: Jean-Claude Lattès, 1985. L'Amour, la fantasia Google Scholar

Domenach, Jean-Marie. "Démoralisation de la nation." Esprit. Apr. 1957: 577-579. Démoralisation de la nation Esprit. 577 579 Google Scholar

Evans, Martin. The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the Algerian War (1954-1962). Oxford: Berg, 1997. The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the Algerian War (1954-1962) Google Scholar

Fanon, Frantz. Les Damnés de la terre. 1961. Paris: Maspero, 1970. Les Damnés de la terre Google Scholar

Giroud, Françoise. "Les bons garçons." L'Express. Censored. Reproduced in Témoignages et documents 33 (1961): 6. Les bons garçons." L'Express. Censored. Reproduced in Témoignages et documents 33 6 Google Scholar

Giroud, Françoise. "La lettre de l'Express." L'Express 16 Aug. 1957. La lettre de l'Express L'Express Google Scholar

"La guerre fait autant de mal à ceux qui la font qu'à ceux qui la subissent." Témoignage Chrétien 16 Sept. 1960: 1. Google Scholar

Haddour, Azzedine. "Torture Unveiled." Theory, Culture & Society 27.7-8 (2011): 66-90. Torture Unveiled Theory, Culture & Society 27 66 90 Google Scholar

Harrison, Martin. "Government and Press in France during the Algerian War." American Political Science Review 58.2 (1964): 273-285. Government and Press in France during the Algerian War American Political Science Review 58 273 285 Google Scholar

Hewitt, Andrew. Political Inversions: Homosexuality, Fascism, and the Modernist Imaginary. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1996. Political Inversions: Homosexuality, Fascism, and the Modernist Imaginary Google Scholar

Jauffret, Jean-Charles. Soldats en Algérie, 1954-1962: Expériences contrastées des hommes du contingent. Paris: Éditions Autrement, 2000. Soldats en Algérie, 1954-1962: Expériences contrastées des hommes du contingent Google Scholar

Jobs, Richard I. Riding the New Wave: Youth and the Rejuvenation of France after the Second World War. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009. Riding the New Wave: Youth and the Rejuvenation of France after the Second World War Google Scholar

Kaplan, Alice. The Collaborator: The Trial and Execution of Robert Brasillach. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. The Collaborator: The Trial and Execution of Robert Brasillach Google Scholar

Kawash, Samira. "Terrorists and Vampires: Fanon's Spectral Violence of Decolonization." Frantz Fanon: Critical Perspectives. Ed. Anthony C. Alessandrini. New York: Routledge, 1999. 237-260. Frantz Fanon: Critical Perspectives 237 260 Google Scholar

Kelly, Tobias. This Side of Silence: Human Rights, Torture, and the Recognition of Cruelty. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. This Side of Silence: Human Rights, Torture, and the Recognition of Cruelty Google Scholar

Khanna, Ranjana. Algeria Cuts: Women and Representation, 1830 to the Present. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008. Algeria Cuts: Women and Representation, 1830 to the Present Google Scholar

LaCapra, Dominick. Writing History, Writing Trauma. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001. Writing History, Writing Trauma Google Scholar

Lazreg, Marnia. Torture and the Twilight of Empire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008. Torture and the Twilight of Empire Google Scholar

Le Sueur, James. Uncivil War: Intellectuals and Identity Politics During the Decolonization of Algeria. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. Uncivil War: Intellectuals and Identity Politics During the Decolonization of Algeria Google Scholar

Leulliette, Pierre. Saint Michel et le dragon: Souvenirs d'un parachutiste. Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1961. Saint Michel et le dragon: Souvenirs d'un parachutiste Google Scholar

MacMaster, Neil. Burning the Veil: The Algerian War and the "Emancipation" of Algerian Women. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Burning the Veil: The Algerian War and the "Emancipation" of Algerian Women Google Scholar

Martelet, Gustave. "Réflexions pastorales sur le problème de la torture et les fins de la guerre." Témoignages et documents 4 (1958): 4-5. Réflexions pastorales sur le problème de la torture et les fins de la guerre Témoignages et documents 4 4 5 Google Scholar

Martin-Chauffier, Louis. Algérie an VII. L'Examen des consciences. Paris: Julliard, 1961. Algérie an VII. L'Examen des consciences Google Scholar

Martin-Chauffier, Louis. "Journal de voyage en marge d'une enquěte (III)" Saturne 17 (1958): 8-23. Journal de voyage en marge d'une enquěte (III) Saturne 17 8 23 Google Scholar

Mattei, Georges-Mathieu. "La Génération algérienne." Esprit May 1958: 818-824. La Génération algérienne Esprit 818 824 Google Scholar

