International Development Planning Review

Towards a spatially disaggregated material-based hardship index for the cities of developing nations: Nairobi, Kenya

International Development Planning Review (2007), 29, (1), 69–92.

Abstract

Gauging the nature, location and extent of poverty in the cities of developing nations is a necessary prelude to remedial intervention. A proper measure would acknowledge poverty's demography, multidimensionality, geographic contextuality and causal precursors. Poverty indices are generally unreliable due to the nature, paucity and intermittency of available data. Most rely on measures of income, and hence buying power, which are inappropriate in mixed economies. We aim in contrast to examine the physical conditions that underpin poverty in 110 sub-locations of Nairobi, Kenya using the 1999 Kenyan housing and population census, augmented by survey data assembled in 2002 by UN-Habitat and the Kenyan government. Principal components analysis exposes the essential parameters of a material-based hardship index. Cross-sectional regression analysis then identifies its most important determinants. Implications of this study for poverty indexing, and for local area-based policy interventions in cities of the developing world, conclude the paper.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ABRAMS, C. (1957), Housing in Ghana: Technical Assistance Housing Mission to Ghana, New York, United Nations. Housing in Ghana: Technical Assistance Housing Mission to Ghana Google Scholar

AHMED, A. U., KHAN, H. A. and SAMPATH, R. K. (1991), 'Poverty in Bangladesh: measurement, decomposition, and inter-temporal comparison', Journal of Development Studies, 27, 48–63. Poverty in Bangladesh: measurement, decomposition, and inter-temporal comparison Journal of Development Studies 27 48 63 Google Scholar

ALDER, G. (1995), 'Tackling poverty in Nairobi's informal settlements: developing an institutional strategy', Environment and Urbanization, 17, 85–107. Tackling poverty in Nairobi's informal settlements: developing an institutional strategy Environment and Urbanization 17 85 107 Google Scholar

ALIGULA, E. M. (1999), Improving the Performance of Urban Water Infrastructure Services Delivery and Management in Kenya: A Case Study of Nairobi City, Kisumu and Eldoret Towns, Aachen, Shaker Verlag. Improving the Performance of Urban Water Infrastructure Services Delivery and Management in Kenya: A Case Study of Nairobi City, Kisumu and Eldoret Towns Google Scholar

APHRC (AFRICA POPULATION and HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER) (2002), Population and Health Dynamics in Nairobi's Informal Settlements, Nairobi, APHRC. Google Scholar

BAHAROGLU, D. and KESSIDES, C. (2001), Urban Poverty (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Sourcebook), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

BAKER, J. L. and GROSH, M. E. (1994), 'Poverty reduction through geographic targeting: how well does it work?', World Development, 22, 983–95. Poverty reduction through geographic targeting: how well does it work? World Development 22 983 95 Google Scholar

BEVERLY, S. G. (1999), Economic Poverty Reconsidered: Material Hardship and Income-poverty in the United States, St Louis, Washington University Press. Economic Poverty Reconsidered: Material Hardship and Income-poverty in the United States Google Scholar

BIANCHI, S. (1999), 'Feminisation and juvenilisation of poverty: trends, relative risks, causes, and consequences', Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 307–33. Feminisation and juvenilisation of poverty: trends, relative risks, causes, and consequences Annual Review of Sociology 25 307 33 Google Scholar

BIGMAN, D. and FOFACK, H. (2000), Geographical Targeting for Poverty Alleviation, Washington, DC, World Bank. Geographical Targeting for Poverty Alleviation Google Scholar

CBS (CENTRAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS) (2000), Economic Survey 2000, Nairobi, Government Printers. Google Scholar

CBS (CENTRAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS) (2001), 1999 Population and Housing Census, Volume I, Nairobi, Government Printers. Google Scholar

CBS (CENTRAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS) (2003), Geographic Dimensions of Well-Being in Kenya, Volume One: Where Are the Poor? From Districts to Locations, Nairobi, Regal Press. Google Scholar

CHISWICK, B. R. and SULLIVAN, T. A. (1995), 'The new immigrants' in R. Farley (ed.), State of the Unions: America in the 1990s, Volume 2, New York, Russell Sage Foundation. The new immigrants State of the Unions: America in the 1990s, Volume 2 Google Scholar

