International Development Planning Review

Female mobility in India: The influence of seclusion norms on economic outcomes

International Development Planning Review (2002), 24, (2), 145–159.

Abstract

In the Indian context, norms of female seclusion limit women's mobility in the public sphere, constraining their economic opportunities by limiting their choices of work location and their ability to interact in markets. However, women do not experience the constraints of female seclusion homogeneously. This article examines the effect of variation in mobility levels on the economic outcomes for female home-based garment producers in Ahmedabad, India, to determine if those who are more mobile are more economically successful. It does this using two-stage least squares estimation techniques to represent the endogeneity of mobility levels. The results show that for this group, mobility has no significant effect on economic outcomes, probably reflecting characteristics of the garment sector in the research site that reduce the potential returns of mobility. Regardless of this lack of significant instrumental effect, a case is made for increasing women's freedom of movement in order to prepare them to take advantage of future opportunities within the sector.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ABDULLAH, T. A. and ZEIDENSTEIN, S. A. (1982), Village Women of Bangladesh, Oxford, Pergamon Press. Village Women of Bangladesh Google Scholar

AGARWAL, B. (1994), A Field of One's Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. A Field of One's Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia Google Scholar

AGARWAL, B. (1997), ' "Bargaining" and Gender Relations: Within and Beyond the Household', Feminist Economics, 3, 1–51. "Bargaining" and Gender Relations: Within and Beyond the Household Feminist Economics 3 1 51 Google Scholar

BORIS, E. and PRUGL, E. (1996), 'Introduction', in E. Boris and E. Prugl (eds), Homeworkers in Global Perspective: Invisible No More, New York and London, Routledge, 3–18. 'Introduction' Homeworkers in Global Perspective: Invisible No More 3 18 Google Scholar

CARR, M., CHEN, M., and JHABVALA, R. (1996), Speaking Out: Women's Economic Empowerment in South Asia, London, IT Publications. Speaking Out: Women's Economic Empowerment in South Asia Google Scholar

DOWNING, J. (1990), Gender and the Growth and Dynamics of Microenterprises (Gemini Working Paper No. 5), Washington, DC. Google Scholar

GURUMURTHY, A. (1998), Women's Rights and Status: Questions of Analysis and Measurement (Gender in Development Monograph Series #7), New York, UNDP. Google Scholar

HASHEMI, S., SCHULER, S.R., and RILEY, A.P. (1996), 'Rural Credit Programs and Women's Empowerment in Bangladesh', World Development, 24, 635–53. Rural Credit Programs and Women's Empowerment in Bangladesh World Development 24 635 53 Google Scholar

ILO (INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE) (1999), Gender Issues in the World of Work: Gender Issues in Micro-enterprise Development, Geneva, ILO. Google Scholar

JACOBSEN, D. (1982), 'Purdah and the Hindu Family in Central India', in H. Papanek and G. Minault (eds), Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia, Columbia, MO, South Asia Books, 81–109. 'Purdah and the Hindu Family in Central India' Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia 81 109 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

KABEER, N. (2000), The Power to Choose, London, Verso. The Power to Choose Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

KHAN, S. (1999), A Glimpse Through Purdah: Asian Women—the Myth and the Reality, London, Trentham Books. A Glimpse Through Purdah: Asian Women—the Myth and the Reality Google Scholar

KISHOR, S. (1997), 'Empowerment of Women in Egypt and Links to the Survival and Health of Their Infants', in S. Joekes (ed.), Seminar on Female Empowerment and Demographic Processes: Moving Beyond Cairo, Lund, Sweden, April 20–24, 1997. Annexes to Seminar Report: Conference Papers, Options Consultancy Services Limited. Google Scholar

LESSINGER, J. (1989), 'Petty Trading and the Ideology of Gender Segregation in Urban South India', in H. Afshar and B. Agarwal (eds), Women, Poverty and Ideology in Asia, London, Macmillan, 99–127. 'Petty Trading and the Ideology of Gender Segregation in Urban South India' Women, Poverty and Ideology in Asia 99 127 Google Scholar

MANDELBAUM, D.G. (1988), Women's Seclusion and Men's Honor: Sex Roles in North India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, Tucson, University of Arizona Press. Women's Seclusion and Men's Honor: Sex Roles in North India, Bangladesh and Pakistan Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

