International Development Planning Review

Disaster risk and its reduction: an agenda for urban Africa

International Development Planning Review (2015), 37, (1), 33–43.

Abstract

Populations and assets, in African cities, small and large, are among the most vulnerable to disaster risk globally. Climate change and demographic shifts add urgency and uncertainty. This paper outlines priorities for research responding to this challenge. We argue for integrative approaches that can capture multi-hazard risk and include hazards from across the spectrum of everyday to catastrophic, and their interactions. For such approaches to shape policy, new efforts are needed to develop political support, technical capacity and methodologies to enable systematic data collection and analysis, including socially and spatially disaggregated data. We also argue for the interdependence of risk and urban development policy, and a focus on institutions as objects and partners for co-produced research, including local government as the focal point for risk reduction and new roles for civil society and the private sector. This emerging research agenda also needs to ask what it is that makes African cities distinctive globally, and yet diverse across the continent, in their experiences of risk production.

This article was published open access under a CC BY license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Disaster risk and its reduction: an agenda for urban Africa

Abstract

Populations and assets, in African cities, small and large, are among the most vulnerable to disaster risk globally. Climate change and demographic shifts add urgency and uncertainty. This paper outlines priorities for research responding to this challenge. We argue for integrative approaches that can capture multi-hazard risk and include hazards from across the spectrum of everyday to catastrophic, and their interactions. For such approaches to shape policy, new efforts are needed to develop political support, technical capacity and methodologies to enable systematic data collection and analysis, including socially and spatially disaggregated data. We also argue for the interdependence of risk and urban development policy, and a focus on institutions as objects and partners for co-produced research, including local government as the focal point for risk reduction and new roles for civil society and the private sector. This emerging research agenda also needs to ask what it is that makes African cities distinctive globally, and yet diverse across the continent, in their experiences of risk production.

This article was published open access under a CC BY license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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BULL-KAMANGA, L., DIAGNE, K., LAVELL, A., LEON, E., LERISE, F., MACGREGOR, H., MASKREY, A., MESHACK, M., PELLING, M., REID, H., SATTERTHWAITE, D., SONGSORE, J., WESTGATE, K. and YITAMBE, A. (2003), ‘From everyday hazards to disasters: the accumulation of risk in urban areas’, Environment and Urbanization, 15, 193-200. ‘From everyday hazards to disasters: the accumulation of risk in urban areas’ Environment and Urbanization 15 193 200 Google Scholar

BURBY, R. R. (1998), Cooperating with Nature: Confronting Hatural Hazards with Land-use Planning for Sustainable Communities, Washington, DC, Joseph Henry Press. Cooperating with Nature: Confronting Hatural Hazards with Land-use Planning for Sustainable Communities Google Scholar

CANNON, T. (2000), ‘Vulnerability analysis and disasters’, in D. J. Parker (ed.), Floods, London, Routledge. Floods Google Scholar

DODMAN, D., BROWN, D., FRANCIS, K., HARDOY, J., JOHNSON, C. and SATTERTHWAITE, D. (2013), ‘Understanding the nature and scale of urban risk in low- and middle-income countries and its implications for humanitarian preparedness, planning and response’, Human Settlements Discussion Paper Series, Climate Change and Cities 4, IIED. Climate Change and Cities 4 Google Scholar

DOUGLAS, I., ALAM, K., MAGHENDA, M., MCDONNELL, Y., MCLEAN, L. and CAMPBELL, J. (2008), ‘Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa’, Environment and Urbanization, 20, 187-205. ‘Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa’ Environment and Urbanization 20 187 205 Google Scholar

FOX, S. and BEALL, J. (2012), ‘Managing conflict and violence in African cities’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 30, 968-81. ‘Managing conflict and violence in African cities’ Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 30 968 81 Google Scholar

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GANDY, M. (2006), ‘Planning, anti-planning and the infrastructure crises facing metropolitan Lagos’, Urban Studies, 43, 371-96. ‘Planning, anti-planning and the infrastructure crises facing metropolitan Lagos’ Urban Studies 43 371 96 Google Scholar

HARDOY, J., MITLIN, D. and SATTERTHWAITE, D. (2001), Environmental Problems in an Urbanizing World: Finding Solutions for Cities in Africa, Asia and Latin America, London, Earthscan. Environmental Problems in an Urbanizing World: Finding Solutions for Cities in Africa, Asia and Latin America Google Scholar