COULOMBE, H. and MCKAY, A. (1996), 'Modeling determinants of poverty in Mauritania', World Development, 24, 1015–31. Modeling determinants of poverty in Mauritania World Development 24 1015 31 Google Scholar

CRUMP, J. R. (1997), 'Teaching the political geography of poverty', Journal of Geography, 96, 98–104. Teaching the political geography of poverty Journal of Geography 96 98 104 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

EDIN, K. and LEIN, L. (1997), Making Ends Meet: How Single Mothers Survive Welfare and Low-wage Work, New York, Russell Sage Foundation. Making Ends Meet: How Single Mothers Survive Welfare and Low-wage Work Google Scholar

FOFACK, H. (2002), The Nature and Dynamics of Poverty Determinants in Burkina Faso in the 1990s, Washington, DC, World Bank. The Nature and Dynamics of Poverty Determinants in Burkina Faso in the 1990s Google Scholar

GANS, H. J. (1962), The Urban Villagers, New York, Free Press. The Urban Villagers Google Scholar

GLEWWE, P. (1991), 'Investigating the determinants of household welfare in Cote d'Ivoire', Journal of Development Economics, 35, 307–37. Investigating the determinants of household welfare in Cote d'Ivoire Journal of Development Economics 35 307 37 Google Scholar

GOETZ, E. G. (2003), Clearing the Way: Deconcentrating the Poor in Urban America, Washington DC, Urban Institute Press. Clearing the Way: Deconcentrating the Poor in Urban America Google Scholar

GOVERNMENT OF KENYA (2001), 1999 Population and Housing Census Volume I, Nairobi, Government Printers. Google Scholar

GOVERNMENT OF KENYA (2002), Economic Survey, Nairobi, Government Printers. Google Scholar

GROOTAERT, C. and BRAITHWAITE, J. (1998), Poverty Correlates and Indicator-based Targeting in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union, Washington, DC, World Bank. Poverty Correlates and Indicator-based Targeting in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union Google Scholar

HARDOY, J. E. (1982), 'The building of Latin American cities' in A. Gilbert with J. E. Hardoy and R. Ramirez (eds), Urbanization in Contemporary Latin America, New York, John Wiley, 19–33. The building of Latin American cities Urbanization in Contemporary Latin America 19 33 Google Scholar

HARRIS, R. (2003), 'A double irony: the originality and influence of John F. C. Turner', Habitat International, 27, 245–69. A double irony: the originality and influence of John F. C. Turner Habitat International 27 245 69 Google Scholar

HARRIS, R. and CEINWEN, G. (2003), 'A mixed message: the agents and forms of international housing policy, 1945–1973', Habitat International, 27, 167–91. A mixed message: the agents and forms of international housing policy, 1945–1973 Habitat International 27 167 91 Google Scholar

HOUSE, W. J. (1991), 'The nature and determinants of socioeconomic inequality among peasant households in southern Sudan', World Development, 19, 867–84. The nature and determinants of socioeconomic inequality among peasant households in southern Sudan World Development 19 867 84 Google Scholar

JALAN, J. and RAVALLION, M. (1996) Are There Dynamic Gains from a Poor-Area Development Program? (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 1695), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

JALAN, J. and RAVALLION, M. (1997), Spatial Poverty Traps? (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 1862), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

KASARDA, J. D. (1993), 'Inner-city concentrated poverty and neighborhood distress: 1970 to 1990', Housing Policy Debate, 4, 253–302. Inner-city concentrated poverty and neighborhood distress: 1970 to 1990 Housing Policy Debate 4 253 302 Google Scholar

KHUNDKER, N., MAHMUD, W., SEN, B. and AHMAD, M. U. (1994), 'Urban poverty in Bangladesh: trends, determinants, and policy issues', Asian Development Review, 12, 1–31. Urban poverty in Bangladesh: trends, determinants, and policy issues Asian Development Review 12 1 31 Google Scholar