MERNISSI, F. (1975), Beyond the Veil: Male-Female Dynamics in a Modern Muslim Society, New York, John Wiley and Sons. Beyond the Veil: Male-Female Dynamics in a Modern Muslim Society Google Scholar

MINTURN, L. (1993), Sita's Daughters: Coming Out of Purdah: The Rajput Women of Khalapur Revisited, New York, Oxford University Press. Sita's Daughters: Coming Out of Purdah: The Rajput Women of Khalapur Revisited Google Scholar

NUSSBAUM, M. (2000), Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach, New York, Cambridge University Press. Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach Google Scholar

PAPANEK, H. (1982), 'Purdah: Separate Worlds and Symbolic Shelter', in H. Papanek and G. Minault (eds), Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia, Columbia, MO, South Asia Books, 3–53. 'Purdah: Separate Worlds and Symbolic Shelter' Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia 3 53 Google Scholar

ROSE, K. (1992), Where Women Are Leaders: The SEWA Movement in India, London, Zed Books. Where Women Are Leaders: The SEWA Movement in India Google Scholar

SEN, A. (1987), 'The Standard of Living: Lecture II, Lives and Capabilities', in G. Hawthorn (ed.), The Standard of Living, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 20–38. Google Scholar

SEN, A. (1993), 'Capability and Well-Being', in M. Nussbaum and A. Sen (eds), The Quality of Life, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 30–53. 'Capability and Well-Being' The Quality of Life 30 53 Google Scholar

SHABBIR, A. (1995), 'How Gender Affects Business Start up—Evidence from Pakistan', Small Enterprise Development, 6, 35–42. How Gender Affects Business Start up—Evidence from Pakistan Small Enterprise Development 6 35 42 Google Scholar

SHAHEED, F. (1989), 'Purdah and Poverty in Pakistan', in H. Afshar and B. Agarwal (eds), Women, Poverty and Ideology in Asia, London, Macmillan, 1–16. 'Purdah and Poverty in Pakistan' Women, Poverty and Ideology in Asia 1 16 Google Scholar

SPALTER-ROTH, R., and SOTO, E. (1994), Micro-Enterprise and Women: The Viability of Self-Employment as a Strategy for Alleviating Poverty, Washington, DC, Institute for Women's Policy Research. Micro-Enterprise and Women: The Viability of Self-Employment as a Strategy for Alleviating Poverty Google Scholar

TOTH, J. (1991), 'Pride, Purdah, or Paychecks: What Maintains the Gender Division of Labor in Rural Egypt?', International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 23, 213–36. Pride, Purdah, or Paychecks: What Maintains the Gender Division of Labor in Rural Egypt? International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 23 213 36 Google Scholar

VAN DER WEES, C., and ROMIJN, H. (1995), 'Entrepreneurship and Small-and Microenterprise Development for Women: A Problematique in Search of Answers, a Policy in Search of Programs', in L. Dignard and J. Havet (eds), Women in Micro-and Small-Scale Enterprise Development, Boulder, CO, Westview Press. Entrepreneurship and Small-and Microenterprise Development for Women: A Problematique in Search of Answers, a Policy in Search of Programs Women in Micro-and Small-Scale Enterprise Development Google Scholar

VATUK, S. (1982), 'Purdah Revisited: A Comparison of Hindu and Muslim Interpretations of the Cultural Meaning of Purdah in South Asia', in H. Papanek and G. Minault (eds), Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia, Columbia, MO, South Asia Books, 54–78. 'Purdah Revisited: A Comparison of Hindu and Muslim Interpretations of the Cultural Meaning of Purdah in South Asia' Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia 54 78 Google Scholar

WEIDEMANN, C. J. (1995), Microenterprise and Gender in India: Issues and Options (Gemini Technical Report No. 93), Washington, DC. Google Scholar

WEISS, A. (1996), 'Within The Walls: Home-Based Work in Lahore', in E. Boris and E. Prugl (eds), Homeworkers in Global Perspective: Invisible No More, New York and London, Routledge, 81–92. 'Within The Walls: Home-Based Work in Lahore' Homeworkers in Global Perspective: Invisible No More 81 92 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (1989), Women in Development: Issues for Economic and Sector Analysis (Population and Human Resources Department, WPS 269), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Kantor, Paula