HARRISON, P. (2006), ‘On the Edge of Reason: Planning and Urban Futures in Africa’, Urban Studies, 43, 319-35. ‘On the Edge of Reason: Planning and Urban Futures in Africa’ Urban Studies 43 319 35 Google Scholar

HPN (HUMANITARIAN PRACTICE NETWORK) (2006), Humanitarian Exchange. Humanitarian Practice Network (HPN), Number 35, November. Google Scholar

IFRC (INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE RED CROSS-CRESCENT SOCIETIES) (2010), World Disasters Report 2010: Focus on Urban Risk, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva. Google Scholar

IPCC (INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE) (2007), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Working Group II Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

IPCC (INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE) (2012), ‘Summary for Policymakers’, in Field, C. B. et al. (eds), Managing the Risks of Extreme Weather Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

JOHNSON, C. (2011), ‘Creating an enabling environment for reducing disaster risk: Recent experience of regulatory frameworks for land, planning and building’, Background Paper for the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, 2011. University College London, Development Planning Unit. Google Scholar

KITHIIA, J. (2011), ‘Climate change risk responses in East African cities: needs, barriers and opportunities’, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 3, 176-80. ‘Climate change risk responses in East African cities: needs, barriers and opportunities’ Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 3 176 80 Google Scholar

KIUNSI, R. (2013), ‘The constraints on climate change adaptation in a city with a large development deficit: the case of Dar es Salaam’, Environment and Urbanization, 25, 321-37. ‘The constraints on climate change adaptation in a city with a large development deficit: the case of Dar es Salaam’ Environment and Urbanization 25 321 37 Google Scholar

LAVELL, A. (2001), Environmental Degradation, Risk and Urban Disasters: Issues and Concepts - Towards the Definition of a Research Agenda, Mimeo. Google Scholar

LWASA, S. (2010), ‘Adapting urban areas in Africa to climate change: the case of Kampala’, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2, 166-71. ‘Adapting urban areas in Africa to climate change: the case of Kampala’ Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2 166 71 Google Scholar

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MITLIN, D. (2008), ‘With and beyond the state - co-production as a route to political influence, power and transformation for grassroots organizations’, Environment and Urbanization, 20, 339-60. ‘With and beyond the state - co-production as a route to political influence, power and transformation for grassroots organizations’ Environment and Urbanization 20 339 60 Google Scholar

MITLIN, D. (2012), ‘From aid to empowerment: When local groups allocate donor money, modest funds can catalyse major results’, IIED Reflect and Act, 12 July. ‘From aid to empowerment: When local groups allocate donor money, modest funds can catalyse major results’ IIED Reflect and Act Google Scholar

MOSER, C. and STEIN, A. (2011), ‘Implementing urban participatory climate change adaptation appraisals: a methodological guideline’, Environment and Urbanization, 23, 463-85. ‘Implementing urban participatory climate change adaptation appraisals: a methodological guideline’ Environment and Urbanization 23 463 85 Google Scholar

MYERS, G. (2011), African Cities: Alternative Visions of Urban Theory and Practice, London, Zed Books. African Cities: Alternative Visions of Urban Theory and Practice Google Scholar

‘PARNELL, S. and’ WALAWEGE, R. (2011), ‘Sub-Saharan African urbanisation and global environmental change’, Global Environmental Change, 21, 12-20. ‘Sub-Saharan African urbanisation and global environmental change’ Global Environmental Change 21 12 20 Google Scholar

PELLING, M. (2003), The Vulnerability of Cities: Natural Disasters and Social Resilience, London, Earthscan. The Vulnerability of Cities: Natural Disasters and Social Resilience Google Scholar

PELLING, M. (2011), Adaptation as Transformation: From Resilience to Transformation, London, Routledge. Adaptation as Transformation: From Resilience to Transformation Google Scholar

PELLING, M. and WISNER, B. (eds) (2009), Disaster Risk Reduction: Cases from Urban Africa, London, Earthscan. Disaster Risk Reduction: Cases from Urban Africa Google Scholar

POTTS, D. (2009), ‘The slowing of Sub-Saharan Africa's urbanization: evidence and implications for urban livelihoods’, Environment and Urbanization, 21, 253-59. ‘The slowing of Sub-Saharan Africa's urbanization: evidence and implications for urban livelihoods’ Environment and Urbanization 21 253 59 Google Scholar