LADD, H. F. (1994), 'Spatially targeted economic development strategies: do they work?', Cityscape, 1, 193–218. Spatially targeted economic development strategies: do they work? Cityscape 1 193 218 Google Scholar

LEWIS, O. (1961), The Children of Sanchez: Autobiography of a Mexican Family, New York, Penguin/ Vintage Books. The Children of Sanchez: Autobiography of a Mexican Family Google Scholar

LICHETER, D. T. and CROWLEY, M. L. (2002), 'Poverty in America: beyond welfare reform', Population Bulletin, 57, 1–36. Poverty in America: beyond welfare reform Population Bulletin 57 1 36 Google Scholar

LIPTON, M. (1976), Why Poor People Stay Poor: Urban Bias in World Development, London, Temple Smith. Why Poor People Stay Poor: Urban Bias in World Development Google Scholar

LOGAN, J. R. and ALBA, R. D. (1993), 'Locational returns to human capital: minority access to suburban community resources', Demography, 30, 243–68. Locational returns to human capital: minority access to suburban community resources Demography 30 243 68 Google Scholar

MASSAM, B. (2000), Conditions of the Civic State, Jerusalem, Hebrew University Magnes Press. Conditions of the Civic State Google Scholar

MAYER, S. E. and JENCKS, C. (1989), 'Poverty and the distribution of material hardship', The Journal of Human Resources, 24, 88–113. Poverty and the distribution of material hardship The Journal of Human Resources 24 88 113 Google Scholar

MAYER, S. E. and JENCKS, C. (1993), 'Recent trends in economic inequality in the United States: income versus expenditures versus material well-being' in E. N. Wolff(ed.), Poverty and Prosperity in the USA in the Late Twentieth Century, New York, St Martin's Press, 121–203. Recent trends in economic inequality in the United States: income versus expenditures versus material well-being' in E. N. Wolff(ed.) Poverty and Prosperity in the USA in the Late Twentieth Century 121 203 Google Scholar

MILLS, E. S. and PERNIA, E. M. (1994), 'Introduction and overview' in E. Pernia (ed.), Urban Poverty in Asia: A Survey of Critical Issues, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Introduction and overview Urban Poverty in Asia: A Survey of Critical Issues Google Scholar

MITULLAH, W. (2003), 'The case of Nairobi, Kenya' in UN-Habitat, Global Report on Human Settlements, 2003: The Challenge of Slums, Part IV: Summary of City Case Studies, London, Earthscan, 195–228. Google Scholar

NORD, M., LULOFF, A. E. and JENSEN, L. (1995), 'Migration and the spatial concentration of poverty', Rural Sociology, 60, 399–415. Migration and the spatial concentration of poverty Rural Sociology 60 399 415 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

OPERATIONS EVALUATION DEPARTMENT (1996), Improving Urban Services in Nairobi (OED Précis No. 115), WASHINGTON, DC, WORLD BANK. Google Scholar

PEARCE, D. (1978), 'The feminization of poverty: women, work, and welfare', Urban Sociological Change, II, 128–36. The feminization of poverty: women, work, and welfare Urban Sociological Change II 128 36 Google Scholar

RAHMAN, A. and HAQUE, T. (1988), Poverty and Inequality in Bangladesh in the Eighties: An Analysis of Some Recent Evidence (Research Report No. 91), Dhaka, BIDS. Google Scholar

RAMANATHAN, R. (2002), Introductory Econometrics with Applications, New York, Harcourt. Introductory Econometrics with Applications Google Scholar

RAVALLION, M. AND SEN, B. (1996), 'When method matters: toward a resolution of the debate about Bangladesh's poverty measures', Economic Development and Cultural Change, 44, 761– 92. When method matters: toward a resolution of the debate about Bangladesh's poverty measures Economic Development and Cultural Change 44 761 92 Google Scholar

RAVALLION, M. and WODON, Q. (1997), Poor Areas, or Only Poor People? (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 1798), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

RECTOR, R., JOHNSON, K. and YOUSSEF, S. (1999), 'The extent of material hardship and poverty in the United States', Review of Social Economy, LVII, 351–85. The extent of material hardship and poverty in the United States Review of Social Economy LVII 351 85 Google Scholar

