Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Guantes, botas, ortopedias y otras prendas. Fetichismo, metonimia, poética realista

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2003), 80, (3), 319–333.

Abstract

Se puede aventurar que existe una afinidad entre el realismo decimonoónico y el fetichismo. La estética realista, según Jakobson, está regida por la figura de la metonimia. La perversión, en el modelo freudiano, también propende al proceso metonímico en su mecanismo. El fetichismo constituiría una respuesta o defensa al horror de la diferencia sexual, a la visión de los genitales femeninos, mediante la conversión de algún elemento contiguo a esos genitales en un tranquilizador sustituto del pene ausente de la madre. La novela realista, por su parte, constituye un intento de conjurar, dominar, fijar o racionalizar el mundo o la realidad — siempre contemplados, como otro o ajeno, bajo la especie de la femineidad — a través de la selección y combinación de una serie de signos metonímicos perpetrados por el viril y fecundo padre autorial. Mi reflexión se estructura a partir de una serie de ejemplares incidentes de Tormento, Tristana, La Regenta y Su único hijo.

It can be argued that there is a remarkable affinity between nineteenth-century realism and fetishism. Realist poetics, according to Jakobson, is ruled by the rhetorical figure of metonymy. The perversion, in the Freudian model, is also dominated by the metonymical process. Within this model, fetishism is a response to, or a defense against, the horror of sexual difference and the vision of the female genitalia, converting an object similar to those genitalia into a substitute for the mother's absent penis. In turn, the realist novel attempts to control, fix or rationalize reality, or the world — always contemplated as Other or feminine enigma — through a series of metonymical signs selected by the virile and fertile authorial father. The discussion is illustrated by a series of incidents from Tormento, Tristana, La Regenta and Su único hijo.

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Zamora, Andrés