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SATTERTHWAITE, D. (2011), ‘How can urban centers adapt to climate change with ineffective or unrepresentative local governments?’, WIREs Climate Change, 2, 767-76. ‘How can urban centers adapt to climate change with ineffective or unrepresentative local governments?’ WIREs Climate Change 2 767 76 Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D., HART, R., LEVY, C., MITLIN, D., ROSS, D., SMIT, J. and STEPHENS, C. (1996), ‘The Environment for Children: Understanding and acting on environmental hazards that threaten children and their parents’, New York, UNIDEC, and London, Earthscan. ‘The Environment for Children: Understanding and acting on environmental hazards that threaten children and their parents’ Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D., HUQ, S., REID, H., PELLING, M. and ROMERO LANKAO, P. (2007), ‘Adapting to climate change in urban areas; the possibilities and constraints in low- and middle-income nations’, in Bicknell, J. et al. (eds), ‘Adapting cities to climate change: Understanding and Addressing the Development Challenges’, London, Earthscan. ‘Adapting cities to climate change: Understanding and Addressing the Development Challenges’ Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D. and MITLIN, D. (2014), Reducing Urban Poverty in the Global South, London, Routledge. Reducing Urban Poverty in the Global South Google Scholar

SIMON, D. (2014), ‘New evidence and thinking on urban environmental change challenges’, International Development Planning Review, 36, doi:10.3828/idpr.2014.9. ‘New evidence and thinking on urban environmental change challenges’ International Development Planning Review 36 Google Scholar

UNDESA (UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFAIRS) (2012), World Urbanisation Prospects: The 2011 Revision, CD-ROM Edition, UNDESA Population Division. Google Scholar

UNDP (UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME) (2013), A Comparative Review of Country-Level and Regional Disaster Loss and Damage Databases, UNDP, New York. Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME) (2009), Global Report on Human Settlements 2009: Planning Sustainable Cities, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, London, Earthscan. Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME) (2010), The State of African Cities 2010: Governance, Inequality and Urban Land Markets, Nairobi, United Nations Human Settlements Programme. Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME), (2011), Global Report on Human Settlements 2011: Cities and Climate Change, UN-HABITAT, London, Earthscan. Google Scholar

UNICEF (UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND) (2008), State of Africa's Children, New York, United Nations Children's Fund. Google Scholar

UNISDR (UNITED NATIONS STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION) (2009), Risk and Poverty in a Changing Climate: The 2009 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva, UNISDR. Google Scholar

UNISDR (UNITED NATIONS STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION) (2011), Revealing Risk, Redefining Development: The 2011 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva, UNISDR. Google Scholar

UNISDR (UNITED NATIONS STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION) (2012), How To Make Cities More Resilient: A Handbook For Local Government Leaders. A contribution to the global campaign 2010-2015, Making Cities Resilient - My City is Getting Ready!, Geneva, UNISDR. Google Scholar

UNISDR (UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION) (2013), From Shared Risk to Shared Value: The Business Case for Disaster Risk Reduction. Global Assessment report on Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva, UNISDR, Geneva. Google Scholar

VAN AALST, M., CANNON, T. and BURTON, I. (2008), ‘Community level adaptation to climate change: The potential role of participatory community risk assessment’, Global Environmental Change, 28, 165-79. ‘Community level adaptation to climate change: The potential role of participatory community risk assessment’ Global Environmental Change 28 165 79 Google Scholar

WATSON, V. (2009), ‘"The planned city sweeps the poor away": Urban planning and 21st-century urbanisation’, Progress in Planning, 72, 151-93. ‘"The planned city sweeps the poor away": Urban planning and 21st-century urbanisation’ Progress in Planning 72 151 93 Google Scholar

WHO (WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION) (2013), Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013: Supporting a Decade of Action, Geneva, WHO. Google Scholar

WILBY, R. (2007), ‘A review of climate change impacts on the built environment’, Built Environment, 33, 31-45. ‘A review of climate change impacts on the built environment’ Built Environment 33 31 45 Google Scholar

WISNER, B., BLAKIE, P., CANNON, T. and DAVIS, I. (2003), At Risk: Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability and Disasters, 2nd edn, London, Routledge. At Risk: Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability and Disasters Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK and GFDRR (GLOBAL FACILITY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION) (2010), Report on the status of Disaster Risk Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Google Scholar

ZIERVOGEL, G. and ZERMOGLIO, F. (2009), ‘Climate-change scenarios and the development of adaptation strategies in Africa: challenges and opportunities’, Climate Research, 40, 133-46. ‘Climate-change scenarios and the development of adaptation strategies in Africa: challenges and opportunities’ Climate Research 40 133 46 Google Scholar