ROK (2002), National Development Plan 2002–2008: Effective Management for Sustainable Growth and Poverty Reduction, Nairobi, Government Printers. Google Scholar

RYAN, W. (1972), Blaming the Victim, New York, Random House. Blaming the Victim Google Scholar

SAHN, D. and STIFEL, D. C. (2002), 'Progress toward the millennium development goals in Africa', World Development, 31, 23–52. Progress toward the millennium development goals in Africa World Development 31 23 52 Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D. (1997), 'Urban poverty: reconsidering its scale and nature', IDS Bulletin, 28, 2. Urban poverty: reconsidering its scale and nature IDS Bulletin 28 2 Google Scholar

SEN, A. (1985), Commodities and Capabilities, Amsterdam, North-Holland. Commodities and Capabilities Google Scholar

SEN, A. (1987), On Ethics and Economics, Oxford and New York, Basil Blackwell. On Ethics and Economics Google Scholar

SEN, A. (1999), Development as Freedom, New York, Knopf. Development as Freedom Google Scholar

STEWART, F. (1985), Planning to Meet Basic Needs, London, Macmillian. Planning to Meet Basic Needs Google Scholar

STOKES, C. (1963), 'A theory of slums', Land Economics, 38, 187–97. A theory of slums Land Economics 38 187 97 Google Scholar

STREETEN, P., BURKI, S., UL HAQ, M., HICKS, N. and STEWART, F. (1981), First Things First: Meeting Basic Needs in Developing Countries, New York, Oxford University Press. First Things First: Meeting Basic Needs in Developing Countries Google Scholar

TURNER, J. F. C. (1968), 'Uncontrolled urban settlements: problems and policies', International Social Development Review, 1, 107–30 (reprinted in G. Breese (ed.), The City in Newly Developing Countries, New York, Prentice Hall, 507–34). Google Scholar

UNCHS (UNITED NATIONS CENTER FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENTS) (2001), Nairobi Situation Analysis, Nairobi, Kenya. Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2003A), The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003, London, Earthscan. Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2003b), Water and Sanitation in the World's Cities: Local Action for Global Goals, London, Earthscan. Google Scholar

UNITED NATIONS (1995), World Urbanization Prospects: The 1994 Revision – Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations, New York, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, United Nations. Google Scholar

VAN KEMPEN, E. T. (1997), 'Poverty pockets and life chances: on the role of place in shaping social inequity', American Behavioral Scientist, 41, 430–99. Poverty pockets and life chances: on the role of place in shaping social inequity American Behavioral Scientist 41 430 99 Google Scholar

WASAO, S. W. (2002), 'Characteristics of households and respondents' in APHRC (ed.), Population and Health Dynamics in Nairobi's Informal Settlements, Nairobi, African Population and Health Research Centre. Google Scholar

WASAO, S. W. and BAUNI, E. K. (2001), Voices from the Slums: A Report of Reproductive Health and Livelihood Concerns of Nairobi's Slum Dwellers, Nairobi, African Population and Health Research Center. Google Scholar

WHITTINGTON, D., KOMIVES, K. and WU, X. (2001), Infrastructure Coverage and the Poor: A Global Perspective (Policy Research Working Paper No. 2551), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

WODON, Q. (1997), 'Food energy intake and cost of basic needs: measuring poverty in Bangladesh', Journal of Development Studies, 34, 66–101. Food energy intake and cost of basic needs: measuring poverty in Bangladesh Journal of Development Studies 34 66 101 Google Scholar

WODON, Q. (1998), Micro Determinants of Consumption, Poverty, Growth, and Inequality in Bangladesh (WPS 2076), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (1991), Urban Policy and Economic Development: An Agenda for the 1990s, Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (1999), Entering the 21st Century: World Development Report 1999/2000, New York, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2001), World Development Report 2000/2001: Attacking Poverty, New York, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2004), World Development Report 2004: Making Services Work for Poor People, New York, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

WRATTEN, E. (1995), 'Conceptualizing urban poverty', Environment & Urbanization, 7, 11–33. Conceptualizing urban poverty Environment & Urbanization 7 11 33 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Clark, Thomas

Ning, Deng