Meyers, Mark. "Feminizing Fascist Men: Crowd Psychology, Gender, and Sexuality in French Antifascism, 1929-1945." French Historical Studies 29.1 (2006): 109-142. Feminizing Fascist Men: Crowd Psychology, Gender, and Sexuality in French Antifascism, 1929-1945 French Historical Studies 29 109 142 Google Scholar

Miquel, Léonce. "Sondages sur la guerre d'Algérie." Témoignages et documents 4 (1958): 2. Sondages sur la guerre d'Algérie Témoignages et documents 4 2 Google Scholar

Mission de France. "Conclusions de la session des 21 et 22 janvier 1958 sur les problèmes posés par la guerre d'Algérie." Lettre aux communautés, Mar. 1958: 44-52. Google Scholar

Mossuz-Lavau, Janine. Les Lois de l'amour: Les politiques de la sexualité en France (1950-2002). Paris: Payot, 2002. Les Lois de l'amour: Les politiques de la sexualité en France (1950-2002) Google Scholar

Perrault, Gilles. Les Parachutistes. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1961. Les Parachutistes Google Scholar

Ross, Kristin. Fast Cars, Clean Bodies: Decolonization and the Reordering of French Culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. Fast Cars, Clean Bodies: Decolonization and the Reordering of French Culture Google Scholar

Saint-Laurent, Cecil [Jacques Laurent]. Passagers pour Alger. Paris: Presses de la Cité, 1960. Passagers pour Alger Google Scholar

Sambron, Diane. Femmes musulmanes: Guerre d'Algérie 1954-1962. Paris: Éditions Autrement, 2007. Femmes musulmanes: Guerre d'Algérie 1954-1962 Google Scholar

Sartre, Jean-Paul. "Qu'est-ce qu'un collaborateur?" Situations III. Paris: Gallimard, 1949. 43-61. Situations III 43 61 Google Scholar

Sartre, Jean-Paul. "Une victoire." Afterword. La Question. By Henri Alleg. Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1958. 97-122. La Question 97 122 Google Scholar

Scott, Joan. The Politics of the Veil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007. The Politics of the Veil Google Scholar

Servan-Schreiber, Jean-Jacques. Lieutenant en Algérie. Paris: Julliard, 1957. Lieutenant en Algérie Google Scholar

Shepard, Todd. The Invention of Decolonization: The Algerian War and the Remaking of France. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006. The Invention of Decolonization: The Algerian War and the Remaking of France Google Scholar

Sigg, Bernard. Le Silence et la honte: Névroses de la guerre d'Algérie. Paris: Messidor/Éditions Sociales, 1989. Le Silence et la honte: Névroses de la guerre d'Algérie Google Scholar

Sironi, Françoise and Raphaëlle Branche. "Torture and the Borders of Humanity." International Social Science Journal 54.174 (2008): 539-547. Torture and the Borders of Humanity International Social Science Journal 54 539 547 Google Scholar

Stora, Benjamin. "Une censure de guerre qui ne dit pas son nom: Algérie, années 1960." Censures: De la Bible aux larmes d'Eros. Ed. Bibliothèque Publique d'Information. Paris: Éditions du Centre Pompidou, 1987. 46-58. Censures: De la Bible aux larmes d'Eros 46 58 Google Scholar

Surkis, Judith. "Ethics and Violence: Simone de Beauvoir, Djamila Boupacha, and the Algerian War." French Politics, Culture & Society 28.2 (2010): 38-55. Ethics and Violence: Simone de Beauvoir, Djamila Boupacha, and the Algerian War French Politics, Culture & Society 28 38 55 Google Scholar

Surkis, Judith. Sexing the Citizen: Morality and Masculinity in France, 1870-1920. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006. Sexing the Citizen: Morality and Masculinity in France, 1870-1920 Google Scholar

Talbott, John. "The Myth and Reality of the Paratrooper in the Algerian War." Armed Forces and Society 3.1 (1976): 69-86. The Myth and Reality of the Paratrooper in the Algerian War Armed Forces and Society 3 69 86 Google Scholar

Thieuloy, J.-J. "L'Esprit Para." L'Express 10 July 1958: 14-15. L'Esprit Para L'Express 14 15 Google Scholar

Vidal-Naquet, Pierre. "Une fidelité tětue: La Résistance Française à la guerre d'Algérie." Vingtième Siècle 10 (1986): 3-19. Une fidelité tětue: La Résistance Française à la guerre d'Algérie Vingtième Siècle 10 3 19 Google Scholar

Vince, Natalya. "Trangressing Boundaries: Gender, Race, Religion, and ‘Françaises Musulmanes’ during the Algerian War of Independence." French Historical Studies 33.3 (2010): 446-474. Trangressing Boundaries: Gender, Race, Religion, and ‘Françaises Musulmanes’ during the Algerian War of Independence French Historical Studies 33 446 474 Google Scholar

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Kuby, Emma