ACC (AFRICAN CENTRE FOR CITIES) (2010), Urbanization Imperatives for Africa: Transcending Policy Inertia, Cape Town, ACC. Google Scholar

ADELEKAN, I. O. (2012), ‘Vulnerability to wind hazards in the traditional city of Ibadan, Nigeria’, Environment and Urbanization, 24, 597-617. ‘Vulnerability to wind hazards in the traditional city of Ibadan, Nigeria’ Environment and Urbanization 24 597 617 Google Scholar

BROTO, V. C. (2014), ‘Planning for climate change in the African city’, International Development Planning Review, 36, doi:10.3828/idpr.2014.23. ‘Planning for climate change in the African city’ International Development Planning Review 36 Google Scholar

BULL-KAMANGA, L., DIAGNE, K., LAVELL, A., LEON, E., LERISE, F., MACGREGOR, H., MASKREY, A., MESHACK, M., PELLING, M., REID, H., SATTERTHWAITE, D., SONGSORE, J., WESTGATE, K. and YITAMBE, A. (2003), ‘From everyday hazards to disasters: the accumulation of risk in urban areas’, Environment and Urbanization, 15, 193-200. ‘From everyday hazards to disasters: the accumulation of risk in urban areas’ Environment and Urbanization 15 193 200 Google Scholar

BURBY, R. R. (1998), Cooperating with Nature: Confronting Hatural Hazards with Land-use Planning for Sustainable Communities, Washington, DC, Joseph Henry Press. Cooperating with Nature: Confronting Hatural Hazards with Land-use Planning for Sustainable Communities Google Scholar

CANNON, T. (2000), ‘Vulnerability analysis and disasters’, in D. J. Parker (ed.), Floods, London, Routledge. Floods Google Scholar

DODMAN, D., BROWN, D., FRANCIS, K., HARDOY, J., JOHNSON, C. and SATTERTHWAITE, D. (2013), ‘Understanding the nature and scale of urban risk in low- and middle-income countries and its implications for humanitarian preparedness, planning and response’, Human Settlements Discussion Paper Series, Climate Change and Cities 4, IIED. Climate Change and Cities 4 Google Scholar

DOUGLAS, I., ALAM, K., MAGHENDA, M., MCDONNELL, Y., MCLEAN, L. and CAMPBELL, J. (2008), ‘Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa’, Environment and Urbanization, 20, 187-205. ‘Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa’ Environment and Urbanization 20 187 205 Google Scholar

FOX, S. and BEALL, J. (2012), ‘Managing conflict and violence in African cities’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 30, 968-81. ‘Managing conflict and violence in African cities’ Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 30 968 81 Google Scholar

GOULD, W. T. S. (1998), ‘African mortality and the new "urban penalty"’, Health and Place, 4, 171-81. ‘African mortality and the new "urban penalty"’ Health and Place 4 171 81 Google Scholar

GANDY, M. (2006), ‘Planning, anti-planning and the infrastructure crises facing metropolitan Lagos’, Urban Studies, 43, 371-96. ‘Planning, anti-planning and the infrastructure crises facing metropolitan Lagos’ Urban Studies 43 371 96 Google Scholar

HARDOY, J., MITLIN, D. and SATTERTHWAITE, D. (2001), Environmental Problems in an Urbanizing World: Finding Solutions for Cities in Africa, Asia and Latin America, London, Earthscan. Environmental Problems in an Urbanizing World: Finding Solutions for Cities in Africa, Asia and Latin America Google Scholar

HARRISON, P. (2006), ‘On the Edge of Reason: Planning and Urban Futures in Africa’, Urban Studies, 43, 319-35. ‘On the Edge of Reason: Planning and Urban Futures in Africa’ Urban Studies 43 319 35 Google Scholar

HPN (HUMANITARIAN PRACTICE NETWORK) (2006), Humanitarian Exchange. Humanitarian Practice Network (HPN), Number 35, November. Google Scholar

IFRC (INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE RED CROSS-CRESCENT SOCIETIES) (2010), World Disasters Report 2010: Focus on Urban Risk, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva. Google Scholar

IPCC (INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE) (2007), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Working Group II Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

IPCC (INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE) (2012), ‘Summary for Policymakers’, in Field, C. B. et al. (eds), Managing the Risks of Extreme Weather Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

