Romani Studies

‘Gypsy’ groups in Eastern Europe: Ethnonyms vs. professionyms

Romani Studies (2013), 23, (1), 61–82.

Abstract

Two types of ethnonym - endonyms (used within a community itself) and exonyms (used by other Gypsy groups and the macro-society) - correlate in complex ways. We concentrate on cases characteristic of the Balkans and the Gypsy groups who migrated from there in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Among these groups, ethnonyms are formed on the basis of the economic activities characteristic for a given Gypsy group (so-called professionyms), for instance Kalajdži, Demirdži, Kelderari, and Košničari/Sepetči. We analyse the different ways in which endonyms and exonyms function. In doing so we show the emergence and decline of specific group appellations and how particular Gypsy groups are distinguished from others through the clear expression of group ethnonyms.

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Appendix Ethnonyms/profesionyms Google Scholar

Ajudži [bear trainers]; Arabadži [cart makers]; Aržentari [silver makers]; Aurari [gold diggers] Google Scholar

Bâeši/Beaši/Bojaš/Bajaši/Banjaši [miners]; Bidinari [house painters]; Boxčadži [junk dealers]; Burgudži/Bugurdži / Burgijaši [gimlet makers]; Google Scholar

Čarale [blacksmiths (from ash)]; Čilingiri/Čelenderi [ironsmiths]; Čokenarja [ironsmiths (from ‘hammer’)]; Čurari [sieve makers]; Google Scholar

Davuldži [drum players]; Demirdži [ironsmiths]; Džambazi/Džambaši [livestock dealers]; Google Scholar

Fusari [spindle makers]; Google Scholar

Grebenari [comb makers]; Google Scholar

Kalajdži [tin smiths]; Kanaloš [spoon makers]; Kalburdži/Kaburdži [sieve makers]; Kangljari [comb makers]; Karamidari [tile makers]; Kazandži [couldron makers]; Kjuldži [blacksmiths (from ‘ash’)]; Kelderari/Kăldărari/Kaldaraši/Kardaraši [couldron makers]; Kopanari [wooden-bowl makers]; Koritari [trough makers]; Košničari [basket makers]; Kovači [blacksmiths]; Google Scholar

Lingurari [spoon makers]; Lovari [horse dealers]; Luludžilar [flower dealers]; Google Scholar

Mečkara [bear trainers]; Mexteri/Mehteri [Ottoman army musicians]; Muzikanti [musicians]; Google Scholar

Rešetari/Lešetari [sieve makers]; Rudari/Ludari [miners]; Google Scholar

Spoitori [thin smiths]; Sepetči/Sepedži [basket makers]; Sitari [sieve makers]; Google Scholar

Ursari [bear trainers]; Google Scholar

Vretenari [spindle makers] Google Scholar

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Marushiakova, Elena

Popov, Vesselin