JOHNSON, C. (2011), ‘Creating an enabling environment for reducing disaster risk: Recent experience of regulatory frameworks for land, planning and building’, Background Paper for the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, 2011. University College London, Development Planning Unit. Google Scholar

KITHIIA, J. (2011), ‘Climate change risk responses in East African cities: needs, barriers and opportunities’, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 3, 176-80. ‘Climate change risk responses in East African cities: needs, barriers and opportunities’ Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 3 176 80 Google Scholar

KIUNSI, R. (2013), ‘The constraints on climate change adaptation in a city with a large development deficit: the case of Dar es Salaam’, Environment and Urbanization, 25, 321-37. ‘The constraints on climate change adaptation in a city with a large development deficit: the case of Dar es Salaam’ Environment and Urbanization 25 321 37 Google Scholar

LAVELL, A. (2001), Environmental Degradation, Risk and Urban Disasters: Issues and Concepts - Towards the Definition of a Research Agenda, Mimeo. Google Scholar

LWASA, S. (2010), ‘Adapting urban areas in Africa to climate change: the case of Kampala’, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2, 166-71. ‘Adapting urban areas in Africa to climate change: the case of Kampala’ Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2 166 71 Google Scholar

MAMDANI, M. (1996), Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism Google Scholar

MITLIN, D. (2008), ‘With and beyond the state - co-production as a route to political influence, power and transformation for grassroots organizations’, Environment and Urbanization, 20, 339-60. ‘With and beyond the state - co-production as a route to political influence, power and transformation for grassroots organizations’ Environment and Urbanization 20 339 60 Google Scholar

MITLIN, D. (2012), ‘From aid to empowerment: When local groups allocate donor money, modest funds can catalyse major results’, IIED Reflect and Act, 12 July. ‘From aid to empowerment: When local groups allocate donor money, modest funds can catalyse major results’ IIED Reflect and Act Google Scholar

MOSER, C. and STEIN, A. (2011), ‘Implementing urban participatory climate change adaptation appraisals: a methodological guideline’, Environment and Urbanization, 23, 463-85. ‘Implementing urban participatory climate change adaptation appraisals: a methodological guideline’ Environment and Urbanization 23 463 85 Google Scholar

MYERS, G. (2011), African Cities: Alternative Visions of Urban Theory and Practice, London, Zed Books. African Cities: Alternative Visions of Urban Theory and Practice Google Scholar

‘PARNELL, S. and’ WALAWEGE, R. (2011), ‘Sub-Saharan African urbanisation and global environmental change’, Global Environmental Change, 21, 12-20. ‘Sub-Saharan African urbanisation and global environmental change’ Global Environmental Change 21 12 20 Google Scholar

PELLING, M. (2003), The Vulnerability of Cities: Natural Disasters and Social Resilience, London, Earthscan. The Vulnerability of Cities: Natural Disasters and Social Resilience Google Scholar

PELLING, M. (2011), Adaptation as Transformation: From Resilience to Transformation, London, Routledge. Adaptation as Transformation: From Resilience to Transformation Google Scholar

PELLING, M. and WISNER, B. (eds) (2009), Disaster Risk Reduction: Cases from Urban Africa, London, Earthscan. Disaster Risk Reduction: Cases from Urban Africa Google Scholar

POTTS, D. (2009), ‘The slowing of Sub-Saharan Africa's urbanization: evidence and implications for urban livelihoods’, Environment and Urbanization, 21, 253-59. ‘The slowing of Sub-Saharan Africa's urbanization: evidence and implications for urban livelihoods’ Environment and Urbanization 21 253 59 Google Scholar

REVI, A., SATTERTHWAITE, D., ARAGON-DURAND, F., CORFEE-MORLOT, J., KIUNNSI, R. B. R., PELLING, M., ROBERTS, D., SOLECKI, W. and SVERDLIK, A. (2014), ‘Urban Areas’, in IPCC Working group II Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Fifth Assessment Report http://www.ipcc.ch Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D. (2011), ‘How can urban centers adapt to climate change with ineffective or unrepresentative local governments?’, WIREs Climate Change, 2, 767-76. ‘How can urban centers adapt to climate change with ineffective or unrepresentative local governments?’ WIREs Climate Change 2 767 76 Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D., HART, R., LEVY, C., MITLIN, D., ROSS, D., SMIT, J. and STEPHENS, C. (1996), ‘The Environment for Children: Understanding and acting on environmental hazards that threaten children and their parents’, New York, UNIDEC, and London, Earthscan. ‘The Environment for Children: Understanding and acting on environmental hazards that threaten children and their parents’ Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D., HUQ, S., REID, H., PELLING, M. and ROMERO LANKAO, P. (2007), ‘Adapting to climate change in urban areas; the possibilities and constraints in low- and middle-income nations’, in Bicknell, J. et al. (eds), ‘Adapting cities to climate change: Understanding and Addressing the Development Challenges’, London, Earthscan. ‘Adapting cities to climate change: Understanding and Addressing the Development Challenges’ Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D. and MITLIN, D. (2014), Reducing Urban Poverty in the Global South, London, Routledge. Reducing Urban Poverty in the Global South Google Scholar

SIMON, D. (2014), ‘New evidence and thinking on urban environmental change challenges’, International Development Planning Review, 36, doi:10.3828/idpr.2014.9. ‘New evidence and thinking on urban environmental change challenges’ International Development Planning Review 36 Google Scholar

UNDESA (UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFAIRS) (2012), World Urbanisation Prospects: The 2011 Revision, CD-ROM Edition, UNDESA Population Division. Google Scholar

UNDP (UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME) (2013), A Comparative Review of Country-Level and Regional Disaster Loss and Damage Databases, UNDP, New York. Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME) (2009), Global Report on Human Settlements 2009: Planning Sustainable Cities, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, London, Earthscan. Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME) (2010), The State of African Cities 2010: Governance, Inequality and Urban Land Markets, Nairobi, United Nations Human Settlements Programme. Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME), (2011), Global Report on Human Settlements 2011: Cities and Climate Change, UN-HABITAT, London, Earthscan. Google Scholar

UNICEF (UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND) (2008), State of Africa's Children, New York, United Nations Children's Fund. Google Scholar

UNISDR (UNITED NATIONS STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION) (2009), Risk and Poverty in a Changing Climate: The 2009 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva, UNISDR. Google Scholar

UNISDR (UNITED NATIONS STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION) (2011), Revealing Risk, Redefining Development: The 2011 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva, UNISDR. Google Scholar

UNISDR (UNITED NATIONS STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION) (2012), How To Make Cities More Resilient: A Handbook For Local Government Leaders. A contribution to the global campaign 2010-2015, Making Cities Resilient - My City is Getting Ready!, Geneva, UNISDR. Google Scholar

UNISDR (UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION) (2013), From Shared Risk to Shared Value: The Business Case for Disaster Risk Reduction. Global Assessment report on Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva, UNISDR, Geneva. Google Scholar

VAN AALST, M., CANNON, T. and BURTON, I. (2008), ‘Community level adaptation to climate change: The potential role of participatory community risk assessment’, Global Environmental Change, 28, 165-79. ‘Community level adaptation to climate change: The potential role of participatory community risk assessment’ Global Environmental Change 28 165 79 Google Scholar

WATSON, V. (2009), ‘"The planned city sweeps the poor away": Urban planning and 21st-century urbanisation’, Progress in Planning, 72, 151-93. ‘"The planned city sweeps the poor away": Urban planning and 21st-century urbanisation’ Progress in Planning 72 151 93 Google Scholar

WHO (WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION) (2013), Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013: Supporting a Decade of Action, Geneva, WHO. Google Scholar

WILBY, R. (2007), ‘A review of climate change impacts on the built environment’, Built Environment, 33, 31-45. ‘A review of climate change impacts on the built environment’ Built Environment 33 31 45 Google Scholar

WISNER, B., BLAKIE, P., CANNON, T. and DAVIS, I. (2003), At Risk: Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability and Disasters, 2nd edn, London, Routledge. At Risk: Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability and Disasters Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK and GFDRR (GLOBAL FACILITY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION) (2010), Report on the status of Disaster Risk Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Google Scholar

ZIERVOGEL, G. and ZERMOGLIO, F. (2009), ‘Climate-change scenarios and the development of adaptation strategies in Africa: challenges and opportunities’, Climate Research, 40, 133-46. ‘Climate-change scenarios and the development of adaptation strategies in Africa: challenges and opportunities’ Climate Research 40 133 46 Google Scholar


Details

Author details

Adelekan, Ibidun

Johnson, Cassidy

Manda, Mtafu

Matyas, David

Mberu, Blessing

Parnell, Susan

Pelling, Mark

Satterthwaite, David

Vivekananda, Janani